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Table of Contents 



GETTYSBURG COLLEGE— THE COMMUNITY 



Admission Evaluation, Campus Visit, 
Admission with Advanced Credit and 
Placement. International Student 
Admission, Statistical Summary 

EXPENSES/SERVICES 

Comprehensive Fee Plan, VA Benefits, 
Payment Plans, hisurance 

FINANCIAL AID 

Merit-Based Scholarships, Need-Based 
Financial Aid 

STUDENT SERVICES 

Residence Life, Interculliiral 
Advancement, Dining, Health Center, 
Counseling, Career Development, Safety 
and Security 

COLLEGE LIFE 

Student Conduct, Honor Code, College 
Union, Student Government, Programs 
and Activities, Campus Media, Greek 
Organizations, Religious Spiritual Life, 
Center for Public Service, Athletics, 
Campus Recreation 



ACADEMIC POLICIES AND PROGRAMS 

Academic Purposes, Degree 
Requirements, Special Major, Academic 
Advising, Senior Scholars" Seminar, 
Academic Internships, The Getlysbiirg 
Review, Off-Campus Study, Dual-Degree 
Programs, Preprofessional Studies 

ACADEMIC REGULATIONS 

Registration, Grading, Residence 
Requirements, Transcripts, Withdrawal 

ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT 

Graduation Honors, Deans' Lists, Phi 
Beta Kappa. y\lpha Lambda Delta 

COURSES OF STUDY 

ANNUAL PRIZES AND AWARDS 

ENDOWMENT FUNDS 



I lie provisions of I his calalogiie are not 
to be retrarded as an irrei'ocahle rontract 
between the College and the student. The 
College reserves the right to ehange an\ 
provision or requirement at any time. 
This right to change provisions and 
requirements includes, but is not limited 
to, the light to reduce or eliminate course 
offerings in academic fields and to add 
requirements for graduation. 



Trustees, Faculty, Administration 



Gettysburg College 

Course Catalogue 2003-2004 



Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 



Gettysburg College — The Community 



A HERITAGE OF EXCELLENCE 



As we begin the twenty-first century, higher education faces a neiv world of change and 
challenge. Revolutionary advances in technology, unprecedented access to information, a rich 
diversity) of perspectives, and frequent calls to social action loill demand more from a liberal 
arts education than ever before. Leading colleges must respond with innovative programs, appropriate 
resources, and exceptional teaching. ♦ At Gettysburg College, zve are committed to preparing our students 
for the opportunities of this changing loorld. Our founding principles embrace a rigorous liberal arts 
I'ducation that fosters a global perspective, a spirit of collaboration, a dedication to public service, and 
an enriching campus life. We believe that this approach to education instills in Gettysburg College 
students a life-long desire for learning a drive for discovery and contribution, and a compassionate 
respect for others and our world. 



Dedicated to Success 

The histor)' of Gettysburg College has 
intersected with events of political, social, and 
global significance. Chartered in 1832, Gettysburg 
(College was born in an era of dramatic change. 
Our young nation faced political and economic 
challenges, pioneers pushed into new frontiers, 
and academic institutions were established that 
would become today's finest colleges and 
universities. 

In 1863, Union and Confederate soldiers 
clashed on the fields of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania Hall, the first building on campus, 
served as a temporary hospital for the wounded 
I rom both sides. Today, its name appears on the 
National Register of Historic Places. On 
Movember 19, 1863, Gettysburg College students 
witnessed the legendary address of Abraham 
Lincoln, which to this day links our countr)''s 
sixteenth president with Gettysbiug in the 
minds of Americans. 

Years later. President Dviight D. Eisenhower 
arrived at Gettysburg, sharing his experience 
and insights as a national leader. Following his 
term, Eisenhower returned to Gettysburg to 
write his memoirs in what is now Eisenhower 
House, the college admissions office. Visits by 
Elie Wiesel, General Colin Powell, and leaders 
from the American Civil Liberties Union, the 
civil rights movement, and the Peace Corps 
continue to demonstrate Gettysburg College's 
dedication to issues of global importance. 

Today, Gettysburg College continues to 
champion independent thinking and public 
action bv providing students with the abilities to 
reason and communicate, and the incentive to 
make a difference in our world. A Gettysburg 
College education blends a rigorous foundation 



in the sciences, the social sciences, and the 
humanides with a highly personal atmosphere 
of challenge and support. The curricular and 
co-cuiTicular opportunities are carefully designed 
to stimulate logical thinking, encourage public 
ser\ace, and instill a global perspective in our 
students. 

At Gettysburg College, nearly 2,500 young 
women and men learn, explore, discover, and 
create witli the challenge and support of 180 
full-time faculty members. Approximately 90 
percent of the teaching faculty hold the doctorate 
or the highest earned degree in their field. 

As devoted as they are to their chosen fields of 
study, Gettysburg College faculty are equally 
dedicated to the success of their students. 
Small classes averaging eighteen students and a 
student/faculty ratio of 1 1 : 1 foster an open and 
informal exchange of ideas, a sense of 
community and collaboration, and endless 
opportunities for accomplishment. 

As part of Gettysburg College's balanced 
undergraduate program in the liberal arts and 
sciences, students may choose from thirty-six 
majors, pursue interdisciplinary and self- 
designed majors, or complete one of several 
cooperadve and dual-degree programs. The 
college also provides a certification in 
elementary and secondary education, and 
preparadon for professional schools in law, 
medicine, and the allied health sciences. 
Study abroad, internship, and student/faculty' 
research opportimities are plentiful and 
encouraged. 

We welcome your interest in Gettysburg College. 



GETTYSBURG-AT-A-GLANCE 



Type of College: Koui-year, residential college of 
liberal arts and sciences founded in 1832. 

Enrollment: Nearly 2,500 students (approximately 
one-half are men and one-half are women), 
representing 40 states and 35 foreign countries. 
Approximately 90 percent of the students live 
on campus in more than thirty-six residence 
halls, including theme halls, the Residential 
College, and special interest houses. 

Location: Beautiful 200-acre campus with over 
60 buildings. The College is adjacent to the 
Gettysburg National Park. Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania, is 36 miles from Harrisburg, 
55 miles from Baltimore, 80 miles from 
Washington, D.C., 117 miles from Philadelphia, 
and 212 miles from New York City. 

Academic Information: Thirty-six majors, 
special majors, double majors, minors, and an 
extensive area studies program. Student/faculty 
raUo of 11:1 with an average class size of 18 
students. More than 180 full-time faculty with 
approximately 90 percent of the permanent 
faculty holding the doctorate or highest earned 
degree in their fields. One of only 19 chapters 
of Phi Beta Kappa in Pennsylvania. Honorai7 
or professional societies in 16 academic areas. 
Academic Honor Code in effect since 1957. 

Special Programs: Extensive study abroad 
programs; internships; Washington Semester 
(government and politics, economic policy, 
ethical issues and public affairs, foreign policy, 
public administration, justice, urban studies, 
journalism, art and architecture, arts and 
humanides); United Nadons Semester; dual- 
degree programs in engineering, nursing, 
optometry, and forestry and environmental 
studies; cooperative program in marine biolog)" 
certification in elementary and secondary 
education; premedical and prelaw counseling. 
Cooperative college consortiiun with Dickinson 
and Franklin &: Marshall Colleges. 

Exceptional Facilities: Musselman Library; 
computing environmeni, including full network 
capabilities in all campus buildings and each 
residence hall room, high-speed access to the 
Internet, microcomputer laboratories and 
workstadons; state-of-the-art science facilides, 



including two electron microscopes 
(transmission and scanning units), Fourier 
Transform Infrared and NMR Spectrometers, 
greenhouse, planetarium, observatoiy, and 
optics and plasma physics laboratories; the 
Child Study Center; extensive facilides for the 
fine arts, music, and drama; writing center; 
comprehensive physical education complex; 
health center and counseling services; career 
planning and advising office; College Union 
Building, student activides center; center for 
public service. 

Student Activities: Student Senate; Student 
Acdvides Alliance; FM radio stadon; yearbook; 
newspaper; literary magazine; full range of 
musical groups, including choirs, marching, 
symphonic, and jazz bands, college/commimity 
orchestra, and numerous ensembles; black 
student tmion; international student club; 
theatre groups; special interest groups; more 
than 130 clubs and community service 
organizadons; more than 1 ,000 leadership 
positions. 

Athletics: Division III level within the Centennial 
Conference. Twelve sports for men, twelve 
sports for women. A wide array of intramural 
activities to satisfy various interests and levels of 
skill. 

Religious Life: Lutheran related. Programs for 
students of all faiths coordinated through the 
College Chapel, including Newman Association 
and Hillel. 

School Colors: Orange and blue. 




Admission 



ADMISSION 



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Gettysburg College students come from a loide variety of backgrounds and secondary school 
programs. The College encourages applications from students of differing ethnic, religious, 
racial, economic, and geographic backgrounds. ♦ The admission staff encourages applications 
from students who have demonstrated a capacity for academic achievement, responsiveness to intellectual 
challenge, eagerness to contribute their special talents to the College community, and an awareness of 
social responsibility. Such persons ^ve promise of possessing the ability and the motivation that unll 
enable them to profit from the many opportunities that the College offers. 



Campus Information 

A wide variety of information about Gettysburg 
College can be found in the College's various 
publications. 

Prospective students may request College 
publications and material by contacting: 

Director of Admission 
Eisenhower House 
Gettysburg College 
Gettysburg, PA 17325 

717-337-6100; 800-431-0803 
(Fax) 717-337-6145 
adniiss@gettysburg.edu 
www.gettysburg.edu 

Admission Evaluation 

Since the competition for admission is highly 
competitive, the admission staff gives careful 
consideration to each application. Its decisions 
are based on three categories of evidence 
described below. 

Evidence of high academic achievement as indicated 
try the secondary school record. 
The College considers grades in academic 
courses, quality and distribution of subjects, and 
rank in class as highly significant parts of the 
applicant's credentials. Participation in 
accelerated, enriched, and advanced placement 
courses is highly desirable. The College regards 
superior facility in the use of the English 
language and an understanding of fundamental 
mathematical processes as essential to a 
successful college experience. It also assumes 
graduation from an approved secondary school. 

Evidence of ability to do high quality college work as 
indicated l/y aptitude and achievement test results. 
The SAT 1 of the College Board or the test 
results of the American College Testing (ACT) 
program are required of all candidates. 




Evidence of personal qualities. 

There is high interest in individuals of character 
who will conti ibute in positive ways to the College 
community. Such contributions should be 
appropriate to the talents of each student, whetlier 
these be leadership in campus programs, 
involvement in the welfare of others, expression 
of artistic creativity, or the quiet pursuit of 
scholarly excellence. In estimating such qualides, 
the College relies on what students say about 
themselves; the confidential statements from 
secondar)' school principals, headmasters, and 
guidance counselors; and on personal appraisals 
by its alumni and fiiends. Essentially, any evidence 
of in-depth involvement in secondary school 
activities and/or participation in community 
affairs (especially volimteer services) is favorably 
considered in the admission process. 

The Campus Visit 

Personal interviews, group sessions, and campus 
tours are strongly recommended: they give 
prospective students a personal look at the 
opportunities and variet)' offered in the 
academic and extracurricular program. 
Gettysburg students give generously of their 
time and talents to the College and surroimding 
community, and are pleased to share their 
experiences with visiting students. 

Prospective students are welcome to visit the 
campus for a tour and/or a group session at any 
time. Interviews may be scheduled between 
April 1 of the junior year and March 1 of the 
senior year. Students considering a major in art 
or music should make their interest known when 
requesting an intei'view, so that arrangements 
can be made for an appointment with a 
member of the department concerned. 

Students can arrange an interview, group 
session, or campus tour by calling the Office of 
Admissions at 717-337-6100 or 800-431-0803. 
During the academic year, the admissions office 
is open from 9:00 to 5:00 on weekdays and from 
9:00 to 12:00 on Saturdays; summer hours are 
between 8:00 and 4:30 weekdays. 



Admission Process 

Early Decision. 

Students for whom Ciettysburg College is a first 
choice are strongly encouraged to apply for 
Early Decision admission. The application will 
be considered between November 15 and 
February 1 of the senior year; a non-refundable 
fee of $45 must be sent with the application. 
Those students accepted under this admission 
plan are obligated to enroll at Gettysburg 
College and to withdraw applications submitted 
to other institutions. Notification of the decision 
on admission will be made between December 
15 and FebniaiT 15. Payment of a nonrefundable 
advance fee of $500 is required to validate this 
offer of acceptance . 

Although the Early Decision applicant should 
take the SAT 1 or the ACT in the junior year, 
scores from the October/ November testing date 
of the senior year will also be considered. Those 
students submitting applications for Early 
Decision who are not offered acceptance at that 
time will automatically be considered for 
Regular Decision admission upon receipt of 
subsequent semester grades and test scores from 
the senior year. 

Regular Decision. 

Students apphing as a Regular Decision 
candidate to Gett)'sbiirg College should submit 
an application during the fall of their senior 
year and by February 15; a nonrefundable fee of 
$45 must be sent with the application. Most 
offers of acceptance will be mailed by early- 
April, after the receipt of November, December, 
or January SAT 1 results and senior year first 
semester grades. Results for the SAT 1 or ACT 
taken prior to the senior year may be used to 
satisfy test requirements. 

Payment of a nonrefundable advance fee of 
$500 is required to validate the offer of 
acceptance. Since Gettysburg College subscribes 
to the principle of the Candidate's Reply Date, 
students have undl May 1 to make their decision 
and pay the advance fee. 

All acceptances by Gettysburg College are 
conditional and based upon students 
continuing to do satisfactor>' work in all 
subjects, avoiding disciplinan' circumstances, 
and earning a secondary school diploma. 



Admission with Advanced Credit and Placement 

.Students who have taken advanced placement 
courses in secondary school and wish to be 
considered for advanced credit or placement 
must take advanced placement tests of the 
College Board. All entering students who submit 
a score of four or five on these tests shall receive 
one or two course credits for each tested area 
toward the 35-course graduation requirement. 
Course credit for advanced placement will be 
lost if a student takes the equivalent course at 
Gettysburg. Students who have completed 
advanced-level or honors courses may be 
considered for advanced placement. 

Those high school students who have taken 
regular courses at the college level in regionally- 
approved junior or four-year colleges may 
receive credit for these courses if there has been 
no duplication of high school units and college 
credits. 

Gettysbiug College recognizes the quality of the 
Interjiational Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma in the 
admission process. In addition, the College 
awards two course credits in each subject area 
for Higher Level examination scores of five or 
higher. Credit for a Higher Level score of four 
will be given at the discretion of the department. 

For students who plan to complete their 
graduadon requirements in less than foiu full 
years, see the section on residence requirements 
and schedule limitations for information about 
planning of the academic program. 

International Student Admission 

The College welcomes applications from 
international students who can read, write, 
speak, and understand the English language 
with considerable proficiency. International 
applicants should send the completed 
application form with official secondar)' school 
transcripts, and an explanation of grading 
procedures; the SAT of the College Board or 
the test results of the American College Testing 
(ACT) program; the Test of English as a Foreign 
Language (TOEFL) results; the application 
essay; and the College Board Certification of the 
Finances Form. International students applying 
for financial aid must also file the College 
Board's International Student Financial Aid 
Form. 



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Transfer Student Admission 

Gettysburg welcomes applications from students 
interested in transferring to the College. Transfer 
students applying for the spring semester should 
submit their application by December 1, and 
students applying for the fall semester should 
apply by April 15; transfers applying after those 
preferred dates should do so as soon as possible. 

Reactivating the application. 
Students who have previously applied to 
Gettysburg College and now wish to reactivate 
their application should send a letter or e-mail 
message requesting a reactivation. In order to 
update and complete the application, send the 
final secondary school transcript, SAT and/or 
ACT results, college transcripts(s), the Dean's 
Recommendation Form, and the financial aid 
transcript. 

Applying for the first time. 

Transfer students should submit an application 
for admission, the final secondary school 
transcript, SAT and/or ACT results, college 
transcript(s) , and tlie Dean's Transfer 
Recommendation Form. 

Transfer of credits. 

Transfer credits are granted provisionally for 
individual courses passed with a C or better at 
approved institutions, provided that these 
courses fit reasonably well into the Gettysburg 
College currictilum. During the first semester, 
transfer students must review the graduafion 
requirements with their academic adviser or 
the registrar. Transfers are required to earn all 
additional credit at Gettysburg College or 
through a regular College-approved program 
of off-campus study. In order to complete the 
transfer of course credits, transfer students are 
required to complete one year of satisfactory- 
work at Gettysburg College. All transfer students 
must satisfy the course requirements in their 
major area of interest. 

Admission as a Guest Student 

A high school graduate, not a candidate for a 
degree, may apply for admission as a nonmatri- 
culated student. Normally, such a student may 
enroll in a maximum of two coiuses. Permission 
to take more than two courses must be seemed 
from the Academic Standing Committee. 

Taking courses as a guest student requires 
permission of the instructors of the courses 
involved, as well as filing an application for 



guest student status with the admissions office. 
A guest student who may later wish to become a 
candidate for a degree must submit an application 
under regular admission procedures. Guest 
students have the same classroom duties and 
privileges as regular full-time students, but no 
promise is made in advance that the guest 
student will be admitted as a candidate for degree. 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY 

Students in college 

2002 Full-Time Enrollment 

Fall Semester 

M W Total 

Senior 275 282 557 

Jimior 300 309 609 

Sophomore 305 330 635 

First Year 338 356 694 

1,218 1,277 2,495 

The above enrollment includes 162 students 
who were studying off campus. In addition, 16 
students were enrolled part-dme for a degree. 

Geographic Distribution Matriculated Students 

2002 Fall Semester (Includes all students) 

Number 
of 

Students Percent 

Pennsylvania 717 28.1 

New Jersey 465 18.2 

New York 332 13.0 

Maryland 264 10.4 

Connecticut 197 7.7 

Massachusetts 148 5.8 

Virginia 61 2.4 

Maine 46 1.8 

New Hampshire 36 1.4 

29 Other States or territories 230 9. 1 

International (32 countries) 54 2.1 

2,550 lOO.O 

STUDENT RETENTION 

Of the students who entered Gettysburg College 
as first-year students in September 1998, 70.0% 
received their degree within four years; an 
addiUonal 7.3% of the class were continuing 
at Gett)'sburg. Of the students who entered 
Gettysbing College as first-year students in 
September 1996, 76% received their degrees 
within six years. Of the students who entered as 
first-year students in September 2001, 90.7% 
returned in September 2002. 



Expenses /Services 



COMPREHENSIVE FEE PLAN 



Gettysburg College charges each student, on a semester by semester basis, a comprehensive 
fee, which covers tuition, board, and room. Not included in this fee are books and supplies, 
telephone charges, telecommunications fee, some private lessons in music, optional off- 
campus courses, and optional health insurance coverage. 



The comprehensive fee applies to each full-time 
student. A full-time student is one registering 
for at least three courses per semester. Part-time 
matriculating students will be charged $3,150 
per course. 

2003-2004 FEES 
Academic Fee (Tuition) 



$28,424 



Board 

USA Plan (Unlimited Servo Access). Entidement 
includes access throughout the day to tlie Dining 
Hall. (Rates for die other meal plans are available 
from the Office of Financial Senices.) 



Room Rents 

Regular Room 

Middle Rate Room 

Single or Apartment Room 



$ 3,696 
$ 4,220 
$ 4,620 



Special Student Fees 

Any student who is not a candidate for a degree 
will be charged at the rate of $1,575 per course. 

Telecommunications Fee 

Students li\'ing in College residence halls or 
fraternities pay an annual $250 Telecommunica- 
tions and Technology fee. The fee covers the 
following services and appropriate support: 
network and internet access, cable TV, local tele- 
phone and voicemail. Non-residential students 
are assessed an annual $60 fee for on-campus 
network and internet access. Limitations of 
services apply as set forth in the network 
utilization policy. 

Payment of Bills 

Checks should be made payable to Gettysburg 
College and sent to the Office of Financial 
Services, Gettv'sburg College, Gettysburg, PA 
17325-1483 by the dates oudined. 

Credit card payments, through PhoneCharge, 
Inc. at 1-877-206-5356 (toll free), are accepted 
as a means of payment of the College tuition 
and fees. A fee is charged by PhoneCharge, Inc. for 
this service. 

The College operates on a twosemester 
calendar. An itemized statement of charges for 



each semester is mailed approximately one 
month before the payment due date. First 
semester charges are due on August 1; second 
semester charges are due on Januarv' 3. The 
College has an optional monthly payment plan, 
which runs from June 1 to March 1. (See Payment 
Plans.) 

Delinquent accounts are subject to a late payment 
charge at the rate of 1 % per month. This late charge 
will be waived for Student Loan amounts 
processed by the College prior to due dates for 
payments. 

Students are required to complete payment of 
their tuidon and fees by the stated deadlines to 
maintain acUve enrollment status and their 
ability to register for courses for future 
semesters. Gettysburg College policy requires 
the withholding of all credits, educational 
senices, issuance of transcripts, and 
certification of academic records from any 
person whose financial obligations to the 
College (including delinquent accotmts, 
deferred balances, and liability' for damage) are 
due and/or unpaid. If any overdue obligadon is 
referred either to the College collection 
department or to an outside agency or attorney 
for collection efforts and/or legal suit, the debt 
shall be increased to cover all reasonable costs 
of collection, including collection agency and 
attorneys fees and court costs. By registering for 
any class at the College, each student accepts 
and agrees to be bound by the foregoing 
College policy as applied to any preexisting or 
future obligation to the College. 

Reserve/Security Deposit 

The advance payment of $500 made under 
either the early or regular acceptance plans is 
credited to a reserve deposit account. WTiile the 
student is enrolled, this noninterest-bearing 
account remains inacdve. The securitv deposit is 
activated after the student graduates or 
withdraws from school. At that Ume security 
deposit funds are transferred to the student's 
account to satisfy any luipaid bills. Any 
remaining amounts will be refunded after this 
process. 



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► 



Preregistration Fee 

The preregistration fee of $500 is billed in 
the middle of February and must be paid by 
March 15 in order for a student to preregister 
for classes. In addition, the student's account 
must be in good financial standing in order to 
preregister for classes. This fee will be applied 
toward the student's fall semester College bill. 
No refimds of this fee will be made after the 
date of spring registration. 

Veterans' Administration Benefits 

Gettysburg College has made the necessary 
arrangements whereby eligible veterans, depen- 
dents, and members of the military may receive 
monthly payments from the Veterans' Adminis- 
tration in accordance with the appropriate laws 
and regulations. Please contact the Office of the 
Registrar for more information. 

Payment Plans 

The College offers an interest-free optional 
monthly payment plan through Key Education 
Resources for those who wish to make 
installment payments over an eight- to ten- 
month period. The first installment is due 
August 1 or June 1, respectively. There is a 
nonrefundable fee of $60 to enroll in this plan. 
For details, contact Key Education Resources at 
1-800-539-5363 or the Office of Financial 
Services. 

Refund Policy 

A student must notify the Registrar's Office in 
writing that he or she intends to withdraw or 
request a leave of absence from Gettysburg 
C^oUge. (See xinthdrawal and leave of absence policy.) 
The date the written notice is received by the 
Registrar's Office will be the official date of 
withdrawal or leave of absence. 

Financial aid recipients who leave the College 
during a term will have their Title TV aid 
recalculated according to the federal refund 
requirements, which state: "If a recipient of Title 
IV aid withdraws before completing 60 percent 
of the payment period (app. 9 weeks), the 
institution must calculate the amount of Title FV 
aid the student did not earn. The amount of 
unearned aid equals the difference between the 
Title IV aid that was disbursed or could have 
been disbursed for the payment period and the 
amount of Title IV aid that was earned. Schools 
must return the imearned portion of the Title 
rV funds." (Blue Book, June 1999,2-44) 

Title IV fluids include and will be returned in 
the following order: Unsubsidized Federal 
Stafford Loans, Subsidized Federal Stafford 



Loans, Federal PLUS Loans, Unsubsidized 
Federal Direct Stafford Loans, Subsidized 
Federal Direct Stafford Loans, Federal Direct 
PLUS Loans, Federal Perkins Loans, Federal 
Pell Grants, and Federal Supplemental 
Educational Opportunity Grants (FSEOG). 

Students receiving financial assistance may have 
a portion of their original award returned to the 
programs as required by federal regulation and 
the Gettysburg College refimd policy, thus 
creating a balance due to the College. For this 
reason, students contemplating withdrawing 
during a term of enrollment are strongly 
encouraged to meet with the Financial Services 
and Financial Aid Office prior to leaving the 
College. 

Refunds for Tuition, Room, and Board 

Refunds foi tuition, room, and board are 
calculated as follows: 100 percent, if notice is 
received by the twelfth day of classes; 80 
percent, if notice is received by the third week 
of classes; 50 percent, if notice is received by the 
fourth week of classes; 25 percent, if notice is 
received by the sixth week of classes. 

No refimd will be calculated after the end of the 
sixth week of classes. Exceptions to the stated 
policy may be granted for reasons of health. 

Required Withdrawal: A student who is required 
to withdraw for disciplinary reasons (involuntary 
withdrawal) will forfeit all fees which he or she 
has paid. 

Deiuar Insurance: Optional insurance is available 
through A.W.G. Dewar, Inc., which supplements 
the College refund policy for a student who 
withdraws as a result of a serious illness or 
accident. 

Reduction of financial aid obligations and 
advances will receive priority in the payment of 
refunds. Any unused reserve deposit balance 
will be refunded approximately six weeks after 
the student's graduation or withdrawal. 

College Store 

Students may open a College Store account with 
parental/guardian approval and may charge 
books, supplies, and miscellaneous items to that 
account. A student's charge balance may not 
exceed $750. College Store charges will be 
added to the student's tuidon account on a 
monthly basis and will be subject to a late 
charge if not paid by the due date reflected on 
the statement. The College Store also accepts 
cash, checks, MasterCard, Visa, and Discover as 
methods of payment for purchases made there. 



Accident Insurance 

Upon payment of the comprehensive fee, each 
student receives coverage under an accident 
insurance poHcy. Information concerning the 
coverage provided by this insurance is made 
available at the time of registration or in advance 
if requested. 

Health Insurance 

The College requires all students to have 
adequate health insurance coverage. Student 
Health Insurance is billed to each student on the 
fall bill. This coverage is optional for those who 
already have an existing health plan. The College 
will waive the charge for those with an existing 
health plan upon receipt of the proof of health 
insurance waiver card. The card must be i eturned 
by Sept. 15. 



Personal Property Insurance 

The College dcjes not carry insinance on 
personal property of students and is not 
responsible for the loss or damage of such 
property. Students are encouraged to provide 
their own personal property insurance. 

Board Policy 

First-year students are required to participate 
in the USA Meal Plan plan. The Meal Plan 
Placement Chart (below) illustrates the meal 
plan requirements of all students based on 
residency. 



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Meal Plan Placement 
















Residence Hall 


Class Year 


Housing Type 


Meal Plan Requirement 


Hanson 


First Year 


Residence Hall 


20 Meal Plan 


Huber 


First Year 


Residence Hall 


20 Meal Plan 


Rice, Paul, Stine 


First Year 


Residence Hall 


20 Meal Plan 


Patrick 


First Year / Upper 


Residence Hall 


20 Meal Plan 


College Hall 


Upper 


Residence Hall 


Any Plan Offered 


Colonial Hall 


Upper 


Residence Hall 


Any Plan OtTered 


Criterion Hall 


Upper 


Residence Hall 


Any Plan Offered 


Lamp Post 


Upper 


Residence Hall 


Any Plan Offered 


Musselman 


Upper 


Residence Hall 


Any Plan Offered 


Paxton 


Upper 


Residence Hall 


Any Plan OtTered 


Quarry Suites 


Upper 


Residence Hall 


Any Plan OtTered 


Stevens 


Upper 


Residence Hall 


Any Plan OtTered 


Majestic 


Uprier 


Residence Hall 


Anv Plan Offered 


339 Carlisle St. (OX) 


Upper 


Residence Hall 


Any Plan OtTered 


133/135 N.Washington 


Upper 


Small House 


Any Plan Offered 


239 Cariisle 


Upper 


Small House 


Any Plan Offered 


Appleford Inn 


Upper 


Small House 


Any Plan Offered 


Carlisle House 


Upper 


Small House 


Any Plan Offered 


Comer Cottage 


Upper 


Small House 


Any Plan Offered 


129/131 N. Washington 


Upper 


Small House 


Not Required * 


215 N. Washington 


Upper 


Small House 


Not Required * 


225 N. Washington 


Upper 


Small House 


Not Required * 


38, 42, 48 N. Washington 


Upper 


Small House 


Not Required * 


Tudor 


Upper 


Small House 


Not Required * 


Women's Center 


Upper 


Small House 


Not Required * 


Apple 


Upper 


Apartment Complex 


Not Required * 


College Apts 


Upper 


Apartment Complex 


Nol Required * 


Constitution .Apl 


Upper 


Apartment Complex 


Not Required * 


Criterion House 


Upper 


Apartment Complex 


Not Required * 


Eagles Apartnienls 


Upper 


■Apartment Complex 


Not Required * 


Ice House 


Upper 


Apartment Complex 


Not Required * 



* Meal Plan not required but available to all students 
Dining Dollars only in any amount they choose. 



These students may elect to deposit 



Financial Aid 



A 



I most colleges and universities, the fees paid by a student or a student 5 parents for tuition and 
room and board cover only a portion of the total cost of the student's education. At private 
institutions, the remainder comes from endoiument income and gifts from various sources, such 
alumni, businesses, foundations, and religious institutions. 



I he student and his or her parents are viewed 
as being the primary resource when it comes to 
funding a college education. Since an education 
is an investment which should yield lifelong 
dividends, a student should be prepared to 
contribiUe to it from his or her own earnings, 
both before entering and while in college. 

Gettysburg College has a financial aid program 
for worthy and promising students who are 
imable to finance their education from personal 
and/or family resources. Access to such aid is 
considered a privilege, not a right. The 
qualifications for assistance, in addition to need, 
are academic ability, academic achievement, and 
promise of contribution as a student and citizen. 
The amount of aid in any particular case is 
based upon the financial need of the student. 

For students to receive full consideration for 
need-based financial assistance, they must 
complete the College Scholarship Service's 
Financial Aid PROFILE and the U.S. 
Department of Education's Free Application for 
Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). The Gettysburg 
College federal school code for the FAFSA is 
003268 and the CSS code number for the 
PROFILE is 2275. There is no fee for filing the 
FAFSA, but there is a processing fee for the 
PROFILE. 

Prospective students seeking consideration 
for need-based financial assistance should mail 
the completed PROFILE and FAFSA as soon 
as possible after January 1 and no later than 
Febiiiary 15. Students currently enrolled at 
Gettysburg College should mail their completed 
FAFSA and PROFILE no later than April 1. Both 
forms should be competed in their entirety 
(make sure to include Gettysburg College's 
code as listed above on each form) and mailed 
to the appropriate locations as indicated on 
the preaddressed envelopes provided with the 
forms. Both forms may be completed via the 
Internet. The FAFSA may be accessed via 
www.fafsa.ed.gov and the PROFILE via 
www.collegeboard.com. 



Additionally, all prospective students applying 
for need-based financial assistance are required 
to submit signed copies of the U.S. Individual 
Income Tax Return for themselves and their 
parents directly to the Office of Financial ,\id. 
The tax returns should be submitted as soon as 
they are completed and no later than May 1 . 

In accordance with the U.S. Department of 
Education's verification requirement, roughly 
thirty percent of ciurently enrolled students will 
be randomly selected to submit signed copies 
of the U.S. Individual Income Tax Return for 
themselves and their parents. Those students 
selected will be notified accordingly. 

Merit-Based Scholarships 

In addition to need-based financial assistance, 
Gettysburg College believes that intelligent, 
highly motivated and high-achieving secondary 
school students should be recognized for their 
accomplishments. With this in mind, the 
Presidential and Dean's Scholar Programs were 
established to reward prospective students for 
academic excellence, with no consideration of 
financial need. 

The Presidential Scholarship is valued at $50,000 
($6,250 per semester for up to eight semesters). 
The Dean's Scholarship is valued at $30,000 
($3,750 per semester for up to eight semesters). 
In order to have these scholarships renewed, 
students must maintain certain GPA 
requirements and remain a full-time student. 

A separate application for merit-based 
scholarships is not required. Eligible applicants 
will be selected and notified as part of the 
admissions process. The selection process for 
merit scholarships is competitive. The strengths 
of the applicant within the context of exceptional 
academic ability are considered, to include 
SAT/ ACT scores and class rank. 

Gettysburg College reserves the right to adjust 
scholarship amounts periodically. In such cases, 
the scholarship amount awarded to those 
students already in attendance at Gettysburg 



College will not be adjusted. The amount 
awarded to students at the time of admission 
remains the same for eight semesters, given they 
have fulfilled all the requirements of the 
scholarship. 

Need-Based Financial Aid 

Need-based financial aid is awarded in the form 
of grants, loans, and work-study and is made one 
year at a time. Factors affecfing award renewals 
are continued financial need as determined by 
the FAFSA and PROFILE, academic achieve- 
ment, and contributions as a campus citizen. A 
student may be offered any combination of the 
various types of financial aid. Following is a brief 
description of the most commonly awarded 
types of assistance. A more detailed description 
and the rules governing the types of financial 
assistance will be sent to students with their 
Notification of Financial Aid in the spring/ 
summer. 

Grants 

Gettysburg College Grant: Awarded to students 
who, in addition to financial need, show 
evidence of good academic ability and academic 
achievement. These grants are renewable as 
long as the recipient continues to demonstrate 
need and maintains a sound academic record. 
The grant need not be repaid, but the College 
hopes that recipients will recognize they have 
incurred an obligation and therefore 
subsequently contribute as they can to help 
ensure that the benefits they enjoyed are 
available to others. 

Federal Pell Grant: A grant program fimded by 
the federal government that is designed to 
assist students from low-income families. The 
amount of the award varies based on a family's 
calculated contribution per the FAFSA. 

Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity 
Grant: A grant program fimded by the federal 
government and administered by the College. 
The program is designed to assist students from 
low-income families, with first consideration 
given to those students who also receive a 
Federal Pell Grant. 

Pennsylvania Higher Education Grant: An 
award given to students who are residents of 
Pennsylvania. Award amounts are determined 
based on financial need and available funding 
levels. 



Other states also have grant/scholarship 
programs. Check with your state agency as to 
the availabilit)' of such fvmds and requirements. 
States that have most recently made grant 
awards to students attending Gettysburg College 
are Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, 
Massachusetts, Ohio, Rhode Island, Vermont, 
West Virginia, and the District of Columbia. 

Students are nodfied of their state's grant 
requirements by the appropriate state agency. 
However, as a general rule, such awards require 
each recipient to carry a minimum course load 
of twelve (12) credits per semester in order to 
maintain continued eligibility. 

Loans 

Gettysburg College Loans: Gettysburg College 
offers a number of different insUtiUional loan 
programs. The programs differ in the amount 
available to award and the terms, such as 
interest rates. 

Federal Perkins Loan: A loan program fimded by 
the federal government and administered by 
the College. The program is designed to assist 
students from low-income families, with first 
consideration given to those students who also 
receive a Federal Pell Grant. The interest rate 
is fixed at 5%. 

The Federal Stafford Loan (Subsidized and 
Unsubsidized): The Federal Stafford Loan is 
a government-sponsored low-interest loan 
available to students through a private lender, 
such as a bank, savings and loan, or credit 
union. The interest rate is an annual variable 
rate with a new rate effective each July 1, not to 
exceed 8.25%. The rate until July I, 2003, is 
3.46%. 

A student must show financial need to be 
offered a subsidized Stafford Loan. An 
unsubsidized Stafford Loan is available to all 
students, regardless of financial need. The 
federal government pays the interest accruing 
on a subsidized loan while the student is 
enrolled at least half-time. Those utilizing an 
unsubsidized loan will be responsible to pay the 
interest, as the federal government does not. 

First-year students may borrow $2,625; that 
increases to $3,500 during the second year, and 
for the third, fourth and, if needed, fifth years, 
students may borrow up to $5,500 per year. The 
maximum borrowing for undergraduate study 
is $23,000. 



< 



Federal Parent Loan for Undergraduate Study 
(PLUS): Parents of dependent undergraduate 
students may borrow through the PLUS 
program to help finance educational costs. The 
maximum amount parents may borrow per year 
is limited to the cost of education minus other 
I'mancial aid that the student has received. The 
i merest rate is an annual variable rate with a 
new rate effective each July 1, not to exceed 
9.0%. The interest rate undljuly 1, 2003, 
is 4.86%. 

In addition to the loans described above, various 
banks offer what are known as alternative loans. 
In most cases these loans have a higher interest 
rate than other educational loans guaranteed 
by the federal government and offered by 
Gettysburg College. 

Work Study 

Federal Work-Study: An employment program 
funded by the federal government and the 
College. Eligible students may work on and off 
campus (in community service type positions), 
and receive a bi-weekly paycheck for the hours 
worked. 

Satisfactory Academic Progress 
for Renewal of Financial Aid 

Students are expected to maintain an academic 
record that will enable them to complete the 
requirements for graduation in the normal 
eight semesters. In order to graduate, a student 
must complete at least 35 course units and have 
a minimum accumulative GPA of 2.0. For a 
more detailed description of the graduation 
requirements, refer to the Academic Policies 
and Programs section of the catalog. 

The Academic Standing Committee will notify 
students who are not maintaining satisfactory 
academic progress. Students may be warned, 
placed on academic probation, suspended, or 
even dismissed. The committee interprets and 
applies standards on a case-by-case basis at the 
end of each semester. 

In addition to the Academic Standing 
Committee reviewing students" academic 
progress, the Office of Financial Aid is also 
required to monitor students' academic progress 
as it relates to the renewal of financial assistance. 
To remain eligible for most types of financial aid, 
parUcularly federal and state assistance, students 
must meet minimum academic requirements at 
the conclusion of each academic year. 



The Gettysburg College academic year is 30 
weeks in length of instructional time. In addition 
to being enrolled for all of those weeks, a 
student must meet the following minimum 
standards at the conclusion of each academic 
year: 

First-year students: 1.50 GPA and 7 courses 
completed 

Second-year students: 1.80 GPA and 14 courses 
completed 

Third-year students: 1.90 GPA and 21 courses 
completed 

Fourth-year students: 2.00 GPA and 28 courses 
completed 

Fifth-year students: 2.00 GPA and 35 courses 
completed 

The Office of Financial Aid will nodfy students 
who do not meet the minimum standards. 
Students may be placed on financial aid 
probation or lose their eligibility' to receive 
certain types of assistance. 

The comprehensive policy on sadsfactory 
academic progress for students receiving 
financial assistance is readily available to all 
students through the Office of Financial Aid. 

Financial Aid for Off-Campus Study 

Financial aid is available for programs of off- 
campus study (both domestic and study 
abroad), which are approved by the Academic 
Standing Committee. College grant and loan 
funds will normally be awarded for a maximum 
of two semesters of off-campus study through 
College-affiliated programs only. 

International students may have College-funded 
financial aid applied to off-campus study 
programs on a case-by-case basis. A written 
application must be submitted to the College's 
president, explaining the program's relevance 
to the individual's academic program as a 
whole. 

Financial Aid for Dual-Degree Programs 

For all dual-degree programs, once Gettysburg 
students apply for and are accepted to an 
affiliated university, they become students 
of that university. Students who qualify for 
financial aid at Gettysburg College are not 
guaranteed a similar financial aid package 
at our affiliated universities. Financial aid at 
the affiliated universities must be applied for 
directly through that university. 



Student Services 



G 



ettysburg College offers a uride variety ofseiinces to assist students inside and outside the 
classroom. Faculty, deans, and staff members are readily available to talk idth individuals or 
groups. Tlieirgoal is to help students make the best me of the College's resources and opportunities. 



RESIDENCE LIFE 



Residence Life at Gettysburg College is a major 
influence on the total development of the 
student. The residential environment (persons, 
policies, and facilities) promotes the formation 
of a community and encourages a style of life 
that is conducive to the development of respect 
for both the individual and the society in which 
one lives. During a student's experience at 
Gettysburg College, decisions are made 
concerning personal values, occupational 
choices, one's identity, personal responsibility, 
and a philosophy of life. The residential 
program provides opportimides for examining 
these areas of development. 

Recognizing the influence of the environment 
on development, Gettysburg College requires all 
students (imless married or residing with their 
families) to live on campus. Exempdons from 
this requirement are granted only by the director 
of Residence Life. 

Area coordinators of Residence Life are 
professional, live-in staff members who directly 
select and supenise the student staff of residence 
coordinators and resident assistants. Student 
staff members participate in an ongoing training 
program, which enables them to help other 
students adjust to the college environment. 
The residence hall staff provide a variety of 
educational and social programs that enhance 
the educational and social development of all 
residence hall students. Residence hall 
governments exist to provide residents with the 
opportunity to work with members of the 
administration in shaping policies that apply to 
all College residences and establish an 
environment that supports student needs. 

Gettysburg College offers a variety of options in 
living environments. Upperclass students may 
choose to live in one of twelve residence halls, 
varying in occupancy from 35 students to 219 
students. There are coeducational and a small 
number of single sex options. 

Another lixdng opportiutity exists in the area of 
Theme Housing. This option is for students who 
wish to live together in a group of 4 to 20 
residents and work on a project of mutual 
interest throughout the academic year. 



Also included as an optional living environment 
is the opportimity for sophomore, junior, and 
senior men to live in a fraternity house on or 
near the campus. 

Student cumulative grade point averages are 
considered as part of the upperclass lottery 
system utilized to obtain housing during the 
spring semester for the following academic year. 

Most of the student rooms are double occupancy; 
however, a few single rooms are available and 
some rooms are large enough for three or four 
people. (There is some cost difference between regidar 
and apartment-style housing.) Each student is 
provided with a bed and mattress, a dresser, and a 
desk and chair. Students provide their own 
pillows, bedding, spreads, study lamps, and 
window curtains. Card-operated washers and 
diyers are available on the campus for student 
use. Each student room in residence halls is 
eqtiipped with network access, a telephone, and 
cable TV service. Microfridge combinadon 
microwave refrigerators are available for rent 
from Campus Vending Services. Because of its 
particular energy efficiency, this is the only 
microwave or refrigerator permitted in the 
regtilar residence halls. 

INTERCULTURAL ADVANCEMENT 

The Office of Intercultural Advancement, 
located in the Intercultural Resource Center, is 
committed to supporting and promoting the 
value of a diverse and culturally enlightened 
community based on miUual respect and 
understanding. The staff is dedicated to raising 
awareness and committed to celebradng cultural 
pluralism and diversity. 

The office provides a warm affirming 
atmosphere for people of diverse cultural back- 
grounds. Focusing on the needs and concerns 
of students of color (African American, Ladno, 
Asian American, and American Indian), 
the staff provides academic and personal 
enrichment services for students by offering 
educational and cultural programs, activities, 
workshops, and events that inspire and inform 
students. In addition, the office sponsors and 
cosponsors programs, lectures, and events 
on campus and beyond, which enrich our 
understanding and appreciadon of cultures 
and peoples. 




I ocated in the Center are a library/conference 
room, study area, lounge, and small computer 
lab. In the Center, we celebrate and value the 
rich mosaic of different cultures, which 
continue to contribute to the advancement of 
world civilization. All are welcome to share in 
ihis supportive, intercultural environment. 

OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENT 
PROGRAMS 

The Office of International Student Programs 
provides services to and advises international 
students during their study at Gettysburg 
College as well as during their Optional 
Practical Training. An advisor in this office 
is available to help students with matters 
pertaining to their student visa status as well as 
any issues that arise diuing their time at 
Gettysbing. International Student Programs 
conducts a new international student 
orientation every year prior to the college 
orientation program. 

Students may want to contact the international 
student advisor with questions such as how to 
maintain status or travel in the United States, 
as well as practical information such as how to 
file taxes. The Office of International Student 
Programs offers opportunities for students 
throughout the year to meet with other inter- 
national students, faculty, and administrators 
as well as American students on campus and 
maintains a close relationship with Gettysburg 
College's active International Club. 

DINING ACCOMMODATIONS 

There are a vaiiet)' of dining options for every 
student. Students can select from: 20 meals per 
week, 14 meals per week, a block of 1.50 meals 
per semester and a declining balance of $150, a 
block of 75 meals per semester and $550 declining 
balance dollars per semester, or a block of 75 
meals per semester and $75 declining dollars. 
Declining dollars are non-refundable and must 
be used within the semester that they were 
purchased. Cooking is not allowed in residence 
hall rooms, and students are urged to select a 
meal plan that enables them to eat a majority of 
their meals in the Dining Hall. 

Dining Hall Hours of Operation 

Breakfast 7:15 a.m.-I0:15 a.m.; Continental 
Breakfast, 10:15 a.m.-l 1:00 a.m.: Lunch, 11:15 
a.m.-2:00 p.m.; Dinner, 4:30 p.m.-7:15 p.m. The 
College Union Building, which houses Cafe 
101 — the College snack bar — is open daily from 



7:00 am.-12:00 midnight. Ike's Italian Eater>', 
also located in the CUB, is open for take-out for 
lunch and dinner. 

Requirements 

All first-year students are required to enroll in the 
20-meal plan for their first year. Transfer 
students may choose from any plan. Students 
who have special dietary needs associated with a 
medical condition are urged to contact Dining 
Services for assistance. Initiated members of 
fraternities living in nonapartment-style 
residence halls are required to enroll in at least 
the minimum dining plan each semester. (See 
page 9 far othei- meal plan information.) 

HEALTH CENTER 

The Gettysburg College Health Center is 
dedicated to the deliveiy of personalized primary 
health care. The health center contains both 
health and counseling senices in order to 
maintain both physical and emotional well-being. 

The health center maintains a strict policy of 
confidentiality. Only with the patient's consent 
can any health record or health-related 
information be shared outside of the health 
center. The contents of the health/counseling 
record are not incorporated into the official 
college record. 

Gettysburg College has an HFV/AIDS policy, the 
purpose of which is to support the confidential 
needs of individuals with HFV/AIDS, as well as 
maintain the safety of the campus community. 

Health Services 

The student health services component of the 
health center offers a variety of illness, wellness, 
and health educational services for students. 
The professional staff includes nurse 
practitioners, family physicians, registered 
nurses, medical assistants, and an administrative 
assistant. All of these individuals specialize in 
college health-related issues. 

A limited number of in-house laboratory evalu- 
ations can be performed during a health visit. 
Anv additional lab work, immunizations, x-rays, 
medications, ER visits, or physician referrals are 
the financial responsibility of the student. All 
students are required to have health insurance 
coverage. (Further information regarding insurance 
may be obtained from the Office of Human Resources.) 

Health history and physical examination forms 
are required for each new student prior to 
registration. All students must have the 
following immunizations: 1) Tetanus 



immunization within 10 years; 2) Tuberculin 
(Mantoux) skin test within one year; 3) Measles, 
Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) at age 12-15 
months or later and the second dose at age 
4—6 years or documented immime litre: 4) 
Hepatitis B immuirization (series of three 
injections); 5) Polio, completed primaiy series 
and date of last booster; 6) documentation of 
Varicella disease, immune litre, or receipt of 
vaccine is required; 7) meningitis vaccine. 

All patients are seen in the health service by 
appointment only. Walk-in services are for 
minor emergencies. For after-hours health care 
emergencies, students may go direcdy to the 
Gettysburg Hospital Emergency Department, 
located one mile from campus. The health 
service has an on-call arrangement with the 
College Physicians for non-emergency medical 
advice/ treatment after the health service has 
closed during the week and on weekends. 

Counseling Services 

The Counseling Service's professional staff, 
which includes four coimseling professionals 
and a consulting psychiatrist, works with 
individual students in a confidential relation- 
ship, exploring personal issues and possible 
resolutions. Some areas of concern that students 
talk to counselors about are: feelings of anxiety 
and/or depression, relationship issues, drug 
and alcohol related issues, self-esteem issues, 
problems with family, friends, or roommates, 
goals and plans, values, performance pressures, 
sexuality concerns, difficulties at home, and 
how to reach their full potential. While much of 
counseling involves specific problem solving 
experiences, the focus is often simply helping a 
student to better understand himself or herself. 

The College, through Counseling Services, 
provides the campus community with a program 
of alcohol and drug education that includes 
prevention programming, help for problem 
users, various support groups, and awareness 
presentations. Campus health education is also 
provided by student peer educators through 
CHEERS (Communicating for a Healthy 
Environment by Educating Responsible 
Students). The drug education coordinator is 
available to the campus community to develop 
and maintain appropriate educational programs 
and to counsel with indi\iduals. 



Counseling Services also offers a number of 
topic-oriented group experiences, which are 
designed to help students with adjustment issues 
and to assist them when they move beyond 
Gettysburg College. 

Counseling Service activities are free, 
confidential, and available to all Gettysburg 
College students. It is the desire of counseling 
staff members that their services complement 
the College academic program. 

CENTER FOR CAREER DEVELOPMENT 

The Center for Career Development at 
Gettysburg College helps students and alumni 
make informed career decisions and assists 
them with turning those decisions into actions. 

Students are encouraged to take advantage 
of the Center for Career Development's 
resources and services throughout their time 
at Gettysburg College. First-year students and 
sophomores may seek assistance in considering 
and selecting majors or internships or learning 
about summer employment opportuniues. Self- 
assessment exercises and activities are available 
and can be discussed with the career counselors 
on staff. Sophomores and juniors who are 
considering career options or career-enhancing 
extracurricular activities can learn more by 
speaking with the career counselors and 
utilizing the extensive career exploradon 
library, internships resources, and computer 
resources. Juniors and seniors often utilize the 
Center when considering graduate school 
options. Up-to-date resources on graduate 
school opportunities, testing requirements, and 
application procedures can be found in the 
Center for Career Development. Juniors and 
seniors also seek assistance from the center 
when they are making decisions about career 
direction and developing job search plans. 
Career counselors are available to assist students 
with writing resumes and cover letters, 
preparing for job interviews, developing 
networking skills, connecting with alumni, 
targeting companies for employment, 
evaluating job offers, and other aspects of the 
career planning and job search process. Alumni 
are also able to access services at any stage of 
their careers, whether they are new graduates 
seeking their first po.sitions, or seasoned 
professionals planning a career change. 



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> 



Special programs and semces of the Center 
lor Career Development include job and 
i^raduate school fairs, workshops, an extensive 
on-campus recruiting program, an active off- 
( ampus resume referral network, special 
interest sessions on career choices and topics, 
iransi-tion issues, graduate school choices, 
and more. Specially trained student career- 
( )iitreach assistants offer programs and out- 
T each efforts to clubs, organizations, residence 
liall groups, and others. 

The Center for Career Development also 
maintains an excellent web site with infor- 
mation and links to a variety of career-related 
issues for all users at any stage in their career 
planning. 

DEPARTMENT OF SAFETY AND SECURITY 

The Department of Safet)' and Security is 
responsible for law enforcement, security, 
and emergency response on the campus. The 
Department of Safety and Security is guided by 
the strategic principles of service, protection, 
enforcement, continuous quality improvement, 
< onstancy of purpose, and commimity service- 
oriented patrolling (CSOP). 

The department is under the leadership of the 
director, who reports to the vice president for 
( ollege life and dean of students. The depart- 
ment's associate director, who reports to the 
director, is responsible for coordinating the 
daily safet)' and security operations and 
activities of the department. The department 
is open and staffed 24 hours a day by seven 
( ommunity service officers and two shift 
leaders/supervisors who patrol the campus 
and four communications officers who staff the 
t ommunications center. The department's 
operations are addidonally supported by a 
lieutenant or operadons supervisor responsible 
lor managing the daily patrol operations and 
( ampus special events; a special services 
coordinator responsible for in-service training, 
(rime prevention services, CSOP compliance, 
field training, and both internal and external 
community investigations; a life and fire safety 
( oordinator responsible for coordinating the 
institution's life and fire safety program/ 
initiatives; and an administrative assistant. The 
department also has a large contingent of 
approximately 20 part-time security officers 
who supplement patrol and communications 
center operations and work campus special 
events and details performing crowd and 



vehicular control activities as well as other 
pertinent security-related operations. 

To be successful in providing the highest degree 
of safety and security on the campus, it is 
important that community members follow good 
safety practices and understand that safety is the 
responsibility of all community members, not 
just those officially and formally charged with 
enforcing the laws, policies, and rules. This 
includes using the escort service, locking your 
valuables, and reporting suspicious/criminal 
activities. 

The Department of Safety and Security takes 
a leadership role in this area. This includes 
educational programs on campus safety, 
preventative patrols, incident investigation 
and repordng, fire safety and prevention, crime 
prevention, and communitv' service-oriented 
patrolling. CSOP is the department's philo- 
sophical and organizational strategv' in the 
implementadon and provision of campus safety 
and security services, which focuses on the 
following core principles: 

• Establishing positive and professional 
community relationships; 

• Reducing campus crime and the fear of crime; 

• Developing and employing collaborative 
problem-solving strategies; 

• Enhancing the quality of life at Gettysburg 
College; 

• Employing total quality management (TQM), 
shared leadership, and an organizational 
learning philosophy within the Department of 
Safety and Security; and 

• Striving for continuous quality improvement 
of work processes for the benefit of the depart- 
ment's staff and the community members they 
serve. 

CSOP also focuses on the fact that safet)' and 
security issues are everyone's concern and the 
best way to solve community problems is to 
interdependently work with the community in 
reaching collaborative resoludons. 

Safet)' and Security Officers receive training in 
security, law enforcement, and emergency care. 
Officers are required to be Pennsylvania 
certified emergency responders and to be 
certified in various self-defense techniques. The 
Department of Safety and Security is located at 
51 West Stevens Street. 



College Life 



A' 



n imponant element of the educntion at Gettysburg College is the opportunity to exchange ideas 
and share interests outside the classroom. Wfien students live together in a residential setting, 
. these opportunities are greatly enhanced, not only by daily contacts in living quarters and the 
dining center, but also by ready access to campus activities. After becoming accustomed to the rigorous 
demands of their academic schedules, most students decide to become involved in other- aspects of campus 
life. With entertainment, cultural events, and a constant calendar of student activities available on 
campus, students can soon choose to fill their time to ivhatever extent they wish. 



The College Life Office, an administrative 
division within the College, has as its central 
purpose the provision of an environment, 
programs, and services that enhance the 
students' education. The diverse interests and 
needs of Gettysburg College students are 
reflected in the wide-ranging and continuously 
evolving selection of activities. 

STUDENT CONDUCT 

Gettysburg College seeks to establish and 
maintain an environment that provides for the 
development of the young adult as a whole 
person with an emphasis on inquiry, integrity, 
and mutual respect. 

The College expects its students to conduct 
themselves in all places and at all times in such 
a manner as to show respect for order, morality, 
personal honor, and the rights of others as 
demanded of good citizens. The Gettysburg 
College community fosters respect for the 
rights and dignit)' of all residents, including 
members of both majority and minority groups. 
Membership in the Gettysburg College 
community is a privilege that may be rescinded 
with cause. 

Believing that it is sensible and proper for all 
students to be fully aware of their obligations 
and opportunities as Gettysburg College students, 
the College publishes a statement entitled "The 
Student Judicial System." This document is the 
result of discussions and conclusions reached by 
the student-facult)'-administrative committee. It 
deals wth such questions as the academic, 
citizenship, and governance rights and 
responsibilities of students. It is published 
annually in both the electronic and printed 
versions of the Student Handbook. 



Before a student decides to apply for entrance 
into Gettysbmg College, he or she should be 
aware of the rules governing student conduct. 
A complete copy of the rules and regulations 
may be obtained by writing to the Vice President 
for College Life and Dean of Students. 

THE HONOR CODE 

An academic honor system was instituted at 
Gettysburg College in 1957 and was strongly 
reaffirmed in 1976 and 1992. It is based upon 
the belief that undergraduates are mature 
enough to act honorably in academic matters 
without faculty surveillance and that they should 
be encouraged to conduct diemselves accordingly. 
At the same time the College clearly recognizes 
the obligation placed upon each student to 
assist in maintaining the atmosphere required 
for an honor system to succeed. 

The Honor Pledge, reaffirmed on all academic 
work submitted, states that the student has 
neither given nor received unauthorized aid 
and that he or she has witnessed no such 
violation. The preservation of the atmosphere of 
trust and freedom promoted by the Honor 
Code is the responsibility of the community as a 
whole. Students must comply with the Honor 
Code both in presenting their own work and in 
reporting violations by others. Faculty will not 
evaluate students' academic work unless they 
have signed the Pledge. Students who would 
sign the Pledge with reservation should not 
apply for admission. 

Alleged violations of the Honor Code are 
handled by an Honor Commission elected by 
the students. 



FIRST-YEAR RESIDENTIAL COLLEGE 

The Residential College Program offers students 
the opportunity to learn and work with other 
first-year students, facult)', peer tutors, and 
upperclass student teaching associates on 
common educadonal interests and goals, and 
deliberately fosters connections that support 
first-year transition and learning. Academic 
courses are coordinated with housing in the 
first-year residence halls. The program provides 
a singular opportunity' for students with similar 
interests to experience an especially powerful 
first-year educational program. 

Small course sections provide an opportunity 
for conversarion and discussion, centered on 
course themes, for the development of ideas 
and for lively debate on issues raised, both in 
and outside the classroom. First-Year Seminars 
are designed to employ and develop a variety 
of learning skills. Although some are inter- 
disciplinar)', most are likely to provide a window- 
on the approaches and methods of a particular 
discipline. Introduction to College Writing 
courses develop the students' abilities to express 
themselves in clear, accurate, and thoughtful 
English prose. 

Extending the classroom into residence halls 
provides a natural channel for combining 
formal teaching, informal learning, and 
personal support, and promotes an atmosphere 
of mutual concern and active exchange of views. 
Seminar rooms are available in residendal halls 
for seminar and study group meetings. This 
residential arrangement complements the 
academic curriculum and promotes an exciting 
living and learning environment. 

Special programming opportunides may 
include field trips, film series, guests from 
within and outside the college commimity, 
special meals, coffee breaks, libraiy/electronic 
media workshops, academic advising/career 
planning tips, and communitv' service projects. 
Some courses may choose to combine for joint 
meetings or special events. The Residence Life 
staff of each hall will provide opportunities for 
student residents to initiate and develop other 
social and cocurricular programs. 

FIRST-YEAR EXPERIENCE 

The First-Year Experience (FYE) is a 
comprehensive program designed to assist first- 
year students with making the transition to the 



College community. The FYE program 
helps first-year students understand their 
responsibilities as members of our community 
and helps them begin to develop the skills and 
knowledge they will need to be successful at 
Gett)'sbiug. Upperclass student orientation 
leaders serve as mentors to students, and 
specially trained resident assistants advise first- 
year students in their residential communities. 

Components of the Fiist-Year Experience 
include an intensive orientation program 
held when students arrive on campus in 
the fall; an extended set of activities regarding 
ongoing transition and student success issues 
held throughout the fall semester; and the 
Residential College Program, First-Year 
Seminars, special social programs for first-year 
students, and ongoing contact with first-year 
faculty advisors. 

COLLEGE UNION 

The College Union is the commiuiity center 
of the college, serving students, faculty, staff, 
alumni, and guests. Through a myiiad of 
services and activities, the Office of Student 
Activities supports many opportunities for 
students to become involved in planning and 
participating in student-initiated campus 
activities and camyjus traditions, as well as 
assisting students with the development of 
interpersonal and leadership skills. They 
provide support to students and the general 
campus community in offering a well-balanced 
program of cultural, educational, recreational, 
and social activities. The College Union 
Information center is among the many services 
provided by the professional and student staff. 

The Plank center is an informal gathering place 
for students to meet with their student 
organizations. 

The Plank Center is also home to the Plank 
Fimess Room. Many pieces of cardiovascular and 
selectorized weight equipment are available to the 
Gettysburg College commimity. A full array of free 
weight dumbbells also complements this area. 

Hours of Operation 
College Union 
Monday-Saturday 

8:00 a.m.-l 1:00 p.m. 
Sunday 

10 a.m.-l 1:00 p.m. 



The Junction 
Monday-Saturday 

8:00 a.m.-l 1:00 p.m. 
Sunday 

10am.-ll:00p.m. 

PiANK Fitness Room 
Monday-Thursday 

7:00 a.m.-l 1:00 p.m. 
Friday 

7:00 a.m.-9:00 p.m. 
Saturday 

noon-8:00 p.m. 
Sunday 

noon-ll:00 p.m. 

STUDENT GOVERNMENT 



Students participate in College governance by 
serving on various College, class, and faculty 
committees; as well as in the Student Senate, 
residence hall associations, and Greek organizations. 

Student Senate 

The Gettysburg College Student Senate works in 
cooperation with the trustees, administration, 
and faculty to bring to the campus community a 
well organized, democratic form of student 
government. It represents the student view in 
formulating policies, while working to promote 
cooperation among all constituencies of the 
College. 

The Student Senate is composed of four executive 
officers, tvvent)' class senators, residence hall 
senators, and many dedicated committee 
members. The standing committees of the 
Senate are Academic Policy, Budget Management, 
Public Relations, Student Concerns, Spirit, 
Safety and Security, and College Life Advisoiy 
Students can also serve on various faculty and 
trustee committees. 

Student Life Committee 

The Student Life Committee is an organization 
composed of members of the student body, 
faculty, and College administration. This 
committee has responsibility for studying 
matters and developing policies pertaining to 
student life and student conduct. Business may 
be brought to the committee or legislation 
proposed by any member of the College 
communit)'. The committee refers major issues 
to the appropriate student, faculty, and 
adminstrative bodies for discussion and debate 



before resolution. The committee makes 
recommendations to the College's president, who 
accepts, rejects, or refers them to the Board of 
Trustees prior to implementation. 

Residence Hall Assonalion 

Since life outside the classroom is a vital part 
of a student's education, the Residence Hall 
Association has been established to address 
related issues and concerns of Gettysburg 
College students. The Residence Hall Association 
encourages leadership development, greater 
student involvement, recognition of student 
leaders, and growth through change in order 
to optimize the college environment. 

The Honor Commission 

The Honor Commission is a student organization 
authorized by the constitution of the Honor 
Code. The Commission is composed of sixteen 
students, aided by case investigators, eight 
faculty advisers, and four advisers from the 
College administration. Its function is to 
promote and enforce the Honor Code at 
Gettysburg College, to secure the cooperation of 
students and faculty to these ends, and to 
adjudicate allegations of Honor Code vaolations. 

Interfraternity Council 

The Interfraternitv' Council (IFC)is responsible 
for governing fraternities at Gett)'sburg College. 
It is composed of an executive board, the 
president, and a representative from each social 
fraternity. The Council fonnulates and administers 
general regulatory policies by which fraternities 
must abide. 

Panhellenic Council 

Important responsibility for governing the 
sorority system at Gettysburg College is 
assumed by the Panhellenic Council, to which 
each sorority elects a delegate. This council 
establishes and enforces the Panhellenic 
recruitment regulations and functions as a 
policy-making body in matters involving 
sororities and intersororitv' relations. 

Student Activities and Organizations 
The Plank Center serves as the primary location 
for the offices of many student organizations 
have offices — i.e., Student Senate, Campus 
Activities Board, Black Student Union, GECO, 
Hillel, Circle K, International Club, Gettysburgian, 
Spectrum, and WZBT Radio). 




PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES 



The Office of Student Activities supports many 
opportunities for students to become involved 
in planning and participating in student- 
initiated campus activities and campus 
traditions, as well as assisting students with the 
development of interpersonal and leadership 
skills. They provide support to students and the 
general campus community in offering a well- 
balanced program of cultural, educational, 
recreational, and social activities. 

Programs 

The Campus Activities Board is a collaboration 
of various independent, student, social 
programming organizations that unite with 
a purpose to provide exceptional social 
programming for Gettysburg College. It 
promotes an active student voice around social 
life issues and works in partnership with Student 
Senate and the Office of Student Activities to 
help enhance the social life of students. Some of 
the current groups that make up the Campus 
Activities Board are Concerts, Coffeehouse, 
Traditions, LfVE Bands and Dance Parties, and 
Special Events. 

The Common Hour Program: A regularly scheduled 
time during the academic year when the campus 
community can come together for information, 
discussion, and reflection on issues of communit)' 
importance. 

Challenge Course: The Challenge Course — a 
unique structure of cables, pulleys, and ropes — 
is used to assist groups with development and 
cohesion. Course workshops enable groups to 
gain insight on leadership, followership, 
communication and trust. 

GRAB: The Gettysburg Recreational Adventure 
Board (GRAB) offers outdoor-based activities 
to all members of the College community to 
participate in hiking, backpacking, rock climbing, 
caving, and kayaking trips. The trips are 
facilitated by students and are designed for both 
the novice and the experienced participant. 

Leadership Development: Each year, leadership 
programs, e.g., BASE (Building an Active 
Student Environment), Sophomore Leadership 
Series, provide opportunities for student leaders 
to discuss common issues and to help prepare 
them to develop a more active role on campus. 



Student Organizations 

There are approximately 100 student organiza- 
tions on campus. They provide opportunities for 
students to pursue their special interests in 
campus clubs, special-interest organizations, 
Greek-affiliations, club sports, honorary 
societies, and professional or departmental 
affiliated associations. Many of the student 
organizations are recognized and funded by 
Student Senate, the student governing board. 
The Office of Student Activities/College Union 
registers all student organizations, maintains an 
updated list of student organizations, and 
provides general support to them. 

Lectures 

Robert Fortenbaugh Memorial Lectures: An 
endowment provided by Clyde E. (Class of 
1913) and Sara A. Gerberich supports a series of 
lectures and other programs in the Department 
of Historv'. 

Musselman Visiting Scientist: A fimd provided by 

the Musselman Foundadon in honor of 

Dr. John B. Zinn, former chair of the chemistry 

department, supports an annual three-day visit 

by a renowned scientist to the chemistry 

department. 

Stuckenberg Lecture: A bequest from Mary G. 
Stuckenberg in memory of her husband, the 
Rev. J. H. W. Stuckenberg, enables the College 
to sponsor a lecture in the area of social ethics. 

Bell Lecture: A fund from the estate of the Rev. 
Peter G. Bell (Class of 1860) established a 
lectureship on the claims of the gospel ministry 
on college men. The fund strives "to keep 
before the students of the College the demand 
for men of the Christian ministry and the 
condition of the age qualifying that demand." 

Norman E. Richardson Memorial Lectureship Fund: 
A fund established to commemorate the 
outstanding contributions made to the College 
by Norman E. Richardson, professor of 
philosophy, from 1945 to 1979, supports each 
year an event that stimulates reflection on inter- 
disciplinary studies, world civilization, the 
philosophy of religion, values, and culture. 

Henry M. Scharf Lecture on Current Affairs: A fund 
provided by Dr F. William Sunderman (Class of 
1919) in memory of Henry M. Scharf, alumnus 
and member of the College's Board of Trustees 



from 1969 to 1975, is used to bring a recognized 
authority or scholar to the campus each year to 
speak on a subject of timely interest. 

Performing Arts 

Performing Arts Committee: Each year recognized 
professional groups and individuals present to 
the campus performances of dance and drama, 
as well as vocal and instmmental music. 

Choral Program: Includes six ensembles designed 
to meet the needs of singers with a wide variety 
of experience and expertise. Large and smaller 
ensembles include the Gettysbiug College 
Choir, Concert Choir, Camerata, Women's 
Choir, World Music Ensemble, and Chapel 
Singers. Any Gettysburg College student may 
participate in the choral groups, and there 
are members from nearly every field of study. 
Academic credit can be earned for membership 
in the College Choir or Concert Choir. 

Band Program: The program includes numerous 
ensembles for all students with wind and 
percussion experience. The "Bullet" Marching 
Band meets for a four-day camp prior to the 
start of the fall term in preparation for home 
games, exhibitions, and parades. The Symphony 
Band and Wind Ensemble perform concerts 
throughout the year on and off campus. Small 
chamber ensembles such as Clarinet Choir, 
Brass Quintet, Flute Ensemble, and Woodwind 
Quintet are an integral part of the band 
program. Academic credit can be earned for 
membership in the band. 

Jazz Program: This program includes an 18- 
to 22-member Jazz Ensemble, combo, and 
jazz improvisation lab experience. The Jazz 
Ensemble plays numerous campus concerts 
that include an annual guest artist in February. 
A European tour is scheduled every four years. 
Open by audition to band members. 

Orchestra: Performs concerts throughout the 
academic year. Membership is open to all 
students, with auditions held at the beginning 
of each academic year. 

Siindennan Chamber Music Concerts: The 
Simderman Chamber Music Foimdation, 
established by Dr. F. William Simderman (Class 
of 1919) to "stimulate and further the interest 
of chamber music at Gettysburg College," 
each year sponsors campus performances by 
distinguished and internationally recognized 
chamber music groups. 



Old isf Nightingale Players: Each year this 
distinguished group of performers stage three 
major productions imder the leadership of the 
College's theatre faculty. The program is a 
varied, and all productions are offered in the 
handsome 245-seat Kline Theatre, which featmes 
a thrust stage. 

Laboratory Theatre: Lab Theatre produces a 
dozen one-act plays each year, many of which 
are new and some of which are the work of 
campus playwrights. 

Otherstage: Troupe performs short plays on 
campus and in the community. Their work 
encompasses limchtime theatre, street theatre, 
and children's theatre. 

Artists: The College invites professional 
performing artists to the campus for intensive 
residencies in a wide variety of disciplines. 

CAMPUS MEDIA 

Even' community needs to keep its members in 
contact with each other and with the rest of the 
world. On the Gettysburg College campus, 
student communication media not only inform 
the members of the community, but also afford 
students an opportunity to express their ideas 
effectively and to learn the practical necessities 
of producing newspapers, radio broadcasts, 
magazines, and yearbooks. 

The Gftt\sbiirgian: The College newspaper is 
staffed completely by students who are responsible 
for editing, feature writing, news writing, layout, 
personnel management, subscription 
management, and circulation. 

The Mercuiy: Poems, short stories, and illustrations 
published in The Mercury are contributed by 
students. 

The Spectrum: A pictorial essay of life on campus 
is featured in the College yearbook. Staffed by 
students, the yearbook offers the opportunity 
for creativity in design, layout, photography, and 
writing. 

VVZBT!The College radio station (91.1 megacycles) 
has been the voice of the campus for many 
years. WZBT operates as a noncommercial, 
educational FM radio station over the public 
aii'waves and imder FCC regulations. The 
station is student staffed and broadcasts a variety 
of programs from its fully-equipped studio. 



4 



GREEK ORGANIZATIONS 



( ireek organizations have a long and rich 
tradition at Gettysburg College. The first national 
< )rganization was formed for men on campus in 
1 852. National sororities were first formed on 
( ampus in 1937. Currently, there are ten social 
Iraternities and five social sororities. 

The fraternities, which have individual chapter 
houses owned by alumni corporations on or 
near campus, offer an alternative living option 
to their members. The sororities do not have 
houses, but each has a chapter room in the Ice 
House C>omplex, which serves as a meeting and 
social place for the group. 

In addition to providing a social outlet for their 
members, Gettysburg College's fraternities and 
sororities serve the campus and commimity with 
philanthropic activities. The goals of the Greek 
system are to instill in its individual members 
the qualities of good citizenship, scholarship, 
service, and respect for oneself and others. 

In order to join a social Greek organization 
at Gettysburg College, a student must earn a 
minimum of 5 credits at the College (excludes 
transfer and advance placement credits). By 
vote of the Panhellenic Council women must 
earn a minimum 2.2 GPA. Effective with the 
fall semester 2003, the minimum required 
GPA for men will be 2.1, and increase to a 2.2 
GPA minimum in fall 2004. Some individual 
Greek organizations have higher minimmn 
grade requirements. In addition a student may 
not be on Conduct Probation at the time of 
Formal Rush. 

RELIGIOUS SPIRITUAL LIFE 

We protect time and space for worship at 
Gettysburg College so that this community may 
integrate the deep resources of faith, wisdom, 
and reason with the ever-expanding knowledge 
gained in the classroom, laboratory, and life. 
Our mission is to assist this community of 
learning in exercising and contemplating life 
with God. 

Every Sunday morning (while classes are in 
session) we celebrate Holy Communion. As an 
institution of the Evangelical Liuheran Church 
in America (ELCA), we practice Eucharistic 
hospitality. Ecumenically, ELCA Lutherans 
have inter-communion agreements with the 



Presbyterians, United Church of Christ, 
Disciples of Christ, Church of the Brethren, 
Moravians, Methodists, Episcopal, and Anglican 
communions. All baptized Christians are 
welcome to receive Holy Communion at the 
11:00 a.m. Simday morning worship. 

As a college affiliated with the ELCA, we cherish 
faith and freedom of enquiry. We welcome 
students of all beliefs and provide them 
opportunities to explore religious and spiritual 
issues as part of their formation in faith We do 
this with a spirit of openness, reason, and 
tolerance, while at the same time remaining 
faithful to the lived confessional practices, 
worship, and mission of the Lutheran 
confessions. 

Highlighted each spring is the celebration of 
Religious Emphasis Week. During this week we 
strive to involve the entire college community in 
dialogue aimed at knowledge of their own faith 
traditions and practice, as well as increased 
understanding, respect, and tolerance of other 
major world religions. A key component of this 
week has been an Interfaith Dialogue led by 
informed representatives of the world's major 
religions. 

Students exercise leadership in the campus 
commimitv' through student religious groups 
and the Interfaith Council. Comprised of at 
least one representative from each registered 
student religious group, this Council promotes 
religious freedom for all by advocating religious 
tolerance, understanding and respect. The 
Council assists in planning and programming 
Religious Emphasis Week and assists the 
Chaplain in monitoring and nurturing religious 
and spiritual life on campus. 

Students and members of the college 
commimity are invited to share leadership in 
worship services by serving as readers, a.ssisiing 
ministers, playing an instrument, or joining a 
choir. Active student religious groups currently 
include Canterbuiy Hillel, Muslim Student 
Association, Newman, Lutheran Student 
Movement, Fellowship of Christian Athletes, 
and ChrisUan Fellowship. New student groups 
may be developed in accord with student 
interest and with the approval of the Chaplain. 

In addition to the Chaplain of the College, an 
ordained (ELCA) Evangelical Lutheran Church 
in America pastor, ministry is provided to the 



college through a Roman Catholic priest and a 
Catholic laywoman Campus Minister. Quaker 
services are held eveiy Siuiday morning in 
Gladfelter Lodge. Hillel schedules Shabbat 
meals and Holy Day remembrances and is 
available to advise and coiuisel Jewish students. 

CENTER FOR PUBLIC SERVICE 

hi keeping with the College's mission to educate 
young people to "think critically and act 
compassionately," the Center for Public Service 
promotes, organizes, and supports community 
service and social jusdce initiatives by members 
of the Gettysburg College community. The 
Center for Public Service promotes the 
following: 

Exploration of Social Issues and Social Justice. 
Students carefully consider their service 
experiences: What did they see, who did they 
meet, and why is there a need for such service? 
The act of reflection, therefore, becomes crucial 
to students' education. It serves as the bridge 
between experiences and learning. 

Community Partnerships. Commimity partner- 
ships are at the core of the center's programs. 
Community partners play a significant role in 
the education of Gettysburg College students by 
providing opportunities to learn and guiding 
students through the exploration of social 
jusdce, course concepts, and personal and 
professional development. The center works 
with more than 25 agencies and organizations 
to meet community needs. Partners include 
agencies and organizations working with youth, 
homelessness, hunger, poverty. Latino migrant 
farmworkers, urban education, technology, 
literacy, elderly, environmental jusdce, food 
security, and commimity development. 

Student Involvement. In 2002-03, approximately 
1 ,200 Gettysburg College students ser\ed in 
the local community' and abroad in 10 issue 
areas. Sixteen student program coordinators 
organized, trained, and led student volunteers 
who served with Latino and migrant farm- 
workers, urban youth initiatives, Big Brother/ 
Big Sister, Gettysburg Commimity Soup Kitchen, 
D.C. Outfitters, Project Gettysburg/Leon, El 
Centro Tutoring, Just Community Food Systems 
Community Gardening programs, and other 
community organizations. 



Faculty Involement. The center proNides the 
resources and support for facult)' who are 
interested in incorporating ser\ice as part 
of their course work. This type of service is 
mutually beneficial to the communit)', and it 
enhances the academic experience for students. 
A variety of disciplines (psycholog)', music, 
education, Spanish, computer science, and 
philosophy, to name a few) have integrated 
service into their classes and faculty report 
that class discussions and students' written 
work are richer and more informed and 
thoughtfully constructed as a result of the 
service experience. Last year, more than 100 
students and 10 agencies participated in service- 
learning classes. 

Service -Learning/ Cultural Immersion Projects. 
These projects are off-campus educational 
service opportunities at sites in the United 
States and abroad. Students travel to a 
community different from their own where they 
live, work, and serve. By working alongside 
people and sharing their stories, students learn 
about themselves and the world. 

ATHLETICS 

The College has an extensive program of 
intercollegiate and intramural athletics for men 
and women. It is possible for all students to 
participate in some supervised sport; for those 
with particular athletic skills and interests, a full 
array of varsity teams are available. Gettysburg 
College maintains membership in the National 
Collegiate Athletic AssociaUon, the Eastern 
Collegiate Athletic Conference, and the 
Centennial Conference, which includes Bryn 
Mawr College, Dickinson College, Franklin & 
Marshall College, Haverford College, Johns 
Hopkins University, Muhlenberg College, 
Swarthmore College, Ursinus College, 
Washington College, and Western Maryland 
College. 

Gettysburg College teams consistendy win 
athletic contests at the conference, regional, 
and national levels. In 1998, the College 
finished 25th nationally in the Sears Cup 
standings and won the Centennial Conference 
all-sports trophy for the fifth year in a row. 

The intercollegiate program includes teams 
for men and teams for women. Gettysburg also 



< 



has a varsity cheerleading squad, in which both 
men and women are eligible to participate. The 
various teams are: 



Men 



Women 



Coed 



Fall 



Cross Country- Cross Coiinii7 Cheerleading 
Football Field Hockey 

Soccer Soccer 

Golf Volleyball 

Golf 



Winter 


Basketball 


Basketball 


Cheerleading 




Swimming 


Swimming 






Wresding 


Indoor Track 






Indoor Track 






Spring 


Baseball 


Lacrosse 






Lacrosse 


Softball 






Tennis 


Tennis 






Track and 


Track and 






Field 


Field 






Golf 


Golf 





The campus recreation office provides time for 
informal recreation. Activity areas include a 
swimming pool, basketball courts, tennis courts, 
weight room with Nautilus and free weights, a 
fitness room with stationaiT bikes, stairclimbers, 
treadmills, rowers and selecterized weight 
equipment, and a mtiltipurpose area within tlie 
Bream/Wright/Hauser Athletic Complex for a 
variety of recreational activities. 



CAMPUS RECREATION 



The Office of Campus Recreation is dedicated to 
complementing the academic goals of Gettysburg 
College by providing a variety of recreational 
activities for all students, faculty, administrators, 
and staff Programs include intramural sports, 
aerobics/fitness, sports clubs, and informal 
recreation. 

Intramural sports include a wide range of team, 
individual, and dual sports. Team sports include 
Softball, flag football, basketball, floor hockey, 
indoor soccer, outdoor soccer, and volleyball. 
Special events include tennis, table tennis, golf, 
billiards, 4x4 volleyball, and 3-on-3 basketball. 
Fitness activities are the fastest growing portion of 
the campus recreation program. Aerobics classes 
held daily are designed to meet the needs of all 
students by offering high impact and low impact 
classes. Tone and stretch classes, aqua aerobics, 
step aerobics, yoga, and meditation are also 
offered. 

The sport club program is another growing 
segment of the campus recreation program. 
These clubs are designed so that anyone of any 
skill level may participate. Sport clubs currently 
active on campus include tae kwon do, cuong 
nhu, men's volleyball, men and women's rtigby, 
equestrian, ice hockey, and ultimate frisbee. 



Facilities 



Set amidst the southern Pennsylvania countryside, the Gettysburg campus is exceptionally beautiful. 
Many of the 60 buildings enjoy a rich history. Although most buildings have been restored to 
include advanced technology, their exteriors maintain their architecture charm and historical 
integrity. ♦♦♦ Gettysburg is a "walk-around " campus and whik cars are perynitted, they are not necessaiy. 
You can easily get anywhere on campus or walk into toiun in minutes. 



In the center of Gettysburg College's campus is 
Musselman Library, housed in an architectural 
award-winning building constrvicted in 1981. 
The library, which contains more than 303,000 
volumes, microforms, recordings, audiovisual 
media, archival materials, and selected 
government documents, is the hub of research 
activity on campus. A computerized library 
catalog is accessible through fully networked 
public access terminals, offering access to 
thousands of databases and full-text journal 
and newspaper ardcles online. Electronically 
delivered course reserve readings are available 
through the College's Curriculimi Navigation 
network. The library is open 24-hours a day 
and reference librarians are on-hand to assist 
students with research papers and other 
assignments. Individual and group study spaces, 
a theatre, a media production center, an 
electronic classroom and computer laboratory 
are all located in the library. 

Gettysburg College has exceptional computing 
power. Every building is fully networked, 
including each residence hall room. This allows 
each student access to electronic mail, die 
Internet, and Gettysburg's sophisticated College 
Navigation System. Gettysburg's micro- 
environment includes over 1300 microcomputers 
and a complex system of Siui workstadons and 
laboratories. Facilities in biology, chemistry, and 
physics include large departmental laboratories, 
microcomputer laboratories, student/ facility 
research areas, and extensive departmental 
libraries. Students and faculty use outstanding 
instrumentation to enhance instruction and 
research on a daily basis. As a result, Gettysburg 
students enjoy "hand-on" use of advanced 
science equipment that most institutions reserve 
for graduate students. This includes a Zeiss EM 
109 transmission electron microscope (TEM), 
JOEL TS20 scanning electron microscope (SEM), 
a Fourier Nuclear Magnedc Resonance 
Spectrometer, a herbarium, a plasma physics 
laboratory, an optics laboratory, a planetarium, 
an observatory, the Child Study Center, and 
psychology laboratories equipped with 
observation desks. 



Student life facilities include a College Union 
Building, Student Activities Center, well- 
maintained and varied residence hall space, 
including theme houses, a center for public 
service, a women's center, the Intercultural 
Resource Center, a health center, the Chapel, 
Safety and Security office, a Center for Career 
Development, and an Outdoor Challenge 
course. 

For students with an interest in theatre, Brua 
Hall features the Kline Theatre, a 250-seat 
playhouse with a thrust stage and state-of-the-art 
sound and lighting; and the Stevens Laboraton 
Theatre, a studio/classroom with TV recording 
and monitoring equipment. 

Schmucker Hall supports the music and art 
departments with interactive lecture rooms, 
music practice rooms, the 196-seat Paul Recital 
Hall, art studios, a metals coating foundry, and 
the College's art gallery. 

An extensive program of intercollegiate and 
intramural athletics encourages students of all 
abilities to extend their education to the plavins^ 
field. Gettysbing \'iews athletics and recreation 
as important components of a well-roimded 
imdergraduate experience. 

The Bream-Wright-Hauser Athletic Complex 
and the Eddie Plank Student Activities Center 
house the College's impressive indoor sports 
facilities. These include four indoor tennis 
courts, an indoor track, a first-class weight room, 
a fitness room, state-of-the-art training 
equipment, and a 3,000-seat basketball, 
wresding, and volleyball arena. A six-lane, 25- 
yard pool is located in the College Union 
Building. Outdoor facilities include a sand 
volleyball court, a 6,176-seat stadium for 
football, lacrosse, and track-and-field; 14 tennis 
coints; baseball and softball diamonds; and 
playing fields for soccer, lacrosse, and field 
hockey. A challenging cross-country course 
extends over the campus and throughout the 
adjacent National Park. 



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Academic Policies and Programs 



ACADEMIC PURPOSES OF GETTYSBURG COLLEGE 



The faculty of Gettysburg College has adopted the follomng statement of the College's academic 
purposes. ♦ Gettysburg College believes that liberal education liberates the human mind from 
many of the constraints and limitations of its finiteness. In order to accomplish its liberating 
function, Gettysburg College believes that it owes its students a coherent currinilum that emphasizes the 
following elements: 



1. Logical, precise thinking and clear use of 
language, both spoken and written. These 
inseparable abilities are essential to all the 
liberal arts. They are not only the practical skills 
on which liberal education depends but also, in 
their fullest possible development, the liberating 
goals toward which liberal education is directed. 

2. Broad, diverse subject matter The curriculum 
of the liberal arts college should acquaint 
students with the range and diversity of himian 
customs, pursuits, ideas, values, and longings. 
This broad range of subject matter must be 
carefully planned to include emphasis on those 
landmarks of human achievement which have 
shaped the intellectual life of the present. 

3. Rigorous introduction to the assumptions 
and methods of a representative variety of the 
academic disciplines in the sciences, the social 
sciences, and the himianities. The curriculum 
must encourage students to recognize that the 
disciplines are traditions of systematic incjviiry, 
each not only addressing itself to a particular 
area of subject matter but also embodying an 
explicit set of assumptions about the world and 
employing particular methods of investigation. 
Students should recognize that the disciplines 
are best seen as sets of carefully constructed 
questions, continually interacting with each 
other, rather than as stable bodies of trtith. 
The questions that most preoccupy academic 
disciplines involve interpretation and evaluaticjn 
more often than fact. Sttidents should learn that 
interpretation and evaluation are different from 
willful and arbitrary opinion while at the same 
time recognizing that interpretations and 
evaluations of the same body of facts may differ 
drastically given different assumptions, methods, 
and purposes for inquiiy Human thought is not 
often capable of reaching imiversal certitude. 

This necessaiy emphasis of the College's 
currictikmi is liberating in that it frees students 
from narrow provincialism and allows them to 
experience the joys and benefits of conscious 
intellectual strength and creativity. 



Liberal education should free students from 
gross and unsophisticated blunders of thought. 
Once exposed to the diversity of reality and 
the complexity and arduousness of disciplined 
modes of inquiry, students will be less likely than 
before to engage in rash generalization, 
dogmatic assertion, and intolerant condemnation 
of the strange, the new, and the foreign. 
Students will tend to have a sense of human 
limitations, for no human mind can be a match 
for the world's immensity. Promoters of 
universal panaceas will be suspected as the gap 
between human professions and human 
performance becomes apparent. Students will 
tend less than before to enshrine the values and 
customs of their own day as necessarily the 
finest fruits of human progress or to lament 
the failings of their time as the world's most 
intolerable evils. 

But wise skepticism and a sense of himian 
fallibility are not the only liberating effects of 
the liberal arts. With effort and, in all likelihood, 
some pain, students master difficult skills and 
broad areas of knowledge. They acquire, 
perhaps with unexpected joy, new interests and 
orientations. In short, they experience change 
and growth. Perhaps this experience is the most 
basic way the liberal arts liberate: through 
providing the experience of change and growth, 
they prepare students for lives of effective 
management of new situations and demands. 

The liberal arts provide a basis for creative work. 
Creativity is rarely if ever the work of a mind 
imfamiliar with past achievements. Instead, 
creativity is almost always the reformulation of, 
or conscious addition to, past achievement with 
which the creative mind is profoundly familiar 
By encoiuaging students to become responsibly 
and articulately concerned with exisdng hinnan 
achievement and existing means for extending 
and deepening human awareness, Gettysburg 
College believes that it can best ensure the 
persistence of creativity. 



The intellectual liberation made possible 
through liberal education, though immensely 
desirable, does not in itself guarantee the 
development of humane values and is therefore 
not the final purpose of a liberal education. If 
permitted to become an end in itself, it may 
indeed become destructive. A major 
responsibility of those committed to liberal 
education, therefore, is to help students 
appreciate our common humanity in terms of 
such positive values as open-mindedness, 
personal responsibility, miUual respect, 
empathic understanding, aesthetic sensibility, 
and playfulness. Through the expanding and 
diverse intellectual activities offered in liberal 
education, students may develop greater 
freedom of choice among attitudes based on a 
fuller appreciation of our common humanity, 
and based on clearer recognition of our 
immersion in a vast, enigmatic enterprise. 

CREDIT SYSTEM 

The course unit is the basic measure of 
academic credit. For transfer of credit to other 
institutions, the College recommends equating 
one course unit with 3. .5 semester hours. 
Because of the extra contact hours involved, 
some laboratory science courses earn 1.25 units 
of credit. These courses, identified with the 
symbol "LL" (Lecture/Lab) on the course title 
line, equate to 4.0 semester hours. Half unit 
courses equate to 2.0 semester hours. The 
College offers a small number of quarter course 
units in music and health 8c exercise sciences. 
Except for the quarter-unit courses in major 
music ensembles, these courses may not be 
accumulated to qualify as course units for 
graduation. Quarter course units equate to I.O 
semester hour. 

Beginning with the fall 2000 semester, to insure 
that a full load under another credit system 
equates to a full load at Gettysburg College, the 
following conversion scheme applies to students 
presenting more than three transfer course 
credits for evaluation: 

Sem. Hrs. G'burg Units Qtr. Hrs. G'burg Units 

4 1.15 6 1.15 

3 .85 5 1.00 

2 .50 4 .75 

3 .50 



REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE 

The College confers three vmdergraduate 
degrees: Bachelor of Arts (BA), Bachelor of 
Science (BS), and Bachelor of Science in Musi( 
Education (BSME). The general graduation 
requirements are t)ie same for all degree programs: 

1 ) 35 course units in some combination of 
1.25, 1.00, or .50-unit courses, or up to four .25- 
unit credits in music ensemble. The 35 course 
unit requirement must include a minimum of 
32 full-unit courses. For this purpose, transfer 
courses equivalent to .75 or .85 units count as 
full-unit courses. 

2) One quarter-unit course in Health and 
Exercise Sciences. 

Please note: This quarter-unit course does not count 
toward the 35 course unit graduation requirement. 

3) Minimum accumulative GPA of 2.00 and a 
GPA of 2.00 in the major field 

4) Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

See the listing at the beginning of the Courses of 
Study section for the specific courses that fulfill the 
Liberal Arts Core. Any requirement may be satisfied, 
with or without course credit, by students who can 
qualify for- exemption. fSg^ Exemption from Degree 
Requirements.) 

The Liberal Arts Core is comprised of courses 
which the faculty has deemed central to a liberal 
education. The Core consists of courses in each 
of four academic divisions — arts, humanities, 
social sciences, and natural sciences — and 
courses that enable students to strive for greater 
proficiency in writing, quantitative reasoning, 
and foreign language. 

The Liberal Aits Core prepares students in two 
complementaiT ways. By taking courses in each 
division, students encounter the perspectives 
and modes of inquiiy and analysis that 
characterize academic disciplines. Because a 
liberally educated person should be able to 
reason and communicate effectively, students 
must successfully complete courses in writing, 
quantitative reasoning, and foreign language. 
Together, the Gettysburg College core courses 
provide the solid foundation of a liberal 
education. 




Goals of the Liberal Arts Core are met in the 
following way: 

• The Arts: One course in the Division of Arts. 

• Humanities: Three courses in the Division of 
Humanities. 

• Natural Science: Two courses in the Division 
I )l Natiual Sciences. 

• Social Sciences: Two courses in the Division of 
Social Sciences. 

• Foreign Language: Attainment of competency 
through the intermediate level (equivalent of 

202). 

• Quantitative Reasoning: One course with 
major emphasis on mathematical problem- 
solving and the presentation and interpretation 
of quantitative information. 

• English Composition: One course, to be taken 
in the first year of enrollment. 

• Non-Western Culture: One course with 
primary emphasis on African, Asian, or non- 
European American cultures. This may be one 
that also fulfills one of the other Liberal Arts 
Core requirements. 

5) Concentration requirement in a major 
field of study 

(See Major Requirements yb/Zow/w^ this section.) 

6) Minimum of the last year of academic work as 
a full-time student in residence at Gettysburg 
College or in an approved College program 

7) Discharge of all financial obligations to the 
College 

No course used to obtain a bachelor's degree 
elsewhere may be counted toward the 
requirements for a Gettysburg College degree. 

Each student is responsible for being sine that 
graduation requirements are fulfilled by the 
anticipated date of graduation. The College 
normally requires students to complete degree 
requirements in effect at the time of their 
original enrollment and the major requirements 
in effect at the time that students declare the 
major at the end of the first year or during the 
sophomore year. 



Writit^ Policy: Since the ability to express oneself 
clearly, correctly, and responsibly is essential for an 
educated person, the College cannot graduate a 
student whose uniting abilities are deficient. 
Instructors may reduce grades on poorly written 
papers, regardless of the course, and in extreme cases, 
may assign a failing grade for this reason. 

MAJOR REQUIREMENTS 

Each student must successfully complete the 
requirements in a major field of study. Most 
majors consist of eight to twelve courses and 
may include specific courses from one or more 
other departments and/or programs. No more 
than twelve courses may be required from a 
single subject area, with the exception of the 
B.S.M.E. degree. (Requirements of the various 
majors are listed in the department and 
program introductions in the Courses of Study 
section.) 

The following are major fields of study at 
Gettysburg College: 

Bachelor of Arts: 

Art History 

Art Studio 

Biology 

Chemistry 

Classical Studies 

Computer Science 

Economics 

English 

Environmental Studies 

French 

German 

Greek 

Health and Exercise Sciences 

Health and Physical Education 

History 

Japanese Studies 

Latin 

Management 

Mathematics 

Music 

Philosophy 

Physics 

Political Science 

Psychology 

Religion 

Sociology 

Anthropology/Sociology 

Spanish 



Spanish and Latin American Studies 
Tlieater Arts 
Women's Studies 

Bachelor of Science: 

Biolog) 

Biochemistiy 8c Molecular Biology 

Chemistry 

Physics 

Bachelor of Science in Music Education: 

Music Education 

A student must file a declaration of major with 
the Registrar before registering for the junior 
year. A student may declare a second major as 
late as the beginning of the senior year. 

Optional Minor: Students may declare a minor 
concentration in an academic department or 
area that has an established minor program. 
Not all departments offer minor programs. A 
minor shall consist of six courses, no more than 
two of which shall be 100-level courses. Because 
of the language required, an exception to the 
two 100-level course limitation may occur in 
classical studies. Students must maintain a 2.00 
average in the minor field of study. Although a 
certain number of courses constitute a minor 
field of study, all courses in the minor field will 
be considered in determining the minor average. 

In addition to minors associated with the majors 
listed earlier, minor fields of study are possible 
in the following areas: 

African American Studies 

Anthropology 

Civil War Era Studies 

East Asian Studies 

Elementary Education 

Latin American Studies 

Neuroscience 

Secondary Education 

Writing 

SPECIAL MAJOR 

As an alternative to the major fields of study, 
students may declare a special major by 
designing an interdisciplinary concentradon 
of courses focusing on pardcular problems 
or areas of investigation which, though not 
adequately included within a single department 
or discipline, are worthy of concentrated study. 



Students intending to pursue a special major 
must submit a proposal for their individual plan 
of study to the Committee on hiterdisciplinan 
Studies. The proposed program must be an 
integrated plan of study that incorporates 
course work from a minimimi of two 
departments or fields. A special major must 
include a total of ten to twelve courses, no fewer 
than eight of which must be above the 100-level; 
three or more courses at the 300-level or above; 
and a 400-level individualized study course 
which is normally taken during the senior year. 
Indi\idualized study allows stvidents to pursue 
independent work in their areas of interest as 
defined by the proposal and should result in a 
senior thesis demonstrating die interrelationships 
among the fields comprising the special major. 

After consulting with and obtaining an application 
from the interdisciplinary studies chairperson 
and meeting several dmes with two prospective 
sponsors/advisers, students should submit their 
proposals during the sophomore year. The latest 
students may submit a proposal is October 15 of 
their junior year It is often possible to build into 
a special major a significant component of off- 
campus study. 

Normally, to be accepted as a special major, a 
student should have a 2.3 overall GPA. Students 
should be aware that a special major program 
may require some departmental methods or 
theory courses particular to each of the fields 
within the program. 

A student may graduate with honors from the 
special major program. Honors designation 
requires a 3.5 GPA in the special major, the 
recommendation of the student's sponsors, the 
sadsfactory compledon of an interdisciplinai"y 
individualized study, and the public presentadon 
of its results in some academic forum. 

ACADEMIC ADVISING 

The Office of Academic Advising, located on 
the second floor of the College Union, offers 
support in many areas of academic life. Working 
in conjunction with the individual student's 
advi.sor, the deans assist students in making 
educational plans and solving academic 
problems. This office coordinates the first-year 
student/ faculty advising program; assists 
students through the process of applying for 
competitive scholarships such as the Rliodes, 




Marshall, and Fulbright; and coordinates Peer 
rutoring and accommodations for students with 
disabilities. Deans' Lists, academic progress 
reports, withdrawals and readmissions, petitions 
lo the Academic Standing Committee, and 
grade appeals are processed in this office. 

The College believes that one of the most 
\aluable services it can render to its students 
is careful advising. Each first-year student is 
assigned a faculty advisor to assist in dealing 
with academic questions, in explaining college 
I egulations, in setting goals, and in making the 
transition from secondar)' school to college as 
smooth as possible. Facult)' advisers are assigned 
a small number of first-year students, so that 
they can develop strong relationships with their 
advisees. 

Sophomores may continue their advising 
relationship with their first-year advisors, or they 
may select another faculty member in a field of 
study they anticipate as their major. Wlien 
students choose a major field of study, which 
must be done no later than the beginning of the 
junior year, a member of the major department 
becomes their advisor and performs fimctions 
similar to those of the first-year advisor, including 
the approval of all course schedules. 

Students may confer at any time with their 
advisor, a dean of Academic Advising, the 
Center for Career Development, or faculty 
members as they consider their options for a 
major or special fellowship opportimities dining 
or after college, weigh their career objectives, 
choose graduate or professional schools, or 
search for employment after graduation. 

POLICY ON ACCOMMODATION OF 
PHYSICAL AND LEARNING DISABILITIES 

Gettysburg College provides equal opportunities 
to students with disabilities admitted through 
the regular admissions process. The College 
promotes self-disclosure and self-advocacy for 
students with disabilities. Students seeking 
accommodation should contact the Office of 
Academic Advising. 

For students with physical disabilities, the 
College provides accessibility within its facilities 
and programs and will, within the spirit of 
reasonable accommodation, adapt or modify 
those facilities and programs to meet individual 
needs. 



For students with learning disabilides, the 
College accommodates on a case-by-case basis, 
provided the accommodation requested is 
consistent with the data contained in 
docinnentation that meets the College's 
standards and is reviewed by the College's own 
consultant. Reasonable accommodation for 
students with learning disabilities may involve 
some curricular modifications without 
substantially altering course content or waiving 
requirements essential to the academic program. 
Some examples of reasonable accommodation 
are: 

a) extended time on exams and assignments; 

b) use of auxiliary equipment (tape recorders, 
lap top computers, calculators); 

c) modified examination formats and/or oral 
examination. 

One of the deans in Academic Advising will 
assist students with disabilities with their 
requests for accommodation. 

INDIVIDUALIZED STUDY AND SEMINARS 

There are opportimities in most departments 
for students to engage in seminars and 
individualized tutorials, research or internships. 
These opportunities are primarily for seniors, 
but other students frequently are eligible. In 
some departments participation in this type of 
activity is part of the required program of study; 
in others it is opdonal. Most of these courses are 
nimibered in the 400s under Co7irses of Study. 

STUDENT ORIGINATED STUDIES (SOS) 

SOS courses are student initiated and run courses, 
with students having the primar>' responsibility 
for the content, readings, assignments, and 
conduct of the course. A faculty member assists 
in the development of the proposal, advises the 
students throughout the semester, attends 
course meetings as appropriate, and assigns the 
final grade. Each SOS course provides a half 
course unit of credit toward the 35-course 
graduation requirement and is graded S/U. 

SENIOR SCHOLARS' SEMINAR 

The College offers a unique and valuable 
opportunity for its outstanding senior students. 
Senior Scholars' Seminar, composed of selected 
seniors, undertakes a study of a contemporary 



issue that affects the future of humanity. The 
issues are always timely and often controversial. 
Past topics have included genetic engineering, 
conflict resolution, global disparities, computer 
and human communicadon, aging and the 
aged, dissent and nonconformity, the concept of 
the hero, the media and presidendal campaigns, 
creative leadership in groups, the impact of 
television on conscience and consciousness, 
immigration in America, and the Holocaust. 

Authorides of national stature are invited to 
serve as resource persons for the Senior Scholars' 
Seminar. Experts who have visited past seminars 
include John Sununu, Colin Powell, David 
Broder, Stuart Udall, David Freeman, Thomas 
Szasz, Daniel EUsberg, Jonathan Schell, Daniel 
Bell, James Gould, and Elie Wiesel. Studenr 
participants in the seminar present a final 
report based on their findings and 
recommendations. 

The issues explored in the seminar are always 
interdisciplinar\' in scope, and the students 
selected for this seminar represent a vvide variety 
of majors. The seminar is team-taught by two 
professors of different departments. 

Early in the second term of the junior year, 
qualified students are invited to apply for 
admission to the course. After the members of 
the class have been selected through a process 
of interviews, they begin to plan the course with 
two faculty directors and become acuve 
participants in the entire academic process. 
The Senior Scholars' Seminar is assigned one 
course credit. 

ACADEMIC INTERNSHIPS 

Through the Center for Career Development, 
students at Gettysburg College have the 
opportunit)' to participate in several internships 
during their four years of study. All students who 
wish to participate in an internship should 
register with the Center, which is the repository 
for all internship information on campus. The 
Center maintains information on thousands of 
internship sites located in both the United 
States and abroad. The Center staff will also 
assist students in looking for an internship site 



close to a student's home. Internships taken for 
academic credit are carefully designed to 
provide a program with a substandal academic 
component, as well as practical value. These 
internships are generally advised by a faculty 
member within a student's major field of study. 
Academic credit is awarded by the appropriate 
department once the student completes the 
requirements of the department. Internships 
provide students with a valuable opportunity to 
apply academic theory to the daily task of 
business, nonprofit, and government settings. 
This experience also helps students identify 
career interests and gain valuable work 
experience. Students are encouraged to begin 
the process of finding an internship early in 
their sophomore year. 

THE CIVIL WAR INSTITUTE 

The Civil War Insdtute provides opportunides 
for students to assist programs under the 
direcdon of Gabor Boritt, Fluhrer Professor of 
Civil War Studies. Acdvides range from an 
internationally known summer session 
coinciding with the anniversary of the Battle of 
Gettysburg, to sponsoring battlefield tours, 
visidng lecturers (from PBS's Ken Burns and 
Princeton's James McPherson to Nobel 
Laureate Robert Fogel and bestselling novelist 
Jeff Shaara) , dramadc and musical 
performances (the opera The Death of Lincoln), 
film ( Gettysburg, the director's cut before public 
release), and exhibits ("Free at Last: The 
Abolition of Slaveiy in America"). The CWl 
cosponsors the commemoration of the 
anniversary of the Gettysburg Address, with 
speakers such as Justice Sandra Day O'Connor 
and Colin Powell. It oversees the annual 
$100,000 Lincoln Prizes, supported by Richard 
Gilder and Lewis Lehrman and awarded for the 
best books, Web site, CD-ROM, or D'VD on the 
historv' of the Civil War era. Oxford University' 
Press publishes the CWl lectures, four of which 
have been selections of the Histoiy Book Club 
and three of the Book-of-the-Month Club. 
Students assist in creadng these books that are 
used in Civil War classes at colleges and 



< 



universities all over the United States. The CWI 
offers scholarships to high school juniors and 
high school teachers for its summer program. 

THE GETTYSBURG REVIEW 

I'lie Gettysburg Review, published by Gettysburg 
( College and edited by English Professor Peter 
Stitt, is a quarterly journal with a strong national 
following. Among its ad\isoi7 and contributing 
editors are author and humorist Garrison 
Keillor; poets Richard Wilbur, Donald Hall and 
Rita Dove; and novelist Ann Beattie. The 
Gettysburg Revieiv has received many 
distinguished awards, including regular 
reprinting of some of its materials in Harper's 
magazine and in the anthologies Best American 
Fiction, Best American Poetry, and Best American 
Essays. In 1993, Stitt was selected as the first 
winner of the prestigious Nora Magid Award 
from the internadonal organizadon PEN 
(Poets, Essayists, and Novelists). Students ser\'e 
thejoiunal in a number of ways through 
internships, work-study, and volunteerism. 

OFF-CAMPUS STUDY 

If you are thinking about making off-campus 
studies a part of your education, you will be 
joining almost 300 of your peers who study off 
campus each year (46% of the class of 2002). 
Gettysburg College considers off-campus study 
to be a vital part of its academic programs. 

Students study off campus for many different 
reasons. Whether you want to learn a new 
language, improve your skills in a language you 
have been studying, make your resume stand 
out from the crowd, or to add a special facet to 
your degree, you will find that off-campus 
studies gives you these advantages — and many 
more. 

Office of Off-Campus Studies 

The Office of Off-Campus Studies, located in 
the College Union Building, is the main source 
of information abovu off-campus program 
opportunities. The office houses an extensive 
Resoiuxe Library, where students can find 
informational brochures on various programs. 
The director of off-campus studies and the rest 
of the office staff can assist students in making a 
personalized off-campus study plan. 



Students work with their academic advisors to 
pre-approve the academic program prior to 
departure from Gettysburg. Financial Aid 
recipients will also find that the Office of 
Financial Aid is knowledgeable about off- 
campus studies and is willing to advise students 
about financial questions. 

Finally, all students participate in a mandatory 
Pre-Departiue Orientation, where they receive 
literature to help prepare them for their 
overseas experience. 

Off-Campus Programs 

Gettysburg College offers Study Abroad 
Programs all over the world, as well as Domestic 
Programs within the United States. Some 
programs are Integrated Programs, where 
students study with students from the host 
country. Others are Group Programs, which are 
specially designed for Gettysburg students. All 
programs offer students the opporttmity to take 
a variety of courses, which can be used toward 
the Gettysburg degree. Some programs offer 
Field Experience or Internships. 

Gettysburg College Affiliated Programs: Gettysburg 
currently sponsors more than 20 Affiliated 
Programs, chosen by the College to meet the 
special needs of its students. Most of these 
programs are sponsored by an academic 
department, and in some cases, the programs 
are actually led by a Gettysburg College faculty 
member. Students participating in Affiliated 
Programs earn credit toward their major, minor, 
or Liberal Arts Core requirements. Students are 
billed Gettysburg's regular comprehensive fee, 
so families can conUnue with their regular 
payment schedule. Gettysburg pays for tuition, 
room, full board, and in some cases airfare for 
the off-campus program. In addition, students 
can continue to use financial aid that they 
receive to pay for the off-campus program. This 
means that federal aid, state aid, and Gettysburg 
instituUonal grants and loans continue to be 
given, just as if you were on campus. 

Gettysburg College Suggested Programs: There are 
over 150 Suggested Programs available, chosen 
to offer Gettysburg students the most diverse 
program sites possible. These programs differ 
from Affiliated Programs in that students earn 
credit only (not grades), and pay all program 
costs directly to the sponsoring program. 



Gettysburg students can continue to use federal 
financial aid to pay for the Suggested Program. 
Gettysburg institutional grants and loans cannot 
be used, however. Once the student returns to 
Gettysburg College, these grants and loans will 
be reinstated. 

Gettysburg College Summer Programs 

Gettysburg offers a number of summer off- 
campus programs for students who prefer a 
short- term experience. Affiliated study-abroad 
programs include month-long programs in 
Zimbabwe and Indonesia, and a domestic 
environmental studies program in Maine. Other 
Affiliated Programs include opportimities in 
Greece, Mexico, and Spain. 

Off-Campus Studies Policies 

Students can study off campus during their 
junior year or in the first semester of senior year. 
There are also some special programs for first- 
semester sophomores. 

Students with special needs are encomaged to 
discuss their off-campus studies plans with the 
director of off-campus studies. Many programs 
can accommodate students with special learning 
needs or physical needs. 

All students must have a minimimi 2.0 
cimiulative grade point average and be in good 
disciplinary standing in order to apply for off- 
campus studies. Accepted students must 
maintain their good standing in order to 
participate. Permission to study off campus 
will be rescinded for any student placed on 
probation for an academic or social reason 
prior to departing for off-campus studies. 

Gettysburg College is pleased to offer the 
Eisenhower/Hilton Scholarship for Study 
Abroad in the amount of $1(),0()(). This 
scholarship is awarded to one oiUstanding 
Gettysburg jimior or senior each year. 

Gettysburg College Affiliated Programs 

Geltysfntrg in Argeiilina: This academic year or 
semester program allows students to enroll 
directly in Argentine imiversities in Buenos 
Aires or Mendoza. Students who have 
completed Spanish 202 are eligible to apply. 
All students live in a homestay where they take 
their meals. 

Gettysburg in Australia: This academic year or 
semester program allows students to enroll 
directly in one of four Australian universities: 
James Cook University, the University of 



Melboiune, the University of Queensland, and 
the University of Wollongong. Students usually 
live in shared rooms in residence halls. 

Gettysburg in Denmark through Denmark i 
International Studies Program: This fall or spring 
semester program in Copenhagen offers 
students the opportunity to take courses in 
their major (most majors available), or in a 
wide variety of Liberal Arts Core and elective 
subjects that focus on Scandinavian and 
European issues. All courses are taught in 
English. Students live in a homestay and take 
their meals with their host family. 

Gettysburg in England: London and Lancaster 
University: This fall semester or academic year 
interdisciplinary studies program begins with 
a four-week seminar in London taught by a 
Gettysbiug faculty member. (Students may 
choose to attend a seminar in Lancaster instead 
of the London option.) After the seminar, all 
students enroll at Lancaster University, where 
they study subjects of their choice for the fall 
term or academic year. Lancaster University is a 
top-ranked British University, and many faculty 
members are recognized internationally in theii 
fields. Students attending the London seminar 
are housed in shared rooms in a student hotel 
in central London. At Lancaster, students live in 
single-study bedrooms in residence halls. 

Gettysburg in England: Adx'anced Studies: This 
semester program is based in Bath, England, 
and offers students the opportimit)' to take 
courses that use England "as the classroom." 
One-week academic trips to Oxford and 
Stratford-upon-Avon and shorter visits to 
important historic sites complement the 
cmriculum. All students live in apartments 
in Bath with other program participants. 

Gettysburg Student Teaching Program in London, 
England: This fall or spring program is available 
for students with a minor in Education 
(elementary or secondary), h includes a half- 
semester of classes at Gettysburg College and 
student teaching in a Gettysbiug-area school, 
followed by a half-semester (7 weeks) of student 
teaching in London, England. A variety of 
schools are used for placement in London: 
private schools, public schools, city schools, 
and suburban schools. Students live in shared 
apartments in London city center, and prepare 
their own meals. 



< 



Geltyshurg in Aix-en-Provence, France: This 
semester program at Le Centre d'Aix is 
designed for students who wish to complete 
the Gettysburg College requirement in 
language; it also serves students who wish to 
pursue a minor in French. The Institute of 
American Universities (lAU) sponsors the 
program, which is located in Aix-en-Provence 
near the Mediterranean coast. All students live 
in a homestay that is arranged by lAU. In the 
intermediate program (fall only), students fulfill 
ihe French 201-202 language requirement. In 
the advanced program (fall or spring), students 
take classes towards their French minor. 

Gettysburg in Avignon, France: This semester or 
academic year program at Le Centre d'Avignon 
is designed to meet the needs of French majors. 
The Institute of American Universities (lAU) 
sponsors this program located in Avignon. All 
students live in a homestay that is arranged by 
LAU. Students take five courses — one required 
language course and four elective courses. All 
courses are conducted in French. 

Gettysburg in Cologne, Germany: This fall semester 
group program in Cologne offers the 
opportimity for students from any major to 
improve their German language abilities and to 
take a variety of humanities and social science 
courses in English. All students live in a 
homestay and take meals with their family. 
Students take up to three courses in German 
language, literature, and culture, and up to 
three courses in English from the areas of 
political science, history, and art histoiy 

Gettysburg in Heidelberg, Germany: This academic 
year or semester program, sponsored by 
Heidelberg College, allows students to enroll 
directly in Heidelberg University. Students who 
have completed German 202 are eligible to 
apply. All students live in a dormitor)' or 
apartment with German students. 

Gettysburg in Greece: This academic year or 
semester program through College Year in 
Athens offers students in any major the 
opportunity' to take courses in humanities and 
social sciences focusing on Greece and the East 
Mediterranean world. Students live in shared 
rooms in apartments in the Kolonaki 
neighborhood. Students choose either the 
Ancient Greek Civilization track or the East 



Mediterranean Area Studies track. Both tracks 
offer courses in the humanities and social 
sciences, as well as modern Greek language at 
all levels. 

Gettysburg in Hungaiy: This fall or spring 
semester program offers juniors and seniors 
majoring in Mathematics or Computer Science 
the opportunity to take courses in their major 
taught by renowned Himgarian scholars in 
Budapest. Students live in shared rooms in 
apartments or in a homestay with a Hungarian 
family. 

Gettysburg in Italy through Syracuse University: This 
fall semester program is specifically designed to 
give students in studio art and art history a liring 
cla.ssroom — historic, beaiuiful Florence. 
Students primarilv take courses in the arts, but 
other coiuses in the humanities and social 
sciences are available as well. Students live in a 
homestay and take most meals with their host 
family. All students take Italian language courses 
and three or four other courses in the arts, 
humanities or social sciences. 

Gettysburg in Italy through Duke University: This 
academic year or semester program at the 
Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies 
(ICCS) in Rome, sponsored by Duke University, 
is designed for Latin or Greek majors, and other 
students interested in classical antiquit\'. 
Students live in the ICCS Center in shared 
rooms and take their meals there. Students take 
courses in Roman Archaeology/Histor), Latin 
Language and Literature, Art History, Greek 
Language and Italian Language. 

Gettysburg in Japan: This semester or academic 
year program at Kansai Gaidai University offers 
students in all majors the opportunit)' to take 
Japanese language and a variety of other courses 
taught in English. Kansai Gaidai University is 
located between Osaka and Kyoto. Students can 
choose to live in a homestay or in a residence 
hall. All students take one or two Japanese 
language courses and two or three additional 
courses in English. Japanese language is taught 
at all levels, including beginning courses for 
students with no prior language study. 

Gettysburg in Mexico through Augsburg College: 
Students can choose between Augsburg's fall 
semester program, Crossing Borders: Gender 
and Social Change in Mesoamerica, and their 



spring program. Gender & the Environment: 
Latin American Perspectives, both based in 
Cuernavaca, Mexico. Students Hve in shared 
rooms in a house where they take their meals. 
Students also spend three weeks living with a 
local family in Cuernavaca or in a nearby village. 
Students in both the fall and spring semester 
take a set four-course program, which includes 
intensive Spanish language study. 

Gettysburg in Cuernavaca, Mexico (Intermediate 
Program): This popular fall semester program in 
Cuernavaca is specifically designed for students 
who have completed Spanish 101-102 (or 
103-104) and enables them to complete 
intermediate level Spanish (201-202) in one 
semester. A Gettysburg College professor of 
Spanish accompanies the group and teaches two 
of the courses. .\11 students live in a homestay 
where they take their meals. All students take a 
set four-course program, which includes two 
Spanish Language classes, literature, and 
Mexican civilization. Offered during odd- 
numbered years. 

Gettysburg in Guadalajara, Mexico: This academic- 
year or semester program in Guadalajara offers 
students who have completed Spanish 301 the 
opportunity to take a variety of humanities and 
social science courses taught in Spanish at the 
Foreign Student Study Center of the University 
of Guadalajara. .\11 students live in a homestay 
where they take their meals. 

Gettysburg in Spain (Advanced Program): This 
academic year or semester program in Seville 
offers students who have completed Spanish 301 
the chance to take a variety of himnanities and 
social science courses taught in Spanish. The 
lUS Center, where the program is based, is 
located in the city center. All students live in a 
homestay where they take their meals. Courses 
are available in language, literature, 
conversation, grammar, history, civilization, 
economics, politics, and other hmnanities and 
social sciences. 

Gettysburg in Spain (Intermediate Program): This fall 
semester program is specifically designed for 
students who have completed Spanish 101-102 
(or 103-104) and enables them to complete 
intermediate level Spanish (201-202) in one 
semester. A Gett)'sburg College professor of 
Spanish accompanies the group and teaches two 



of the courses. Also located at the lUS Center in 
Seville, this program is popular with Gettysburg 
students. All students live in a homestay where 
they take their meals. All students take a set 
four-course program, which includes tvvo 
Spanish language classes, literatiue, and 
Spanish civilization. Offered during even- 
numbered years. 

Gettysburg in Washington, D.C. through Lutheran 
College Washington Conscrrtium: Students earn a 
full semester of academic credit by participating 
in an internship in Washington (four days per 
week) , two academic courses, community 
service projects, and program excursions in 
virtually any field of study. Students live in fully 
furnished condominiums located across the 
Potomac River from Washington — a two-minute 
ride on the metro system into the city center. 
Internships are available in virtually any field. A 
variety of interdisciplinary coiuses are offered, 
from which students choose two. 

Gettysburg in Washington, D.C. through American 
University: Students earn a full semester of 
academic credit by participating in an 
internship in Washington, (two days per week) 
and two academic courses in virtually any field 
of study. All students live in a double room on 
the Tenley campus of American University, and 
take their meals at the Tenley cafeteria. All 
students take a seminar associated with their 
program (2 course imits), and an internship 
(1 course unit). Most students write a research 
paper associated with their internship (1 course 
unit). Some students opt to take a night course 
at American University in lieu of the research 
paper (1 course unit). 

Gettysburg at the United Nations through Drew 
University: This program offers students the 
opportunity to learn about the UN by being 
there. Students spend Tuesdays and Thursdays 
in New York attending presentations. In 
addition, students take two elective courses at 
the Drew campus in Madison, New Jersey, and 
have the option of doing an internship as well. 
All students live in Drew University residence 
halls, and take meals on the Drew campus. 
Students take two required courses (PolSci 170: 
The United Nations System and the 
International Commimity, and PolSci 172: 
Research Seminar on the United Nations), plus 
two electives from Drew's regular course 
offerings. 



Gettysburg at the Marine Biological Laboratmy in 
Woods Hole Massachusetts: This Semester in 
Environmental Science program at the Marine 
Biological L.aboratoiy (MBL) in Woods Hole, 
VlassachusetLs emphasizes inquiry-based 
learning through student participation in 
laboratory and research projects. Woods Hole is 
located on Cape Cod, near Falmouth. All 
students live at the MBL in shared rooms. 
Students take their meals at the MBL restaurant. 
All students take a Terrestrial Core Lecture and 
Lab (1 course unit), an Aquatic Core Lecture 
and Lab (1 course imit), an elective course (.75 
course unit), a Science Writers Seminar (.25 
course imit), and an independent research 
project (1 coinse unit). 

Gettysburg at Duke Marine Laboratory: This fall or 
spring semester program allows students to 
study and conduct research at the Marine 
Laboratory, which is a campus of Duke 
University (near Beaufort) that focuses on the 
marine sciences, coastal environmental 
management, and marine bio-medicine. 
Students can also participate in the spring 
semester program, which spends one half of the 
semester at the Marine Lalxjralory and the 
other half at the Bermuda Biological Station for 
Research in Ferry Reach, Bermuda. Student.s 
live in shared rooms in a residence hall at the 
Marine Laboratory, and take their meals at the 
dining hall. 

Gettysburg College Suggested Programs 

Gettysburg College students have also 
participated in programs in Austria, Belgium, 
Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, 
Chile, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Dominican 
Republic, Ecuador, Eg)'pt, Ghana, Hungaiy, 
India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Jamaica, Kenya, 
Korea, Morocco, Namibia, Nepal, New Zealand, 
Niger, Norway, Poland, Scotland, South Africa, 
Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, 
Venezuela, Vietnam, Wales, and Zimbabwe. 

Other Off-Campus Opportunities 

Consort! nm Exchange Prugicim: The academic 
program is enriched by the College's 
membership in the Central Pennsylvania 
Consortium (CPC), consisting of Dickinson, 
Franklin and Marshall, and Gettysburg Colleges. 
The Consortium provides opportunities for 
exchanges by students and faculty. Students may 
take a single course or enroll at a Consortiimi 



College for a semester, or a full year. A course 
taken at any Consortium College is considered 
as in-residence credit. Interested students 
should consult the registrar. 

Lutheran Theological Seminary Exchange: 
Gettysburg College students are eligible to take 
up to four courses at the Lutheran Theological 
Seminary, also located in Gettysbiug. The 
Seminary offers course work in biblical studies, 
historical theological studies, and studies in 
ministiy Interested students should consult 
the registrar. 

Wihon College Exchange: Gettysburg College oflFere 
an exchange opportunity with Wilson College, an 
area college for women, with course offerings tliat 
supplement Gettysburg's offerings in commimi- 
cations, women's studies, dance, and other 
creative arts. Students may take a single course 
or enroll as a guest student for a semester or a 
full year. 

SPECIAL INTEREST PROGRAMS 

Students may petition the Academic Standing 
(committee for permission to take courses at 
another college, luiiversity or study site that 
offers a program in a special interest area not 
fully developed at Gettysburg (College. Examples 
of special interest areas are urban studies, 
nutrition, media and communication, 
journalism, and peace studies. Interested 
students should consult the Office of the 
Registrar. 

DUAL-DEGREE PROGRAMS 

For all of our Dual-Degree programs, once 
Gettysburg students apply for and are accepted 
to an affiliated university, they become students 
of that imiversity. Students who qualify for 
financial aid at Gettysburg College are not 
guaranteed a similar financial aid package at 
our affiliated universities. Financial aid at the 
affiliated imiversity must be applied for directly 
through that university. All other services will 
also be prorided by that imiversity. 

Engineering 

This program is offered jointly with Columbia 
University, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 
(RPI), and Washington University in St. Louis. 
Students spend either three or four years at 
Gettysburg College, followed by two years at 



one of these institutions. Upon successful 
completion of the program, the student is 
awarded the bachelor of arts degree from 
Gettysburg and the bachelor of science degree 
in an engineering discipline from one of the 
three affiliated universities. American students 
who qualify for financial aid at Gettysburg 
College will usually be eligible for similar 
aid at the engineering affiliate universities. 
InternaUonal students who qualify for aid at 
Gettysburg are not guaranteed financial aid, 
although it is sometimes available. 

Candidates for this program have an adviser in 
the physics department. Normally, a student 
will be recommended to Columbia, RPI, or 
Washington Universit)' during the fall semester 
of the junior year. Students must have a 
minimum of a 3.0 grade point average in 
order to be recommended, except for students 
interested in electrical engineering, who are 
required to have a 3.3 average for 
recommendation. 

The specific courses required for admission by 
each affiliated institution vary and students 
should schedule courses in close cooperation 
with the Engineering Adviser at Gettysburg. All 
dual-degree engineering students must take 
Physics 111,112; Mathematics 111,112; 
Chemistry 107, 108; and Computer Science 111. 
All dual-degree engineering students must 
complete the Gettysburg College distribution 
requirements while at Gett)'sburg. 

Nursing 

The College has a five-year program under 
which students spend three years at Gettysburg 
and two at Johns Hopkins University School of 
Nursing in Baldmore. At the end of the fourth 
year of study, students complete requirements 
for a B.A. degree from Gettysburg College; at 
the end of the fifth year, students receive a 
B.S.N, degree from Johns Hopkins University. 
Students interested in this program should 
contact the Coordinator of Advising for Medicine 
and the .\llied Health Professions. 

Optometry 

Pennsylvania College of OptometiT (PCO) and 
the State University of New York (SUNY) 
College of Optometry offer admission into the 
program leading to the Doctor of Optometry to 
students from Gettysburg at the end of the 



junior year, provided that all prerequisites are 
met. At the conclusion of the first year at PCO 
or SUNY, students receive the baccalaureate 
degree from Gettysburg College and, after seven 
years of undergraduate and professional study, 
the Doctor of Optometry from the Pennsylvania 
College of Optometry or the State University 
of New York College of Optometry. Students 
who qualify for early admission to one of these 
progi~ams will be recommended by the Medicine 
and Allied Health Professions Committee at 
Gettysburg College and will be required to 
interview at the Pennsylvania College of 
Optometry or the State University of New York 
College of Optometiy during the spring term 
of the junior year. 

Forestry and Environmental Studies 

In addition to ils own Department of 
Environmental Studies, the College offers a 
dual-degree program with Duke University 
leading to graduate study in natural resources 
and the environment. Students earn a bachelor's 
and master's degree in five years, spending 
three years at Gettysburg College and two years 
at Duke University's School of the Environment. 
Students must fulfill all distribution require- 
ments by the end of the Junior year. Course 
work at Duke will complete the undergraduate 
degree requirements for the B.A. at Gettysburg 
College. Duke will award the professional 
degree of master of forestry or master of 
environmental management to qualified 
candidates at the end of the second year. 

During the first semester of the junior year at 
Gettysburg College, the student must notify the 
Environmental Studies chairperson and file with 
the Registrar a petition for off-campus study 
during the senior year. All applicants are urged 
to take the verbal and quantitative aptitude tests 
of the Graduate Record Examination in 
October or December of their junior year. The 
student should apply to Duke's School of the 
Environment and upon acceptance send the 
Environmental Studies department a written 
request for permission to subsdtute the Duke 
courses for the student's remaining 
requirements. 

All students contemplating this cooperative 
program should take at least one year of courses 
in each of the following: biology, mathematics 
(including calculus), economics, statistics, and 



computer science. In addition, organic chemistiy 
is a prerequisite for the ecotoxicology program 
and ecology for the resource ecology program. 
Please note that this is a competitive program 
and students are expected to have good 
quantitative analysis and writing skills. 

Students begin the program at Duke in late 
August and must complete a total of 48 units, 
including a master's degree project, which 
generally takes four semesters. 

Some students may prefer to complete the 
bachelor's degree before undertaking graduate 
study at Duke. The master's degree requirements 
for these students are the same as those for 
students entering after the junior year. All credit 
reductions are determined individually and 
consider both the student's educational 
background and objectives. 

PREPROFESSIONAL STUDIES 

Prelaw Preparation 

Students planning a career in law should 
develop the ability to think logically, analyze 
critically, and to express verbal and written ideas 
clearly. In addition, the prospective law student 
needs a wide range of critical understanding of 
hiunan institutions. These qualities are not 
found exclusively in any one field of study. They 
can be developed in a broad variety of academic 
majors. It should be noted that a strong academic 
record is required for admission to law school. 

Students are encouraged to contact the College 
Prelaw advisor, Professor Kenneth Mott, and 
to visit the Internship and Prelaw Center 
located in the Center for Career Development, 
53 W. Stevens Street. The Center maintains 
a librai7 of resources, including LSAT and 
prep course materials, computerized programs, 
videos, and law school catalogues. Further, the 
College maintains a Prelaw Web Page with much 
helpful information and links to additional 
resources. A brochure that describes prelaw 
preparation at Gettysburg College is also 
available in the Center and in the Office of 
Admissions. Students interested in planning a 
career in law are encouraged to obtain a copy 
of this brochure and to take advantage of the 
materials and advising process. 

Preparation for Health Professions 

The (ietrvsbiu'g College ciuriculum pro\ides 
the opportunity, within a liberal arts framework, 
for students to complete the requirements for 



admission to professional schools of medicine, 
dentistry, and veterinary medicine, as well as 
several allied health schools. Students 
considering a career in one of these fields are 
advised to schedule their courses carefully, not 
only to meet the admission requirements for the 
professional schools, but also to pro\ide for 
other career options in the event that their 
original choices are altered. The following 
courses \vill meet the minimal entrance 
requirements for most medical, dental, or 
veterinai-y schools: Biolog)' 111 (or 101), 112; 
Chemistry 107, 108; Chemistiy 203, 204; Physics 
103, 104 (or 111, 112). Most schools require or 
strongly recommend courses in mathematics 
(calcidus, statistics, and/or computer science) 
and English (composition and literature), but 
few specify course sequences. Since completion 
of these courses will also give the student 
minimum preparation for taking the national 
admissions examinations for enti'ance to medical, 
dental, or veterinai")' school, it is essential to 
have completed or be enrolled in these courses 
by the spring of the year when the tests are 
taken. Wliile most students who seek 
recommendation for admission to health 
professions schools major in biology, chemistry, 
or biochemistry and molecular biology, the 
requirements can be met by majors in most 
other subjects with careful planning of a 
student's program. Students are encouraged to 
choose solid electives in the humanities and 
social sciences and to plan their programs in 
consultation with their major advisers or a 
member of the Medicine and Allied Health 
Professions Committee. 

Recommendations for admission to health 
profession schools are made by the Medicine 
and Allied Health Professions Committee. For 
students planning to enter medical school 
immediately after graduation from college, this 
occurs in the spring of the junior year. Students 
seeking admission to these professional schools 
must also take one of the following national 
admissions examinations: MCAT (medical), 
DAT (dental), ORE (veterinan) or OAT 
(optometry). The Medicine and the Allied 
Health Professions is composed of five faculty 
members with the Coordinator of Advising for 
Medicine and the Allied Health professions 
acting as chairperson. Admission to medical 
school is ver)' competitive and is based on 
several criteria: cumulative and science grade 



point averages, scores on standardized tests, 
demonstrated leadership skills, evidence of a 
willingness to help others, work or volunteer 
experience in a medical setting, the letter of 
recommendation from the committee, and an 
interview at the medical school. 

If a student chooses not to attend medical 
school immediately after college or is not 
accepted to medical school on first try, it is not 
uncommon to apply successfully a few years 
after graduation. These intervening years must, 
however, be spent in meaningful activity — work 
in a hospital, additional course work, or the 
Peace Corps, for example — in order to retain or 
improve one's competitive standing. 

Drexel University's Graduate School of Physical 
Therapy offers early acceptance to students from 
Gettysburg College who meet the criteria for 
admission into the doctoral degree program. 
Students may major in any department, 
although a major in biology or health and 
exercise sciences is most common. Regardless 
of major, eight science courses in three different 
departments (biology, chemistry and physics), 
two courses in psychology, one course in 
statistics and five courses in the humanities and 
social sciences are required. Also required are 
a minimum cumulative grade point average, a 
minimiuTi score on the Graduate Record Exam, 
and significant work or volunteer experience 
in physical therapy. Students who are eligible 
for early admission to the program will be 
recommended by the Pre-Health Professions 
Committee at Gettysburg College and are 
required to interview at Drexel University 
prior to acceptance. 

Gettysburg College also has Cooperative 
Programs in Nursing with the Johns Hopkins 
University and in Optometry with Pennsylvania 
College of Optometry and the State University 
of New York College of Optometiy 

The Medicine and Allied Health Professions 
Committee holds periodic meetings to explain 
requirements for admission to health 
professions schools, to bring representatives 
of these schools to campus to talk to students, 
and to explore issues of interest to the medical 
professions. In the office of the Coordinator of 
Advising for Medicine and the Allied Health 
Professions is a collection of materials about 
he health professions. It includes information 



aboiu admissions requirements, guidebooks on 
preparing for national admissions examinations 
catalogues from many health professions 
schools, and reference materials on fields such 
as medicine, dentistry, veterinary science, 
optometiy pharmacy, podiatry, physical therap\ 
public health, and health care administration. 

Teacher Education Programs 

Gettysburg College has education programs 
in secondaiy school subjects, elementary 
education, music education, and health and 
physical education. All are competency based 
and have received accreditation from the 
Pennsylvania Department of Education. (See 
Education under the Courses of Study listings.) 
The education department also maintains a 
Teacher Placement Bureau to assist seniors and 
graduates in securing positions and to aid 
school officials in locating qualified teachers. 

Employment prospects in teaching continue 
to be good, and the projected annual demand 
for hiring of all teachers is expected to rise. 
According to the National Center for Education 
Statistics, the number of secondary school 
teachers is projected to increase at a greater 
rate than the number of elementary teachers. 
Between 1997 and 2007, an increase of 5% 
is projected at the elementary level, while an 
increase of 14% is projected at the secondary 
level, a rise from 1.2 million to 1.4 million 
teachers. Of the reporting Class of 2001 
certified Gettysburg College graduates who 
sought teaching positions, 100% were teaching 
or in education-related occupations during the 
following academic year; 28% of the graduates 
were employed in education positions in 
Pennsylvania and 72% were employed outside 
of the commonwealth. The reported average 
salary for those certified through the program 
at Gettysburg College was $29,000. 

Praxis scores for Gettysburg College's teacher 
education program completers for the 
2000-2001 academic year were as follows: 

Basic skills: 100% pass rate. 

Principles of Learning and Teaching: 100% pass 
rate. 

Subject Matter Specialty Areas: 97% pass rate. 

Gett\'sburg College was ranked in the first 
quartile of all teacher preparation programs 
in Pennsylvania. 



< 



Academic Regulations 



REGISTRATION 



s 



iudents must be registered officially for' a course in order to earn academic credit. The registrar 
announces the time and place of formal registration. By formally completing registration, the 
student pledges to abide lyy Cxdlege regulations. ♦♦♦ Students may also enroll in a course for credit 

(luring the first twelve days after the beginning of the semester. Students may not enroll in a course after 

the txoelve-day enrollment period. 



Many departments establish limits to class 
enrollments in particular courses to insure the 
greatest opportunity for students to interact 
with their instructors and other students. As a 
result, students cannot be assured of enrollment 
in all of their first choice courses within a given 
semester. 

The College may withdraw a student from classes 
and withhold transcripts and diplomas for 
failure to pay college charges. The College may 
deny future enrollments for a student with a 
delinquent account. 

THE GRADING SYSTEM 

(.ourses are normally graded A through F, with 
these grades having the following significance: 
A (excellent); B (good); C (fair); D (poor); and 
F (failing). Instructors may modify their letter 
grades with plus and minus signs. 

hi successfully completing a course under this 
grading .system, a student earns a number of 
quality points according to the following scale. 



A+ 4.33 



C 



A 


4 


C- 


1.67 


A- 


3.67 


D+ 


1..33 


B+ 


3.33 


D 


1 


B 


3 


D- 


0.67 


B- 


2.67 


F 





C+ 


2.33 







A student's accumulative average is computed 
by summing his or her quality points and 
dividing by the number of course units taken. 
The average is roimded to the second decimal 
place. 

The College reserves the right to make changes 
and acljustments in the grading system even 
after a student enrolls. 

The College offers a satisfactory /iinsatisf(u lory grading 
option. This option is intended to encourage 
students to be adventurous intellectually in 



courses with subject matter or approaches 
substantially different from their prior academic 
experience or attainment. An S signifies 
satisfactory work, and is given if a student 
performs at the C- level or higher; a U signifies 
imsatisfactory work, and is given for work below 
the C- level. Courses graded S/U do not affect a 
student's qualit)' point average, but 
a course completed with an S grade \vdll coimt 
toward the total number of courses needed for 
graduation. A student may elect to take a total 
of six courses on an S/U basis during his or her 
four years at Gettysburg College; however, no 
more than two S/U courses may be taken in 
any one year. This grading option may not be 
selected for Liberal Arts Core requirements for 
graduation, or for courses taken in a student's 
major field. Exceptions may be made with 
regard to the major in cases where a department 
specifies that a particular course is available 
under the S/U grading system only, and in cases 
where the student declaies the major after 
taking the course. A student must choose the 
S/U grading option during the first t\velve cla.ss 
days of the semester. 

The basic skill courses in health and exercise 
sciences (all of which are graded S/U) shall not 
cotmt in determining the maximum number of 
S/U courses a student may take. Students who 
enroll in Education 476: Student Teaching may 
take an additional course under the S/U option 
during the senior year, provided that their total 
number of S/U courses does not exceed six. 

Wlien a student registers for and completes a course 
ii'hich he or she has already taken at Gettysburg 
College, both the credit and the grade previously earned 
are canceled, but they are not removed from the 
permanent record. The credit and grade earned in 
repeating the course are counted toward the 
student's requirements. 

A gmdf ofinc (Incomplete) is issued through the 
Academic Advising Office when emergency 
situations, such as illness, prevent a student 
from completing the course requirements on 
time. The missing work must be completed by 



the end of the add/drop deadline of the 
semester following the one in which the 
incomplete was incurred. 

A student who luithdraws officially from a course 
after the twelve-day add/drop period, but within 
the first eleven weeks of the term, receives a W 
(withdrew) grade. If a student withdraws from a 
comse dining the last five weeks of the semester, 
he or she will receive an F (failure) in the 
coiuse. A student who withdraws officially for 
medical reasons receives a W regardless of the 
time of withdrawal. The W grade is not used in 
compiuing averages. 

ACADEMIC LEVEL 

A student's academic level or class year is 
determined on the basis of the number of units 
completed for the degree according to the 
following listing: 



Class Year 

First Year 

Sophomore 
Junior 

Senior 

TRANSFER CREDIT 



Unit Range 

0-6 

7-14 

15-24 

25-35 



.\fter enrolling at Gettysburg College, students 
may use a maximimi of three comse credits 
toward the degree for work taken at other 
colleges if such courses have first been approved 
by the registrar. Course credit, but not the 
grade, transfers to Gettysburg College if the 
grade earned is a C- or better. This transfer 
option is not available to those who receive three 
or more transfer course credits at the time of 
admission or readmission to the College. 

This comse credit limitation does not apply to 
Central Pennsylvania Consortium courses or 
off-campus study programs approved by the 
Academic Standing Committee. 

EXEMPTION FROM DEGREE REQUIREMENTS 

The College may recognize work on the college- 
level completed elsewhere by a student. This 
recognition may take the form of exemption 
from degree requirements and may cany 
academic credit. Students should present their 
requests for exemption to the registrar. They 
should be prepared to demonstrate their 
competence on the basis of their academic 
record. Advanced Placement Examination 
results of the College Board, or examinations 
administered by the department concerned. 



Decisions on exemption and credit rest with 
the department and the registrar. 

Students may satisfy the foreign language 
requirement in a language not regularly offered 
at Gettysburg College by demonstrating 
achievement at the intermediate-level through 
transfer credit, by examination, through 
independent study with a Gettysbiug College 
faculty member, or through an approved 
exchange program with the Central Pennsylvania 
Consortium. International students who have 
learned English as a second language may satisfy 
the requirement with their primary language. 

ACADEMIC STANDING 

Students generally maintain an academic 
record that will enable them to complete the 
requirements for graduation in the normal 
eight semesters. To be in good academic 
standing a student must have at least a 2.00 
accumulative average, a 2.00 average for the 
semester, a 2.00 average in the major field of 
study by the end of the junior year and during 
the senior year, and be making appropriate 
progress in acquiring the credits and 
completing the various requirements for 
graduation. Students who do not meet these 
standards will be given a warning, placed on 
academic probation, placed on suspension alert, 
or be suspended or permanently dismissed 
from the College. 

The student who falls below the following 
minimum standard is considered to be making 
unsatisfactoiy progress and is either placed on 
suspension alert, suspended, or permanentlv 
dismissed: for the first year — 1 .50 GPA and 
seven course imits completed; for the second 
year — 1 .80 GPA and fomteen comse units 
completed; for the third year — 1.90 GPA and 
twenty-one course units completed; for the 
fourth year — 2.00 GPA and twenty-eight course 
units completed; and for the fifth year — 2.00 
GPA and thirty-five course imits completed. 
First-year students may be suspended after one 
semester if their GPA is 1.00 or below. 

In addition to these minimum standards, a 
student on probation must show significant 
improvement during the following semester in 
order to remain at the College. Normally, a 
studeru may not remain at the College with 
three consecutive semester averages below 2.00. 

Students receiving some forms of financial aid 
must maintain minimum progress toward 
achieving a degree in order to remain eligible 



for such aid. (See the Financial Aid section of 
litis catalogue for a more complete discussion of 
appropriate progress.) 

SiudeiiLs on academic probation or suspension 
ait-rt are permitted to participate in extra- 
ciuricular activities at tiie College. Students in 
academic difficulty, however, are reminded that 
their first priorit)' is the academic program and 
that they must therefore give careful considera- 
tion to time commitments and responsibilities 
associated with extracurricular activities. 
Students on academic probation or suspension 
alert are urged to consult with their faculty 
advisors and the deans of Academic Advising 
about curricular and extracurricular choices. 

RESIDENCE REQUIREMENTS AND 
SCHEDULE LIMITATIONS 

The normal program consists of nine courses 
per year, with five courses in one semester and 
four in the other. (Thus, a student will complete 
graduation requirements in four years of full- 
time academic work in the September-through- 
May academic year.) The last full year of 
academic work must be in residence at 
Gettysburg College or in an approved College 
program. Unless given approval, students may 
not complete requirements as part-time 
students during their last semester of residence. 

Students proposing to complete graduation 
requirements in less than foiu" full years must 
have their programs approved by the Academic 
Standing Committee through the Office of the 
Registrar. Such approval should be sought at 
least a year before the proposed completion of 
requirements. 

A full-time student for academic purposes is one 
canying a minimum of three courses during a 
semester. No student who is a candidate for a 
degree may take fewer courses than this without 
permission of the Academic Standing 
Committee. 

Students may not enroll in the equivalent of six 
or more full unit courses per semester without 
the approval of the Academic Standing Committee. 
In granting approval to take six courses, the 
(Committee requires evidence that the student is 
in good academic standing and will be able to 
perform at an above average academic level 
during the semester of heavy enrollment. For 



the purpose of determining an extra course 
load, 1 .25 unit courses count only as a full 
course. 

A required course in health and exercise 
sciences, generally taken during the first year, is 
in addition to the full course load. This course 
does not count toward the 35-course graduation 
requirement. 

Majors and minors in music and majors in 
health and physical education must take quarter 
courses, in addition to the normal course load. 
Other students may take quarter courses in 
applied music, with the approval of the music 
department at an additional charge. 

A student may audit informally any College 
course with the permission of the instructor. No 
charge will be made for such an audit and no 
record of auditing will appear on the student's 
transcript. 

The College offers a limited opportimity for 
students to register for and complete a course of 
study during the summer. Primarily these are 
individualized study or internship courses and 
are arranged through academic departments. 

TRANSCRIPTS 

The College supports students in their 
candidacy for graduate or professional school 
admission or in their search for appropriate 
employment by providing a responsive transcript 
senice. Requests for transcripts must include 
the student's written signature and should be 
directed to the Office of the Registrar. This 
office prepares transcripts twice a week. There 
is no charge for this service unless special 
handling is required. The College reserves the 
right to deny a student's request for a transcript 
when there is a debt or obligation owed to the 
College or when there is an unresolved 
disciplinaiy or honor code action pending 
against the student. 

WITHDRAWAL, LEAVE OF ABSENCE, AND 
READMISSION 

Students may withdraw from the College for 
medical or personal reasons if they anticipate an 
absence of more than one semester. Students 
who withdraw voluntarily should arrange for an 
exit interview with a member of the Office of 
Academic Advising prior to lea\ing the College. 



Students who wish to take a semester off for 
medical or personal reasons may request a one- 
semester Leave of Absence. A Leave of Absence 
for personal reasons must be approved by the 
Academic Standing Committee. Students should 
contact the Office of Academic Advising for 
information and application forms. 

A student whose physical or mental health is 
too impaired to complete all courses during a 
semester may seek a medical \vithdrawal from 
some courses and finish the semester with less 
than a regular full load, may take a full 
withdrawal from the College, or may be granted 
a Leave of Absence. The dean of Academic 
Advising oversees these requests, and students 
should confer with a dean in the Office of 
Academic Advising in developing them. 
Students whose requests for medical withdrawal 
or leave are approved will be granted grades of 
"W" for courses from which they are 
withdrawing. 

All requests for medical withdrawal or leave 
require the recommendation of the College's 
Health or Coimseling care providers, hi 
addition, before a student who has been 
granted a partial or full medical withdrawal or 
leave returns to full-time study, the College's 
health care providers must be .satisfied, through 
comnuniication with the student's attending 
physician, psychiatrist, or therapist, that the 
student is ready to resume a full academic 
program by the designated time for return. If, 
based on medical considerations, there is reason 
to limit a student's comse load or physical 
activity, a recommendation for such should be 
noted in the commimications to the College's 
health care providers from the student's 
attending physician, psychiatrist, or 
psychologist. A personal interview with a 
member of the College's health care providers 
may also be required. 

Students who have been granted a Leave of 
Absence should notify the Office of Academic 
Advising of their desire to return by November 
1 for the spring semester and by June 1 for the 
fall semester. 



Conditions for applying for readmission after 
withdrawal are set out in the letter sent to 
students establishing their withdrawal. 
Statements of these conditions, as well as forms 
for those seeking readmission, are available 
from the Office of Academic Advising. 
Normally, application and all supporting 
materials should be submitted to the Office of 
Academic Advising for review by the Academic 
Standing Committee by November 1 for the 
spring semester and by Jime 1 for the fall 
semester. 

Required Withdrawal for Academic or 
Disciplinary Reasons 

Students who are suspended for academic 
reasons normally are not eligible to return imtil 
one academic year has elapsed. Students who 
are suspended for disciplinary reasons are 
eligible to apply for readmission at the end of 
the time period specified in the suspension. 
The conditions for applying for readmission 
after suspension are set out in the letter sent to 
the student establishing the required 
suspension. Statements of these conditions, as 
well as forms for those seeking readmission, art 
available from the Office of Academic Advising 
Applications should ordinarily be submitted b\ 
April 15 for the fall semester or by November 15 
for the spring semester. Students who have been 
suspended from the College for academic 
reasons for a second time are not eligible for 
readmission. 

Financial Aid Upon Readmission 

Students who have withdrawn, have been 
suspended, or have taken a Leave of Absence 
and who desire Financial Aid upon their return 
must complete all financial aid applications by 
the normal financial aid deadlines. 

Academic Status Upon Return or Readmission 

Students who withdraw or take a Leave of 
Absence will retiun to the College with the same 
academic standing status as when they left — 
except those who have been suspended for 
academic reasons, who will return on academic 
probation. 



< 



Academic Achievement 



GRADUATION HONORS AND COMMENCEMENT 



T 



he College aivards the folloiuing honors to members of the graduating class. These senior honors 
are intended for students with four years of residence at Gettysburg College; grade point average 
computations are based on four years' performance. 



• Valedictorian — to the senior with the highest 
accumulative average. 

• Salutatorian — to the senior with the second 
highest accumulative average. 

• Summa Cimi Laude — to those seniors who 
have an accumulative average of 3.75 or higher. 

• Magna Cum Laude — to those seniors who 
have an accumulative average of 3.50 through 
3.74. 

• Ciun Laude — to those seniors who have an 
acciuTiulative average of 3.30 through 3.49. 

The Academic Standing Committee may grant 
the above honors to students with transfer 
credit if they have satisfied the conditions of the 
honor during at least two years in residence at 
Gettysburg College and have presented excellent 
transfer grades. To arrive at a decision, the 
Committee will factor in all grades earned at 
other institutions and dining off-campus study 
programs. 

hi addition to the above, departments may 
award Departmental Honors for graduating 
seniors based upon their academic performance 
in a major field of study. Departmental Honors 
are awarded to transfer students on the same 
terms as to other students, as computation for 
this award is not necessarily based on four years 
in residence at Gettysburg College. 

Participation in the May Commencement 
exercises shall be limited to those students who 
have completed all graduation requirements by 
that Commencement ceremony. 

DEANS' LISTS 

The names of those students who attain an 
average of 3.60 or higher for the semester are 
placed on the Deans' Honor List in recognition 
of their academic achievements. Also, those 
students who attain an average from 3.30 to 3.59 
arc placed on the Deans' Commendation List. 
To be eligible for these honors, students must 
take a full course load of at least four coiuses, 



with no more than one course taken under the 
S/U grading option during that semester 
(except for students taking the Education Term 
or participating in the Lutheran College 
Washington Semester program, who may take 
two units S/U). First-year students who attain an 
average of 3.00 to 3.29 are placed on a First-Year 
Recognition List for commendable academic 
performance in their first or second semester. 

PHI BETA KAPPA 

Phi Beta Kappa, founded in 1776, is the oldest 
Greek-letter society in America and exists to 
promote liberal learning, to recognize academic 
excellence, and to support and encourage 
scholars in their work. The Gettysburg College 
chapter was chartered in 1923 and is today one 
of 255 Phi Beta Kappa chapters in American 
colleges and universities, twenty of which are in 
Pennsylvania. The Gettysburg College chapter 
elects to membership aboiu five to ten percent 
of the senior class who have distinguished 
academic records and exhibit high moral 
character and intellectual curiosity. Election to 
Phi Beta Kappa is perhaps the most widely 
recognized academic distinction in American 
higher education. 

ALPHA LAMBDA DELTA 

Alpha Lambda Delta is a national society that 
honors academic excellence during a student's 
first year in college. It has 214 chapters 
throughout the nation. The purposes of Alpha 
Lambda Delta are to encourage superior 
academic achievement among students in their 
first year in college, to promote intelligent living 
and a continued high standard of learning, and 
to assist women and men in recognizing and 
developing meaningful goals for their roles in 
society. Alpha Lambda Delta membership is 
open to Gettysburg College students who attain 
a grade point average of 3.50 or higher during 
their first year. 



OTHER ACADEMIC HONORARY SOCIETIES 

The C^oUcge promotes excellence in the 
academic program by supporting the following 
honorary societies for students with outstanding 
academic records in a particular major or area 
of study- 
Alpha Kappa Delta: hiternational sociology 
honor society, open to students who have taken 
at least four courses in sociology and have a 
GPA of 3.2 or better in sociology and a 3.0 
overall GPA. 

Delta Phi Alpha: National honorary society that 
recognizes excellence in the study of German, 
provides incentives to higher scholarship, and 
promotes the study of the German language, 
literature, and civilization. 

Eta Sigma Phi: Classics honorary society for 
students who have taken at least two courses in 
the classic department with a B or better 
average and who are enrolled in an additional 
classics coiuse. 

Omecron Delta Epsilon: Honorary society for 
majors in economics with proven intellectual 
ciniosity and integrity, enthusiasm for the 
discipline, and with a minimimi of four coiuses 
in economics with an average of at least 3.0 in 
the major and overall. 

Phi Alpha Theta: Honorary society that 
recognizes academic achievement in history and 
that actively carries on dialogue about history 
related issues outside the classroom. 

Phi Sigma lota: Romance Languages honorary 
society, for juniors and senior majors in French 
and/or Spanish with at least a B average in the 
major and overall. 

Pi Lambda Sigma: National honorary society for 
majors in management, economics, and 
political science with at least five courses in their 
major with a GPA of 3.1 or better. 



Pi Sigma Alpha: Nu Psi chapter of the national 
political science honor society for junior and 
senior majors in political science. To qualify for 
membership, a student must meet the followini; 
criteria: a 3.0 grade point average overall, a 
3.2 grade point average in the major, 
completion of four courses in the major, and 
rank in the top third of his or her class. Student 
officers administer the organization and plan 
programs as well as social events. 

Psi Chi: Honorary society in psycholog)' that 
serves to advance the science of psychology; for 
students who have completed a minimum of 
three courses and are enrolled in their fourth 
and who have achieved an average of at least 
3.0 in the major and overall. 

Sigma Alpha lota: International society for 
women in music, advocating and encouraging 
excellence in scholarship, advancement of the 
ideals and aims of the Alma Mater, and adherin*.; 
to the highest standards of citizenship and 
democracy. 



4 



(bourses of Study 



Each year the registrar's office issues a listing of 
courses to be taught during the fall and spring 
semesters and the times they vsill be taught. 
Students should consult this annoimcement of 
courses to obtain the most ciurent information 
about course offerings, as the College does not 
c )ffer every course listed in the following pages 
lach year. 

Courses numbered 100-199 are usually at a 
beginning level. Intermediate courses are 
numbered 200-299. Courses numbered 
300-399 are at an upperclass level. Coinses 
numbered 400 and above are advanced 
seminars, internships, and individualized 
studies. 

Courses with two niunbers, e.g., Art 111,112, 
span two semesters. For courses separated by 
a hyphen, the first numbered course must be 
taken as a prerequisite for the second. Where 
the two numbers are separated by a comma, 
either of the semesters of the course may be 
taken independently of the other. 

LIBERAL ARTS CORE REQUIREMENTS 

Following is a listing of the courses that satisfy- 
each of the Liberal Arts Core requirements. For 
more information, refer to the department 
introductions and course listings on the 
following pages. 

Requirements and Courses That Fulfill 
the Requirements 

The Arts 



African American Studies 247; English 205; 
IDS 214, 267; Music 101-112, 141, 212, 213, 
214, or, with departmental permission, four 
semesters of applied music instruction with a 
capstone research project or paper. Theatre 
.Arts, all courses, except 214, 328, 329; Visual Arts, 
all coiuses. 

Hmnanities 



Mrican American Suidies 130, 217, 224, 230, 
233, 272, 331; Civil War Era Studies 205; 
Classical Studies, all 100- & 200-level courses 
(not Greek or Latin language courses); all 
French, German, Greek, Japanese, Latin, and 
Spanish literature and civilization courses. 
English, all courses, exceptY.\\^^ 101, 201, 203, 
205, 209, 300-309; History, all courses; IDS 103, 
104, 161, 211, 223, 229, 239, 241, 243, 244, 246, 



247, 249, 260, 272; Italian 222, 240; Japanese 
Studies 238, 247, 250, 265; Latin American 
Studies 140, 220-229, 261; Philosophy, all 
courses except Phil 103 and 211; Religion, all 
courses; Theatre Arts 214, 328, 329; Women's 
Studies 216, 217, 219, 220, 221, 251. 

Natural Sciences 



All 100-level coiuses in astronomy, biology, 
chemistry, environmental studies, and physics. 

Social Sciences 



African American Studies 245, 265; 
Anthropology, all courses, except 300-levcl 
methods course; Economics 103, 104, 211-215; 
Japanese Studies 150; Latin American Studies 
262, 267; Political Science, all courses, except 
Pol 215; Psychology, all 100- & 200-level courses, 
except Psych 205; Sociology', all courses at the 
100- or 200-level; Spanish 330, 331; Women's 
Studies 222, 226. 

Foreign Language 

French 202; German 202, 204; Greek 202; 
Italian 202;Japanese 202; Latin 202; Spanish 
202, 204. 

Quantitative Reasoning 

Biolog) 260; Compiuer Science 103, 111; 
Economics 241; HES 332, 342; Mathematics, all 
courses; Philosophy 211; PoHdcal Science 215; 
Psychology 205; Sociology 303. 

Writing Proficiency^ 

Engli-sh 101. 

Non-Western Culture 

African American Studies 130, 230, 233, 272, 
331; Anthropology, 103, 220, 228, 232, 234-237. 
301; Economics 212, 213, 250, 253; English 355; 
Histor)' 104, 221-224, 271, 272, 346, 373; IDS 
229, 239, 268; Japanese Studies 150, 238, 247, 
250, 265; Music 102, 112, 212; Philosophy 223, 
240; Political Science 270, 271, 362, 363; 
Religion 241, 244, 248, 249, 251, 252, 254, 256, 
270, 271, 340, 352; Visual Arts 131, 227, 228, 
233; Women's Studies 213, 219, 226. 

Health & Exercise Sciences 
Any HES quarter course. 



FIRST-YEAR SEMINARS 



First-Year Seminars are an array of specially 
designed courses offered only to first-year 
students. Participation in these seminars is not 
required, nor is enrollment in them guaranteed. 
All seminars have small enrollment, focus on a 
special or narrow topic, emphasize active and 
collaborative learning, and are usually conducted 
in a residential college setting. They may fulfill a 
general education requirement; sei"ve as an 
alternative introduction to the methods and 
problems of a discipline and count toward a 
major; or be an interdisciplinary elective. While 
the focus of each seminar is different, all 
seminars require students to analyze and discuss 
course content. Among the skills taught are 
writing, speaking, research methods, and 
quantitative reasoning. 

Instructors from a wide variety of disciplines 
teach First-Year Seminars in sections of no more 
than 16 students each. Most First-Year Seminars 
are offered in the fall semester. 

AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDIES 

Mwangi lua Githinji, Coordinator 

Overview 

African American studies is the systematic study 
of African life — both diasporan and continental. 
As a structured discipline, African American 
studies focuses on the myriad expressions of 
African cultures, incorporating several 
fimdamental paradigms and methodological 
approaches that inform its inquir)' into the 
history and contemporary dimensions of .African 
traditions. 

The objective of the African American Studies 
Program is to contribute to the intellectual 
depth and breadth of a well-rounded liberal arts 
education. It endeavors to provide a solid 
grounding in alternative philosophical traditions 
— an essential orientation in an increasingly 
globalized world. The African American Studies 
Program seeks to familiarize students with 
alternative epistemological approaches, theories, 
and paradigms that better conceptualize, explain, 
and incorporate the contemporary^ interests and 
concerns of the majority of the world's peoples 
and their societies. African American studies 
provides a more profound understanding of the 
social realities, experiences, and continuing 
contributions to human civilization of the 
peoples of African descent and heritage. 



The African American Studies Program 
emphasizes the social sciences and humanities, 
and may include a range of courses, as well as 
opportunities for independent and off-campus 
study in Africa. 

Requirements and Recommendations 
Special Major in African American Studies 

Students intending to piusue a special major 
in African American studies must submit a 
proposal for their individual plan of study to 
African American Studies and the Committee 
on Interdisciplinary Studies. The proposed 
program must be an integrated plan of study 
that incorporates course work from a minimum 
of two departments or fields. A special major 
must include a total of ten to twelve courses, 
no fewer than eight of which must be above tin- 
100-level; three or more coiuses at the 300-level 
or above; and a 400-level individualized study 
course, which is normally taken during the 
senior year. Students should consult \vdth the 
coordinator in the first or second year of 
studies. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

A\S 130, 217, 224, 230, 233, and 331 fulfill the 
Liberal Arts Core requirement in humanities. 
AAS 247 satisfies the Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in the arts. AAS 245, 265, and 266 
fulfill the liberal arts requirement in social 
sciences. AAS 130, 230, 233, and 331 fulfill the 
non-Western culture requirement. 

African American Studies Minor 

Students wishing to minor in the program are 
required to complete six courses: AAS 130, 
AAS 331, an AAS Indi\idualized Study coiuse, 
and three other core-affiliated courses. Students 
wishing to minor in African American studies 
should consult with the coordinator. 

CORE COURSES 

130 Introduction to African American Studies 

Introduction to Airican .\jnerican experiences 
with an interdisciplinai")' approach and 
attention to the broad context of the African 
Diaspora and the influence of African world 
views and cultures. Students consider the 
range of responses by African Americans at the 
intellectual, cultural, political, and social levels. 
Ms. Barnes, Mr. Chilli, Mr. Hancock, Ms. Reid 

217 Slavery and the Literary imagination Study 
of \arious forms of discourse on .\merican 
chattel slavery — emancipatoiT narratives written 
by ex-slaves; slave narratives recorded by WTA 



A 



I 



writers; socio-historical essays; neo-slave 
narrative written by contemporary novelists; 
poetry, ballads, spirituals and folklore. Students 
examine the experiences of the middle passage, 
(battel slavery, and emancipation, as described 
l)\ Mrican American writers. 
Ms. Barnes 

114 Religions of African Americans Examination 
of the religious traditions of black Americans 
from "slave religion" to the present. Course 
focuses on the religious beliefs of African 
Americans and the ways those beliefs have been 
used to develop strategies to achieve freedom 
and justice. Subjects covered include the 
influence of African religion, African American 
religious nationalism, Pentecostalism, spirituals 
and gospel music, and the Civil Rights 
movement. Offered in alternate years. 
Staff 

230 Introduction to African Studies Introduction 
to the study of the histoiT ^md culture of various 
regions and groups in Africa. Comse focuses 
on histoi")' and culture and how these have 
been portrayed from different intellectual 
perspectives. Topics include Mrican philo- 
sophical beliefs; an examination of the slave 
trade, the participants, and its impact; political 
traditions and systems in Africa; and economic 
systems and the impact of, and resistance to, 
imperialism. 
Mr. Mwangi 

233 Southern African: History, Conflict, and 
Change Introduction to a dynamic, yet conflict- 
ridden part of the African continent. Coiuse 
focuses on characteristics of the precolonial 
societies and the nature of their early contact 
with the European settlers in the seventeenth 
century, the triumph of the white immigrants 
over indigenous Africans, the emergence of 
South Africa as a regional economic power, and 
the social contradictions that have come to 
characterize what is now called the Republic of 
South Africa. A subject of special attention will 
be the internal and external opposition to racial 
oppression. 
Mr. CMteji 

245 Slavery in the Southern United States 

Study of slavery in the U.S. South, both as a 
sociocultural and an economic institution. 
Focus is on the origins of slavery and racism, 
mechanisms of enslavement, African American 
responses to slave status, unique burdens of the 



female slaves, and institutional structures of the 
slave community. Course examines several 
major controversies involving historical 
interpretation and plantation reality, as well as 
economic cost and benefits of the emancipation 
to the African Americans. 
Mr. Chiteji 

247 African American Traditional Music Study 
of the histoiy of African American musical 
traditions. Course begins with a brief siuvey of 
African antecedents and covers both spirituals 
and secular music of the slavery period, work 
songs, ballads, blues, ragdme and jazz, gospel 
music, rhythm and blues, and beginnings of 
rock 'n roll. Primary foctis is on musical 
elements of these tradidons, their meaning in a 
cultural context, the ways in which this music 
differs from white music and reflects an 
Afrocentric consciousness, and the influence 
this music has had on American music. 
Previous musical knowledge is not required. 
Mr Winans 

250-260 Topics in African American Studies 

Rigorous, detailed examination of the 
philosophical and intellectual traditions that 
shape a common social heritage shared by 
Africans and African Ameiicans. Course assumes 
a cultural perspective toward human organization 
to imderstand the social dimensions of the 
historical and contemporary ordering and 
governance of African life by systems of 
religious, economic, and educational thought. 
Staff 

265 African American Social Movements Study 
of political movements that have developed 
within African American commimities of the 
U.S., and, in some instances, spread throughout 
the African dia.spora. Students examine such 
movements from the colonial era through the 
twentieth century in an effort to trace both 
change and continuities in thought and 
methods of action. 
Mr. Chitefi 

167 Race, Gender, and the Law Study of the 
manner in which African Americans, other 
people of color, and women in the United States 
have historically worked, individually and 
through various representative organizations, to 
gain rights and protections under the law. U.S. 
Supreme Court decisions in the areas of consti- 
tutional law, cixdl rights law, and criminal law are 
examined as well as feminist legal theor)- and 



critical race theory. Despite substantial gains 
since the civil rights movement, the law is not a 
static entit)'; the freedoms that Americans cur- 
rently enjoy are continually threatened by new 
law arising from judicial decision or statute. 
Ms. Reid 

272 Making of the African Diaspora in the 
Americas Study of the making of the African 
Diaspora during the centuries of the slave trade 
and slavery and the experiences of men and 
women in the African Diaspora. 
Mr. Chiteji 

33 1 African and African American Intellectual 
History Exploration of evolution, practice, and 
Hnks in black thought. Students engage in 
extensive analysis and discussion of oral 
traditions and primary writings, from Sundiata 
to Queen Latifah, and Frederick Douglass to 
Angela Davis. No prerequisite. 
Ms. Barnes, Mr Chiteji, Mr Hancock 

401 African American Studies Seminar 

Topics vary each year 

Ms. Barnes, Mr Chiteji, Mr Mwangi, Mr Hancock 

Independent Study Individual tutorial, research 
project, or internship. Requires permission of 
an instructor who will supervise the project. 
Instructor can supply a copy of a statement of 
departmental policy regarding grading and 
major credit for different types of projects. 
Either semester 
Staff 

Cross-Listed Courses 

(See appropriate departmental listings for 
descriptions of the following courses.) 

Eng 235 Survey of African American Literature 
Eng 349 Contemporary African American 

Women Writers 
Eng 353 Discourses of Resistance 
Hist 238 African American Histoiy: A Sui-vey 
Hist 27 i African Histoiy and Society to 

the 1800s 
Hist 272 Mrican Histoi7 and Society from 

the 1800s 
Hist 346 Slaveiy Rebellion, and Emancipation 

in the Atlantic World 
Rel 225 Religion in the Civil Rights Movement 
Rel 256 Introduction to African Religion 



Affiliated Courses 
Econ 250 Economic Development 
Econ 253 Introduction to Political Economy 

and the African Diaspora 
Hist 236 Urbanism in American History 
IDS 235 Introduction to African Literature 
Mus 1 02 World Music Survey 
Mus 110 Survey of Jazz 
Pol Sci 363 Politics of the Development Areas 

BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 

Kazuo Hiraizumi and Joseph Grzybowski, Coordinators 

Biochemistry and molecular biology is an 
interdisciplinary program that studies the biolog\ 
and chemistry of the structures and chemical 
reactions within cells by using contemporary 
methods of biochemical analysis, recombinant 
DNA technology, and molecular biology. 

Students may earn a B.S. degree in biochemistrv 
and molecular biology by completing the 
following courses: 

Biology 1 1 1 Introductory Biology 
Biology 1 12 Form and Function in Living 

Organisms 
Biology 2 1 1 Genetics 
Biology 212 Cell Biology 
Biology 351 Molecular Genetics 
Chemistry 107 Clhemical Structure and 

Bonding 
Chemistry 108 Chemical Reactivity 
Chemistry 203 Organic Chemistry 
Chemistry 204 Organic Chemistry 
Chemistry 305 Physical Chemistry 
Chemistry 317 Instrumental Analysis 
Chemistry 333 Biochemistry 
Chemistry (or Biology) 334 Biochemistry 
Mathematics 1 1 1 Calculus I 
Mathematics 1 12 Calculus II 
Physics 1 1 1 Mechanics and Heat 
Physics 1 1 2 Waves, Electricity, and Magnetism 
Biology 460 or Chemistry 460 Individualized 

Study/ Research 

The program is directed by a Biochemistry and 
Molecular Biology Committee (BMBC), consisting 
of biology and chemistry faculty members. 
Individualized Study projects (Biology 460, 
Biology 461, Chemistry 460, or Chemistry 465) 
may be directed by any member of the BMBC. 
Otherwise, the project requires the approval of 
the BMBC. 



< 



BIOLOGY 




hojessors Cavaliere, Hendrix, Mikesell, and Sorensen 
Associate Professors Delesalle, Etheridge, Fong, 

Hiraizumi (Chairperson), Ja7nes, and 
J. Winkelmann 
Assistant Professor Urcuyo 
Laboratory Instructors Castle, Hulsether, Price, Reese, 

H. Winkelmann, and Zeman 

Overview 

Courses in the department are designed to 
provide a foundation in basic biological 
concepts and principles, and the backgroiuid 
necessary for graduate study in biology, forestry, 
medicine, veterinary medicine, dentistry, 
optometry, and other professional fields. Most 
coiuses in the department include laboratory' 
work. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The biolog)' department offers both a Bachelor 
of Arts (B.A.) and a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) 
degree for the major. 

B.A. Requirements: A minimum of eight biology 
courses, including Biology 111, 112, 211, and 
212, are required of all majors, hiternships are 
excluded. Beyond these four, no specific biology 
courses are required. Every program must 
include at least one course from each of two 
areas: plant biology (Biology 200, 202, 204, 217, 
or 218) and animal biolog>' (Biology 220, 223, 
224, 225, 227, 307, or 340). No single course 
may satisfy more than one area. Biologv' 111 
(or 101) and 112 are prerequisites for all upper- 
level biolog)' courses. Enrollment in Biology 112 
requires a grade of C or better in Biology 101 or 
Biology 111. Continuadon in the biology major 
requires a grade of C or better in Biology 112. 

Chemistry 107 and 108 are required of all 
majors. It is strongly suggested, but not 
mandatoiy that Chemistry 107 and 108 be 
taken in the first year. Physics 103 and 104 (or 
Physics 1 1 1 and 1 12), and Math 1 1 1 (or Math 
105 and 106) are also required. 

B.S. Requirements: In addition to the courses 
noted above, the B.S. degree requires 
Individualized Study (Biology 460 or 461) and 
Chemistry 203 and 204. 

A minor in biology includes Biology 111 (or 
101), 112, and any other four courses in the 
department (provided that all prerequisites are 
met) that would count toward the major. 

All coiuses taken to satisfy the requirements for 
the B.A. or B.S. degree or for the minor must be 
taken using the A-F grading system. 



Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

The Liberal Arts Core reciuirement in the 
natural sciences may be satisfied by Biolog)' 101 
(or HI), Biology 102 (or 112), or Biology 103. 

Special Facilities 

Two greenhouses, herbarium, environmental 
chambers, animal quarters, aquarium room, 
electron microscopy laboratorv' housing both 
scanning and transmission electron microscopes, 
research laboratories, and computing facility. 

Special Programs 

Dual-degree programs in foresti^ and 
environmental studies with Duke University, 
nursing with the Johns Hopkins University, and 
optometi7 with Pennsylvania College of 
Optometry. Cooperative programs in marine 
biology with Duke University and the Bermuda 
Biological Station for Research. 

Neuroscience Minor 

Neuroscience is an interdisciplinary study of 
the relationship between the brain, the mind, 
and behavior. Students majoring in biology may 
want to consider pursuing a minor in neuro- 
science. In addition to preparing students for 
graduate study specifically in neuroscience, 
the minor in neuroscience affords students 
the proper tools for graduate study in other 
areas of biology as well as medical school. 
For further information regarding the minor 
and its requirements and electives, see the 
Nueroscience secdon of the course cadogue. 

101 Molecules, Cells, and Genes Introduction to 
cell biology, bioenergedcs, gene expression, and 
patterns of inheritance with a focus on 
important topical issues. Laboratory emphasizes 
the experimental natiue of biological 
investigadon. Designed (along with Biology 102 
or 103) for completion of the Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in the natural sciences. Students 
not majoring in biology but who are interested 
in the health professions may, with a grade of C 
or better in Biolog)' 101, enroll in Biolog)' 1 12. 
Three class hours and laboratory. 

Staff 

102 Contemporary Topics in Biology: The 
Biological Basis of Disease Designed for 
nonscience majors. Course covers selected 
biological topics related to human diseases and 
focuses on contemporaiy problems and their 
possible solutions. Three class hours and 
laboratoiy Prereqimite: ^io\o^' 1 01. 

Staff 



103 Contemporary Topics in Biology: Evolution 
of Life Designed for nonscience majors. 
Course covers selected biological topics related 
to the evolution of life and human evolution. 
Three class hours and laboratoiy Credit cannot 
be received for both this course and Biology 111. 
Staff 

1 1 1 Introductory Biology: introduction to 
Ecology and Evolution Designed to introduce 
students to general biological principles, with a 
focus on ecolog) and evolution. Topics include 
adaptation, nutrient cycling and energy flow, 
population growth and species interactions, 
Mendelian and population genetics, speciation, 
and the histoi7 of life. Laboratory emphasizes 
the experimental nature of biological 
investigation. Designed for science majors-with a 
high school background in biology, chemistry, 
and mathematics. Thiee class hours and 
laboratoiT, plus one hour discusssion. 

Staff 

1 12 Form and Function in Living Organisms 

Designed for science majors. Fiuictional design 
of plants and animals is emphasized. Aspects of 
evolution, phylogeny, and ecology are also 
covered. Three class hours and laboratory. 
Prerequisite: ^\o\o^ 111 (or 101). 
Staff 

200 Physiology of Plant Adaptations Major 
structural s\siems, physiological processes, and 
adaptations of plants to their enviroiunent. 
Topics include growth regulatory substances, 
photoperiodic responses, water balance, 
nutrition, plant defense mechanisms, and the 
responses of plants to environmental changes. 
Three hours lecture. 
Mr. Cavaliere 

202 Structural Plant Development <\natomical 
approach to the study of higher plant structures. 
The origin and differentiation of tissues and 
organs, environmental aspects of development, 
and plant anomalies are studied. Six hours in 
class-laboratoiy work. 
Mr Mikesell 

204 Biology of Flowering Plants Identification, 
classification, structural diversity, ecology, and 
evolutionaiy relationships of the angiosperms. 
Course includes field work for collection and 
identification of local flora. Three class hours 
and laboratory-field work. Alternate years. 
Ms. Delesalle 



205 Ecology Principles of ecology, with emphasis 
on three levels of the biological hierarchy — 
organisms, populations, and communities — thai 
are needed to understand the factors that 
determine the abundance and distribution of 
any species. Course includes a number of field 
trips. Three class hours and laboraton-field 
work. Credit cannot be received for both this 
course and Environmental Studies 211. Students 
can substitute Environmental Studies 211 for 
Biology 205. 
Ms. DelfsaUe 

21 1 Genetics Overview of principles of genetics. 
Topics include chemical nature of genes, 
Mendelian and non-Mendelian inheritance, 
gene regulation, genetic engineering, molecular 
evolution, and population genetics. Three 
class hours and laboratory. Prerequisite: Chemistry 
107, 108. 
Mr. Hiraizumi 

1 1 2 Cell Biology Structure and function of 
eukaryotic cells. Protein structure, enzyme 
function, membrane structure and transport, 
protein sorting, energy transduction by 
mitochondria and chloroplasts, chromosome 
structure, cell division and cell-cycle control, 
cell communication, cell motility, and the 
behavior of selected differentiated cells. Three 
class hours and laboratory. Prerequisite: 
Chemistry 

107, 108, and Biology 211. 
Mr Sorensen 

1 1 5 Electron Microscopy Introduction to basic 
theory and practice of transmission and 
scanning electron microscopy, techniques of 
tissue preparation, and introduction to inter- 
pretation of animal and plant ultrastructure. 
Each student is required to complete an 
independent project. Three hours in class- 
laboratoiy work. Prerequisite: Permission of 
instructor. 
Mr. Cavaliere and Mr Hendrix 

2 1 7 An Evolutionary Survey of the Plant 
Kingdom Synopsis of embiyo-producing plants, 
primarily liverworts, mosses, fern allies, ferns, 
and seed plants. Emphasis is on comparative 
morphology of vegetative and reproductive 
characters, unique features, and evolutionary 
trends in plants. Six hours in class-laboratory 
work. 
Mr. Mikesell 



2 1 8 Biology of Algae and Fungi Study of algae 
(phycolog)') and fungi (mycology) in aquatic and 
terrestrial ecosystems with emphasis on their 
role in primary production and decomposition. 
Topics include identification, morphology, 
reproduction, ecolog)', and phylogeny of these 
organisms. C-ulture techniques and principles of 
plant pathol()g\' and medical mycology are also 
considered. Six hours in class-laboratoiT work. 
Ah: Caxialiere 

223 Parasitology hitroduction to the general 
principles of parasitism, with emphasis on the 
epidemiology, taxonomy, morphology, and 
physiology of the major groups of protozoan, 
helminth, and arthropod parasites of humans 
and other animals. Three class hours and 
laboratory. 

Mr. Hendrix 

224 Vertebrate Zoology Introduction to 
s)stematics, distribution, reproduction, and 
population dynamics of vertebrates. Field and 
laboratory emphasis on natural history, 
collection, and identification. Optional trip to 
North Carolina. Six hours in class, laborator)', 
and field work. 

Mr. Winkelmann 

225 Animal Behavior Study of animal behavior 
through readings, discussions, and field and 
laborator)' observations. A wide range of 
phenomena are considered, from simple reflex 
responses to complex social organizations. Role 
of behavioral adaptations in the biology of 
animal species is emphasized. Three class hours 
and laboratory. 

Mr. Winkelmann 

in Invertebrate Zoology Biolog)' of the major 
meiazuan invertebrate groups, with emphasis on 
adaptive morphology and physiolog)' and on 
evolution. Six hours in class-laboratory work. 
Mr. hong 

230 Microbiology Biology of viruses and bacteria, 
with emphasis on morphology, metabolism, 
taxonomy, reproduction, and ecology. 
Laboratoi-y includes isolation, cultiue, 
euNTronmental influences, identification, and 
biochemical characterization of bacteria and 
their viruses. Three class hours and laboratory. 
Mr. Hendrix 

260 Biostatistics Designed for students in 
biolog) who j)hui to engage in individualized 
study and/or research. Topics include the 



nature of biological data and the statisucal 
procedures to analyze them. Special attention 
given to experimental design and hypothesis 
testing. Three class hours. Credit cannot be 
received for both this course and Mathematics 
107, Psychology 205, or Economics 241. 
Mr. Hiraizumi 

306 Marine Ecology .\nalysis of the ecology of 
marine systems. The open ocean, estuaries, salt 
marshes, beaches, mud and sand flats, seagrass 
beds, rocky shores, coral reefs, and deep sea 
are examined. Problems of pollution, beach 
erosion, and the management of declining 
fisheries is also presented. Quantitative field 
work in a variety of coastal habitats is conducted 
on a required field trip to Duke University 
Marine Laboratory and the Outer Banks barrier 
island chain. Three class hours and laboratory- 
field work. Prerequisite: Environmental Studies 
211 or Biology 205. Alternate years. Course is 
cross-listed as Environmental Studies 306. 

Mr. Coynmito 

307 Limnology Study of the physical, chemical, 
and biological characteristics of inland waters. 
Topics include nutrient cycling, biological 
interactions, and effects of human activities. 
Course includes individual research projects 
and a number of field trips. Six hours in class, 
laboratory, and field work. Prerequisite: ]\inior or 
senior standing. 

Mr. Fans; 

314 Evolution Study of the transformation and 
diversification of populations through time. 
Topics include history of life, adaptation, 
selection and population genetics, speciation 
and extinction, evolutionary innovations, and 
patterns of diversit)'. Three class hours and 
laboratory. Prerequisite: Biolog)' 211. Alternate 
years. 
Ms. Delesalle 

320 Developmental Biology Survey of the 
phenomena and principles of animal 
development. Major attention is given to the 
genetic and cellular mechanisms that control 
cell differentiation and the developinent of form 
in several model organisms. Vertebrates are 
emphasized in the study of organ development. 
Six hours in class-laborator)' work. Alternate 
years. Prerequisites: Biology 211 and 212. 
Mr. Sorensen 



332 Immunobiology Introduction to the vertebrate 
immiuie system at the molecular, cellular, and 
organismal levels. Antibody structure, antigen- 
antibody interaction, the genetics of antibody 
diversity, the immune response, and the bases 
of self/non-self discrimination are emphasized. 
Three class hours. Prerequisites: Biology 211, 212. 
Alternate years. 
Mr. Sorensen 

334 Biochemistry Detailed examination of 
primary and secondary metabolic pathways in 
microbes, plants, and animals. Application to 
metabolic disorders, infections, and medical 
advances in the treatment of the above 
conditions are incorporated into course. 
Laboratory work includes an independent 
research project. Prerequisite: Biology 212. 
Course is cross-listed as Chemistry 334. 
Ms. Holland 

340 Comparative Animal Physiology 

Regulation of basic physiological processes in 
animals. Unifying principles are studied tising a 
comparative approach. Lectiue and laboratory 
are combined in two three-hour sessions. 
Prerequisite: Biology 212. 
Ms. Etheridge 

351 Molecular Genetics Study of the basic 
mechanisms of information storage and 
retrieval from DNA and RNA. Topics include 
genome organization and the regulation of 
gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; 
DNA replication and repair; molecular genetics 
of cancer and human-inherited disorders; and 
recombinant DNA technology. Three class hours 
and laboratoiy Prerequisite: Biology 211, 212. 
Mr. James 

453 Individualized Study: Tutorial Independent 
investigation t)f a topic of special interest, 
directed by a faculty member familiar with the 
general field of study. May be used as preparation 
for enrollment in Biology 460. Prerequisite: 
Approval of directing faculty member. 
Staff 

460 Individualized Study: Research Independent 
in\estigation of a topic of special interest, 
normally including both literattire and 
laboratoi7 research. Directed by a faculty 
member familiar with the general field of study. 
Results of investigation are presented to the 
department. Open to jimiors and seniors. A 
grade of B- or higher must be earned to receive 
a B.S. degree. A single Individualized Study may 
be used toward one of the eight courses 



required for the B.A. degree. Prerequisite: 
Approval of both the directing faculty member 
and department. 

Staff 

473 Individualized Study: Internship 

Independent internship experience under the 
direct supervision of professional personnel in a 
variety of biology-related areas. Internship may 
be arranged by the department or the student. 
Must combine practical work experience with 
an academic dimension. Library research paper 
on a subject related to the experience is required. 
Prerequisite: Approval of both supei-visor and 
department. Contact the Center for Career 
Development for application and further 
assistance. 
Mr Cavaliei-e 

CHEMISTRY 

Professors Crzyhowski (Chairperson), Jameson, and 

Parker 
Associate Professor Deckman 
Assistant Professors D. MacFarland and Wedlock 
Laboratory Instructors Barker, Gregory, and 

K. MacFarland 

Overview 

Each coiuse offered by the department proxides 
an opportunity for a concentrated study of the 
various principles of contemporary chemical 
knowledge. From the introdtictoiy to the 
advanced courses, application is made of basic 
theories and methods of chemical investigation. 
Courses offered by the department utilize 
lecttires, disctissions, library work, on-line 
computer literature searching, computer- 
assisted instructional programs, videotapes, and 
laboratory investigations in order to emphasize 
the concepts that tmderlie the topics covered. 
Each course, as well as the major itself, is 
designed for the cinious and interested sttideni. 

The chemistry major is approved by the 
American Chemical Society, as is an additional 
major in chemistry/biochemistry. Paths taken 
by majors after graduation are varied; many 
enter graduate work in chemistry or 
biochemistry. Graduates also enter medical and 
dental schools, industrial and government 
research laboratories, secondary school teaching, 
and numerous other fields. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The eight basic courses required for the 
Bachelor of Aits degree are Chemistn 107, 108, 
203, 204, 221, 305, 306, and 317. Students who 
complete these eight basic courses along with 



( :hemistry 373, Research (Chemistry 460 or 
Ki5), and one additional chemistry course may 
choose to receive a Bachelor of Science degree. 
An interdisciplinary major is offered in 
BiochemistiT and Molecular Biolog)'; the 
complete description is listed under that title. 
Students who wish to receive a degree 
accredited by the .\merican Chemical Society 
must complete the Bachelor of Science degree 
and in the process take Chemistry 390 and 
either Chemistry 333 or 334. Physics 111 and 
112 and Mathematics through 211 are required 
of all chemistry majors. 

Additional courses in mathematics (212), 
biology, and physics may be recommended for 
those contemplating graduate study in certain 
areas. Junior and senior majors are expected to 
join with staff members in a seminar series that 
is designed to provide an opportunity for 
discussion of student initiated research and 
cinrent developments in chemistry. 

Approved safety goggles/ glasses must be worn 
at all times in all laboratories. Prescription 
glasses may be worn under safety goggles. 

For the prospective secondary school teacher, 
the department cooperates in offering Education 
304, Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of 
SecondaiT Chemistry. Introductory biolog)' is 
required for certification. 

Individualized study and independeiu laboratoiy 
work are available in connection with some 
courses. During the junior or senior year, majors 
may elect Chemistry 460, a research course in 
which a student can utilize his or her knowledge 
and creativity intensively. Summer research, 
Chemistry 465, is encouraged strongly and is 
elected by many majors. 

The optional minor shall consist of Chemistry 
107 and 108, plus four other chemistry courses 
at the 200 level or above. Individualized Study 
courses may not be counted toward the optional 
minor. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

The following combinations of chemistr)' 
courses may be used to satisfy the Liberal Arts 
Core requirement in the natural sciences: either 
101, 107, or 111, followed by 102, 108, or 112. 
(Course credit will not be given for more than 
two introductoi7 chemistry courses. Chemistry 
101-102 and 111-112 are inactive.) 



Special Facilities and Programs 

The Science Center, which was dedicated in 
2002, houses the chemistry and biochemistry 
classrooms and laboratories. The department's 
major instrumentation includes a 400 mHz 
Fourier transform NMR spectrometer, a Fourier 
transform infrared spectrometer, a diode array 
UV-visible spectrometer, a Nd:YAG laser 
spectrometer, a gas chromatograph/mass 
spectrometer, a high-performance liquid 
chromatograph with diode array detector, a 
high-speed centrifuge, an automatic 
polarimeter, and an inert atmosphere glove box. 

Chemistry majors receive significant hands-on 
experience with all major instrumentation 
beginning in the sophomore year. Numerous 
lectures and seminars are sponsored by the 
department and the chemistry club, the 
Sceptical Chvmists. These involve resource 
persons from universities, industries, 
government agencies, and professional schools, 
and are designed to complement the curricular 
activities of the department. An annual 
highlight is a three-day visit by an outstanding 
scholar in the field of chemistry. The program is 
supported by The Musselman Endowment for 
Visiting Scientists. Many qualified upperclass 
students — chemistry majors and others — gain 
valuable experience from .serving as laboratorv- 
assistants and tutors. 

107 Chemical Structure and Bonding Study of 
fundamental chemical principles focusing on 
properties of matter, theories of chemical 
bonding, atomic and molecular structure, and 
chemical reactions. Laboratory experiments are 
designed to offer a hands-on familiarity with the 
principles discussed in the lectures. Computers 
are used in the labs for computational modeling 
as well as data analysis. Three lecture hours and 
one laboratory. 

Staff 

1 08 Chemical Reactivity Principles covered in 
Chemisuy 107 are applied to broader topics such 
as kinetics, equilibrium, electrochemistry, and 
thermodynamics, witli an emphasis on 
interdisciplinar)' topics. Laboratory work is 
designed to illusUate and complement materials 
discussed in class. Pmequisile: Chemistry 107 or 
111. Three lecture hours and one laboratoiy 
Staff 

203 Organic Chemistry Study of the fundamental 
concepts of the chemistiy of carbon compounds, 
with emphasis on molecular structure, reaction 
mechanisms, stereochemistry, and the application 



of spectroscopy to problems of identification. 
Preiequisite: Chemistry 108 or 1 12. Three lecture 
hours, one lab discussion hour, and one 
laboratory afternoon. 
Mr. MacFarland 

204 Organic Chemistry Study of the various classes 
of organic compounds, including substitutions 
in the aromatic nucleus, cyclic compounds, 
and natural products such as amino acids, 
carbohydrates and pepudes. Prerequisite: 
Chemistry 203. Three lecture hours, one lab 
discussion hour, and one laboratoiy afternoon. 
Mr. Jameson 

11 1 Chemical Applications of Spectroscopy 

Study of the theories and applications of 
infrared, IH and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, 
and mass spectroscopy are discussed in relation 
to the importance of these spectroscopic 
methods in the analysis of chemical systems. 
Scope and limitations of each ty|5e of spectroscopy 
are covered. Course work includes lectures, 
discussions, student oral presentations, and 
laboratory sessions. Lab periods involve use of 
spectrometers in the identification of organic 
compounds. Lecture work is supplemented by 
computer-assisted instructional programs. 
Prerequisite: Chemistry 203. 
Mr. Grz\bowski 

305 Physical Chemistry Study of the principles of 
statistical tliermod\namics and chemical kinetics 
as applied to the states of matter, chemical 
reactions and equilibria, and electrochemistry, 
using lectures, readings, problems, discussions, 
and laboratory exercises. Computers are used as 
a tool for solving problems and for tlie reduction 
of experimental data. Prerequisites: Chemistry 
108, Physics 112, mathematics through calculus 
(usually Math 211). Three lectine hours, one 
discussion hour, and one laboratory afternoon . 
Mr Wedlock 

306 Physical Chemistry Introduction to theories 
of quantum mechanics, spectroscopy, and 
molecular reaction dwamics and their 
application to chemical systems through the use 
of problems, lectures, readings, discussions, and 
laboratory investigations Prerequisite: Chemistr)' 
305. Three lecture hours, one discussion hour, 
and one laboratory afternoon. 

Mr Wedlock 

317 Instrumental Analysis Study of chemical 
analysis by use of modern instrimients. Topics 
include complex equilibria, electroanalytical 
methods, quantitative spectroscopy, 



chromatography, and Fourier transform 
methods. Analytical techniques \vill be studied 
from both a chemical and an instrumental poini 
of view. The laboratory stresses quantitative 
analytical procediues and includes an 
independent project. Prerequisite: Chemistiy 108 
Three lecture hours and one laboratory afternoon. 
Mr Grzyboxi'ski 

333 Biochemistry I Detailed study of the 
structure and function of macromolecules and 
macromolecular assemblies as they pertain to 
living organisms. Topics include the structure 
and chemistry of proteins; the mechanisms 
and kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions; 
and the structure, chemistry, and functions 

of carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and 
biological membranes. Classic and modern 
bioanalytical methods are emphasized. Pre- 
requisite: Chemistry 204. Three lecture hours 
and one laboratory afternoon. 
Ms. Deckman 

334 Biochemistry II Detailed sui-vey of the 
primary and secondary metabolic processes 
in living cells. Topics discussed include the 
overall organization of metabolic pathways, 
carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism, 
biological oxidation and reduction, and energ\ 
production. Special attention is given to 
regulation, hormone action, metabolic 
disorders and disease. Laboratory work includt s 
an independent research project. Prerequisite: 
Chem 333 or permission of the instructor. 
Three lecture hours and one laboratory 
afternoon. Course cross-listed as Biology 334. 
Ms. Deckman 

353 Advanced Organic Chemistry Study of 
synthetic, mechanistic, and theoretical concepis 
in organic chemistry. Particular emphasis is on 
the study of methods used to determine organic 
reaction mechanisms, stereospecific reactions, 
pericyclic reactions, and the design of multistep 
syntheses of complex molecules. Prerequisites: 
Chemistry 204 and 221. Three lecture hours. 
Mr. Janifson 

373 Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Study of 
valence bond, cnstal field, and molecular orbital 
theories; boron chemistry; organometallic 
compounds; structural, kinetic, and mechanistic 
smdies of coordination compounds. Group dieor\ 
and symmetry are applied to various systems. 
Prerequisite: Chemistr)' 305. Three lecture hours. 
Mr. Parker 



< 



390 Advanced Laboratory Techniques in 
Chemistry Designed to combine and expand 
upon the laboratory skills learned in the 
fundamental courses of the first two years. 
Numerous projects are pursued in organic and 
inorganic chemistry, utilizing a combination of 
libraiy skills (e.g., on-line computer searching), 
advanced laboratory skills (e.g. inert atmosphere 
U'chniques, modern separation methods, and 
advanced spectroscopic characterizations) , and 
scientific writing skills. Course prepares students 
for independent research in the senior year. 
Prerequisite: Chemistr)' 221. 
Mr. MacFarland 

460 Individualized Study Research Independent 
in\estigalion in an area of miuual interest to the 
student and faculty director. Project normally 
includes both a literature and a laboratory 
study. An oral report to staff and students and a 
final written thesis are required. A student 
wishing to enroll in this course should consult 
with the faculty director at least two weeks 
before the end of the seinester preceding the 
semester in which this course is to be taken. 
Prerequisites: Chemistiy 390 and/or permission 
of faculty director and approval by department. 
Open to jiuiior and senior chemistry majors. 
Offered both semesters. 
Staff 

465 Individualized Study Research (Summer) 

Funded ten-week independent investigation in 
an area of mutual interest to the student and 
research director. Project normally includes 
both a literature and a laboratory study. Oral 
reports to staff and students and a final written 
thesis are required. Students wishing to enroll 
should consult with a chemistry department 
faculty member early in the spring semester. 
Prerequisites: Chemistry 390 and/or permission 
of research director and approval by 
department. 
Staff 

CIVIL WAR ERA STUDIES 

Matt Galtman, Director 

Overview 

Supported by a grant from the Henry R. Luce 
Foundation, Civil War era studies is devoted to 
the establishment and administration of 
interdisciplinary academic programs on the 
Civil War era. The Office of Civil War Era 
Studies administers two programs: The Civil War 
Era Studies Minor and The Gettysburg Semester. 



The Civil War Era Studies Minor is an 

interdisciplinan' program concentrating on 
mid-nineteenth centuiT America and on the 
period's enduring importance for modern 
America. 

Minor Requirements: Six courses are required, 
including Civil War Era Studies 205 and 400. 
The remaining four courses may be selected 
from the CWTlS cross-listed elective courses. 
The four elective courses are subject to the 
following restrictions: The electives must be in 
at least two different departments. (IDS courses 
and electives with a CWES designation will be 
treated as separate departments.) No more than 
two elective courses can be from the student's 
major field of study; and no more than two 
electives may be taken at the 100 level. Students 
are allowed to fill one elective requirement with 
either an internship or an independent study 
course, subject to the normal College 
requirements. 

The Gettysburg Seinester is a semester-long 
immersion in Civil War era studies for visiting 
students from other campuses. Each fall 
participants in The Gettysburg Semester attend 
a two-course seminar taught by Professor 
Gallman, take Gettysburg College courses on 
the Ci\'il War era taught by faculty from various 
disciplines, attend numerous historic field trips 
and battlefield tours, and have the opportunity 
to work on independent projects or internships. 

Details on both Civil War era studies programs 
are available on the Gettysburg College Web site 
by selecting "Civil War" from Quick Links on the 
home page. 

Liberals Arts Core Requirements 

Civil War Era Studies 205 satisfies the Liberal 
Arts Core requirement in the humanities. 

CWES Minor Core Courses 
CWES 205 Introduction to the Civil War Era 
CWES 400 Special Topics in the Civil War Era 

CWES Cross-Listed Courses Elective Courses 

(See appropriate departmental listings for 
descriptions of the following courses.) 

FYS 183 First-Year Seminar: Gettysburg 
English 205 Introducdon to Creative Writing: 

CWES Section 
English 2 1 7 Slavery and the Literaiy 

Imagination 
English 359 American Literature of the 

C:i\il War Era 
History 245 Gender and the .\merican Civil War 



History 345 Civil War CLASSICS 

History 4 1 Senior Research Seminar: 

, , , . . , Professors Cahoon, Snively, and 
Abraliam Lmcoln -' . 

inciizir' ' rr> . .■ Zttbroiuski (Chairperson) 

IDS 216 visions ot Reconstruction ^. . . / ' ' 

ir\c T n Ti \ I- 1 x»r T-1 Visitins. Assistant Professor Leish 

IDS 217 Ihe .\merican Civil War on I-ilm '^ ' * 

Philosophy 105 Conteniporarv Moral Issues: Overview 

Nineteenth Century' Counterpoints Courses offered are designed to acquaint the 

Philosophy 340 American Philosophy student with the language, literature, history, 

205 Introduction to the Civil War Era ^"^ civilization of Greece and Rome-societies 

,.,••,- • » 1 ,• . .u /^- 1 TA7 that present a microcosm of human experience 

Interdisciplinary introduction to the Cml War ^, ' 

I ui lo'iA ioon\ ■ \ u- . Learning how the founders of Western 

era (roughly 1840-1880) in American history. ^ 

^ r- ,. r*u /^- 1 TA7 civilization dealt with such conflicts as the 

Course roctises on the causes of the C^ivil War, 

^, ., 1 u .u . u J aspirations of youth and the compromises of 

the war years themselves, both at home and on '^ ' " 

the battlefield, and Reconstruction. Also '"'^^'"^ ^^S^' "^^ ^•^''"^ "^ community and 

■ ^ A . A . . rj-1- individual rights, the ecstasy of love, and the 

introduces students to a range of disciplinary & ' / > 

I . .1 r^ 1 1A7 u , despair of loss can help us understand our own 

approaches to the Cml War era. History majors ^ . '^ 

t <t r-txTcc r,nz 17 , 3<« thoughts and emotions as we confront these aee- 
can count either CWES 205 or History 345 as a major ^ " 

old problems and pressures. 
course. "^ ' 

Mr Gallman Requirements and Recommendations 

274 Practicum in Archaeological Analysis ^^'"^ department offers majors in Greek, Latin. 

n • , , , 11 and classical studies. 

Practical learning experience in archaeological 

data analysis and research. Working with the Latin Major: 

staff of the Gettysburg National Military Park, c ■ t ^ u jt ^ ir>o/- i j- 

' '^ ' ' Seven coui-ses in Latin beyond Latm 102 (including 

students carry out labwork, including artifact t • <j,o\ j r i loi loo om <<ui 

^ ° Laun 312), and Classics 121, 122, 252, 400. 

processing and classification, data entry and 

research. Exact mix of activities varies from Greek Major: 

semester to semester. Prerequisite: Consent of Seven courses in Greek beyond Greek 102. and 

instructor and previous course work in Classics 121 122 251 400. 

archaeolog), history, or Civil War era studies. 

One-halJ credit course; may be repeated ivith consent of .!?f!^.^.!^?.f..'?f".^^^l^?Z^!!; 

instructor. Same as ANTH 274. Eleven courses (including Greek or Latin 

Ms. Hendon through at least the 202-level, and Classics 121, 

122, and 400). 

347 Women in Public: Gender and Cultural t i , ^. , . t • ■ 

_ , ^. • ^. .. . . , .^.^ .«„» In both Greek and Latin laneuaee coiuses, 201 

Transformation in the United States, 1840-1900 , „„„ , . , 

. . , . , , . ,. and 202, or their equivalents, are prerequisites 

A seminar on American women s histoid from r ■• i • • ■ r t 

. ^ „ „ ,, ... , . , tor all higher language courses, 

before Seneca Falls until the early twentieth o o 

centuiy, with an emphasis on the entrance of A minor in classical studies consists of six 

women into the public arena. Theoretical focus courses in the department, including a minimum 

is on the range of ways in which women of two language courses. 

challenged popular notions of gendered , . ... 

, T-w • 1 r 1 r ., ■ A minor in Laun consists of SIX courses in Latin 

spheres. Designed for students from all majors , , ,,„ _ . , . , , „r. ■ 

., , , ,. , ,. above 102 or five courses in Latin above 102 and 

with some background in women s studies or ^, . ,„„ ,„ . „^„ 

, ,. Classics 122 or Classics 252. 
women s history. 

Mr Gallman A minor in Greek consists of six courses in 

Anne • it • • ^l <-• •■ i.. ■- ^ ■ , Greek above 102 or five couiscs in Greek above 

400 Special Topics in the C'vil War Era Topical ^^^ and Classics 121 or Classics 251. 

seminar on an aspect of the Civil War era, with 

links drawn between the Civil War era and Liberals Arts Core Requirements 

modern America. Specific focus shifts from year Greek 202 or Latin 202 satisfy the foreign 

to year. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor, language Liberal Arts Core requirement. All 

with preference given to minors in Civil War era 100- and 200-level classical studies courses count 

studies. toward the Liberal Arts Core requirement in 

Mr. Gallman humanities. 



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(Classical Studies 251 and 252 may be counted 
toward a major in history; Classical Studies 230 
may be counted toward a major in religion; and 
Classical Studies 264, 266, and 270 may be 
counted toward a major in theatre arts. 

For prospective secondary school teachers the 
department cooperates in offering Education 
,'i04, Techniques of Teaching and CurricuhuTi 
of Secondars' Ladn. 

Special Programs 

Through a cooperative arrangement under the 
auspices of the Central Pennsylvania Consordum, 
Cettysburg College shares membership in the 
intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies in 
Rome, whose program has been approved as a 
Ciett)'sburg College affiliated program. The 
department encourages majors to spend a 
semester at the Center in Rome. (For details, 
see Off-Campus Study.) 

College Year in Athens, Inc. has also been 
approved as a Gettysburg College affiliated 
program. Students interested in ancient, 
Byzantine, or modern Greece and the 
Mediterranean are encouraged to spend a 
semester or a year at College Year. (For details, 
see Off-Campus Study.) 

fhrough the Centra! Pennsylvania Consortiimi, 
( Gettysburg College shares membership in the 
American School of Classical Studies in Athens. 
Students are eligible to apply for its summer 
sessions. 

GREEK 

101, 102 Elementary Greek Introduction to the 
alphabet, inflections, and syntax of Attic Greek. 
Mr. Zabrowski 

201, 202 Intermediate Greek Designed to 
increase the student's skill in reading texts. 
Selections from Thucydides, Xenophon, Plato, 
<ind other authors are read, with an emphasis on 
grammar. Prerequisites: Greek 101, 102, or their 
equivalent. 
Mr Zabwivski 

203 Plato The Apology and Crito, with selections 
li'om other dialogues. 

Mr Zahroiuski 

204 New Testament Greek Introducdon to Koine 
( ireek. Selections from the New Testament are 
read with attention to language and content. 
Not offered every year. 

Mr Zabrowski 



30 1 Homer Selections from the Iliad and Odyssey, 
with examination of syntax and style. Not offered 
every year. 

AIs. Cahoon, Ms. Snively 

302 Greek Historians Readings in the text of 
Herodotus or Thucydides. Not offered every year. 
^■'«// 

303 Greek Comedy An introduction to Greek 
drama. Selected comedies of Aristophanes 
are read with attenuon to style and metrics. 
Not offered every year. 

Mr Zabrowski 

304 Greek Tragedy Selected plays of Aeschylus, 
Sophocles, and Euripides. Various plays are 
also read in English. Oral reports required. 
Not offered every year. 

St^ff 

306 Greek Oratory Selected oradons of 
Demosthenes and Lysias. Not offered ever)' year. 

Staff 

Individualized Study 

Staff 

LATIN 

101, 102 Elementary Latin Introducdon to Latin 

grammar and syntax. 

Ms. Cahoon, Ms. Snively 

20 1 , 202 Intermediate Latin Designed to 
increase skill in reading texts. Selections from 
Ladn prose and poetry are read, with condnuing 
grammatical review and analysis. Prerequisite: 
Two years of secondary school Latin or Latin 
101, 102. 
Ms. Cahoon, Ms. Snively 

203 Roman Prose Selections from Roman prose 
writers and intensive review of grammar. 
Prerequisite: Three or four years of secondary 
school Ladn or Ladn 201, 202. 

Ms. Snively 

204 Roman Poetry Readings in such authors as 
Catullus, Virgil, Horace, and Ovid. Prerequisite: 
Three or four years of secondar)- school Ladn or 
Latin 201, 202. 

Ms. Cahoon 

303 Cicero Selected essays of Cicero, with 
supplemental reading from letters and orations. 
Supplemental reading in English. Not offered 
every year. 
Staff 



306 St. Augustine Selections from Confessions, 
witli attention to tiie differences between Late 
Latin and Classical Latin. Not offered every year. 
Ms. Cahoon 

308 Roman Satire Selections from Horace, Martial, 
and Juvenal, with attention to the changes in 
language and style from the Classical to the Post 
Classical period. Not offered every year. 

Ms. Snively 

309 Roman Historians Selections from Livy and 
Tacitus, with attention to their peculiarities of 
language and style. Not offered every year. 
Ms. Snively 

3 1 1 Lucretius Extensive reading in On the Nature 
OJ Things, with attention to Lucretius' metrical 
forms, science, and philosophy. Not offered 
every year. 

AIs. Cahoon 

312 Prose Composition Designed to increase the 
students abilit)' to translate from English to 
Latin; includes a thorough grammar review. Not 
offered every year. 

Mr. Zabrowski 

40! Vergil Study of Vergil's Aeneid, with emphasis 
on syntax, metrics, rhetoric, and interpretation. 
Not offered every year. 
Ms. Cahoon 

Individualized Study 

Staff 

CLASSICAL STUDIES 

1 2 1 Survey of Greek Civilization Survey of 
primary texts in literature, history, and philosophy 
from archaic Greece through classical Athens, 
with emphasis on concepts that influenced 
Western thought. 

Ms. Cahoon 

122 Survey of Roman Civilization Survey of 
history, literature, art, architecture, etc. of Rome 
from its founding to the Council of Nicea, with 
emphasis on the material culture of an empire 
encompassing the whole Mediterranean world. 
Ms. Snively 

125 introduction to Classical Archaeology 

Examination of the goals and methods of 
classical archaeology through a survey of Greek 
and Roman sites, from the Bronze Age through 
the Late Antique period. Course includes 
discussion of techniques such as survey and 
issues such as the antiquities market. Not 
offered every year. 
Ms. Snively 



230 Classical Mythology Survey of classical 
mythology, with attention to the process of 
myth-making and the development of religion. 
Ms. Snively, Mr /.abrowski 

235 Topics in Classical Studies Exploration 
of a special topic in cla.ssical studies. Recent 
offerings have included the Greco-Roman City, 
Women in Cla.ssical Antiquity, and Ancient 
Technology. Not offeied every year. 
^taff 

251 Greek History Survey of Hellenic civilization 
from the Bronze Age to the Hellenistic period. 
Papers required. Alternate years. Offered 2002-0.''>. 
Mr. Zabrowski 

252 Roman History Histoi7 of the Republic and 
Empire. Papers required. Alternate years. 
Offered 2003-04. 

Ms. Snively 

262 Ancient Epic Study of Homer, Apollonius of 
Rliodes, Vergil, and Ovid. Offered 2002-03. 
Ms. Cahoon. 

264 Ancient Tragedy Study of Aeschylus, Sophocles, 
Einipides, and Seneca. Class culminates in a 
public performance of a tragic play. Offered 
2003-04. 
Ms. Cahoon 

266 Ancient Comedy Study of Aristophanes, 
Plautus, and Terence. Class culminates in a 
public performance of a comic play. Offered 
2004-05. 
Ms. Cahoon 

270 Ancient Drama (Half Unit Course) Study, 
direction, and performance of an ancient Greek 
or Roman play. Course includes the study of 
several other plays by the same author (for 
context and backgioimd) and of recent pertinent 
secondary material. Students interpret, cast, 
direct, choreograph, and rehearse the play. 
Final performance is presented to the entire 
campus community. Offered 2002—03. 
Ms. Cahoon 

281 Ancient Greek Political Theory and Practice 

LJsing Plato's Repuhlii mm\ A««i,v and Aristotle's 
Politics as primary soiuces, course investigates 
the nature of ancient Greek political theoiy and 
the notion of the Ideal State, whether conceived 
of as timocratic, monarchical, or democratic. 
Greek city-state constitutions are examined, as 
preserved in the writings of Aristode, Xenophon. 
and the Oxyrhyncus Historian. Not offered 
every year. 
Mr. Zabrowski 



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400 Senior Seminar Content determined each 
Near in consultation with the staff. Required of 
all majors. 

Slaff 

Individualized Study 
COMPUTER SCIENCE 

Professors Fink and Leinbach 
Associate Professor Toslen (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professors Neller and Presser 
Adjunct Instructor Leslie 

Overview 

The computer science curricuhim, offered by 
the Department of Computer Science, enables 
a student to study systematic approaches to 
problem solving within the environment of 
hardware. In the course of this study, the 
student develops the practice of clear thinking 
and logical reasoning, while learning to analyze 
information processing tools and systems in 
areas of application. Within this study there is 
an emphasis on the human values associated 
with computing in the modern world. 

The available courses cover a wide area of 
computer science, hi addition, upper-division 
students may, in collaboradon with faculty 
members, be involved in on-going research 
projects or study topics not covered by the 
regular course offerings. 

The major is designed to give students a broad 
understanding of both the theoretical and 
application areas of the discipline. As such, it 
provides a firm foundation for those intending 
to do graduate work or to pursue a career in 
computer science. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Major Requirements: Requirements for a major in 
computer science are ten courses in computer 
science at the level of Computer Science 1 11 or 
above. One of these courses may be selected 
from a list of approved courses in other 
departments — Mathematics 351 and 366, Physics 
240, Psychology 315 or 316. The ten courses 
must include Compiuer Science 111, 112, 201, 
216, 221, 301, and 340. Computer Science 340 
is taken during the senior year. 

In addition tci the above courses in Computer 
Science, the student must take Mathematics 1 1 1 
(or its equivalent). It is recommended that 
Mathematics 111 be taken during the first year. 

Siudent.s intending to pursue graduate study 
in computer science are advised to take 



Mathemadcs 112 (Calculus II), Mathematics 211 
(Multivariable Calculus), Mathemadcs 212 
(Linear Algebra), Mathematics 351 
(Mathemadcal Probabilit)'), Mathemadcs 352 
(Mathematical Statistics), and Physics 240 
(Electronics) and include both Computer 
Science 301 and 31 1 in their choice of courses. 

Department honors in computer science require 
pardcipation in the cocurricular activities of the 
department, an overall grade point average of at 
least 3.0, and a computer science grade point 
average of at least 3.5. 

Minor Requirements: A minor in computer 
science consists of six courses numbered 1 1 1 or 
above. 

Grade Requirements: All courses taken to satisfy 
the requirements for the major or minor must 
be taken using the A-F grading system. To 
advance to a course with prerequisites, a 
minimum grade of C- is required for each 
prerequisite course. Any course which is a 
prerequisite for another course may not be 
taken or repeated after the subsequent higher- 
numbered course is passed. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Computer Science 103 and 1 1 1 fulfill the 
Liberal Arts Core requirement in quantitative 
reasoning. 

Facilities 

Information Technologv' maintains a campus- 
wide computing network. Through this network, 
students can access several programming 
languages and applicadons packages. In addidon, 
the Department of Computer Science has a 
laboratory featuring Sun UltraSPARC 
workstadons that are used for introductory 
computer science courses and upper-level 
electives such as operating systems and graphics. 
These machines are connected to a SUN Blade 
dual-processor UltraSPARC server that is used as 
a local file server. 

1 03 Introduction to Computing Liberal arts 
introduction to the discipline of computer 
science and the use of computers in a variety 
of fields. Topics include a historical survey of 
technology and the use of computers, computer 
applicadon, software systems design, programming 
with scripts, computer hardware and logical 
design, and several implications of computing, 
(bourse is laboratory-oriented and includes 
several hands-on laboratory projects. 
Staff 



1 1 1 Computer Science I Iiuroduction to 
computer science, with an emphasis on problem 
soKing, methodology', and algorithms. Fnrther 
topics include computer organization, data 
structures, and software engineering. Student 
projects using the Java programming language 
are an essential part of this course. Prerequisite: 
Computer Science 103 or equivalent. 

Staff 

1 12 Computer Science II The second course in 
the introductoiy sequence for computer science 
majors and students interested in the principles 
of programming. Special attention is given to 
object-oriented program design methods, 
algorithms, and elementar)' data structures. 
Prerequisite: Computer Science 111. 

Staff 

201 The Mathematics of Computation Study of 
the mathematics needed for an understanding 
of the theoretical foimdations of computation. 
Topics include mathematical logic, set theory, 
mathematical induction, mathematical defi- 
nitions and proofs, graph theory, and an 
introduction to finite-state aiUomata and 
Turing machines. Applications and illustrative 
examples are drawn from computer science 
topics such as digital circuits, analysis and 
correctness of algorithms, automata, decidable 
problems, and efficient searching. Prerequisites: 
Computer Science 111 and Mathematics 111. 
Staff 

216 Data Structures Introduction to major data 
structiues and some of their applications. Topics 
include linear lists, sets, queues, stacks, linked 
lists, string processing, trees, graphs, arrays, 
tables, files, and dynamic memory management. 
Prerequisite: Computer Science 1 12. 
Staff 

22 ! Computer Organization and Assembly 
Language Programming Progranmiing at the 
machine level, with emphasis on the logical 
connection of the basic components of the 
computer and systems programs. Topics include 
machine and assembly language programming, 
basic computer operations, hardware 
organization, systems software, and compilers. 
Prerequisite: Computer Science 112. 
Staff 

301 Theory of Computation Study of the basic 
theoretical principles ol the computational 
model. Topics include finite automata, regular 
expressions, context-free grammars, Tiuing 
Machines, Church's Thesis, Godel numbering. 



tlae halting problem, unsolvability, computa- 
tional complexit)', and program verification. 
Prerequisite: Computer Science 201. 
^taff 

3 1 1 Design and Analysis of Algorithms Survey 
of basic principles and techniques for the 
development of good algorithms. Emphasis is 
placed on individual development of algorithms 
and an analysis of the results in terms of 
usefulness, efficiency, and organization. Topics 
include design techniques, worst case and averagt 
case analysis, searching, sorting, branch and 
bound, spanning trees, reachability, combinatorial 
methods, and NP-hard problems. Prerequisites: 
Computer Science 201, Computer Science 216. 
,\lternate vears. Offered 2003-04. 
Staff 

322 Introduction to Computer Networks 

Introduction to ]3rinciples used to analyze and 
build a network of computers. Course covers 
concepts and issues relating to low-level 
commimications and protocols of computer 
networking. Students study formal methods for 
integrating commimication events into normal 
process cycles of the computer, then concentrate 
on a study of practices for defining and specifying 
a formal communications protocol. Throughout 
the course, students apply principles that they 
study to existing networks within the deparunent. 
Prerequisite: Computer Science 216. Alternate 
years. Offered 2004-05. 
Staff 

324 Principles of Operating Systems Study of 
fimdamental concepts of operating systems. 
Topics include sequential processes, concurrent 
processes, processor management, memory 
management, scheduling algorithms, and 
computer security. Projects include writing of a 
program to simulate major components of an 
operating system. Prerequisite: Computer Science 
216. Alternate years. Offered 2003-04. 

327 Parallel and Distributed Processing 

Introduction to techniques used to implement 
parallel processing concepts in computer 
environments. Coiuse investigates SIMD (Single 
Instruction Multiple Data stream) environments 
and MIMD (Multiple Instructions Multiple Data 
stream) en\iionments. Final topic is an 
investigation of computing in a distributed 
workstation environment. Students work with 
actual implementations of each of these 
environments and explore their advantages and 



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a[)propriate uses. Prerequisite: Computer Science 
216. .Alternate years. Offered 2003-04. 

335 Software Engineering Introduction to 
principles used to analyze and specify software 
systems. Coinse covers concepts and issues 
relating to initial stages of the software life cycle. 
Coinse examines formal methods for analyzing 
and investigating environments requiring 
automation, then studies languages and CASE 
(Computer-Aided Software Engineering) tools. 
Throughout the course students apply principles 
that they study to situations outside the 
department. Prerequisite: Computer Science 216 
and senior status or permission of the 
department. 
'^■'«// 

340 Advanced Systems Design P'ormal approach 
to techniques of software design and development. 
Integral part of course is the involvement of 
students, working as a team, in the development 
of a large software project. Implementation of 
the software project is in a high-level language 
that supports modularity and procedural and 
data abstraction. Topics include formal model 
of structured programming, modular 
decomposition, information hiding, formal 
program specification techniques, software 
testing techniques, documentation, and user 
interfaces. Prerequisites: Computer Science 216, 
one 300-level computer science course, and 
senior status or permission of department. 
Staff 

34 1 A Survey of Programming Languages Study 
of fundamental concepts in the design of 
programming languages. Concepts include 
variables, expressions typing, scope, procedures, 
data types, exception handling, and concurrency. 
Particular programming languages are used as 
examples of different ways for implementing 
these concepts. Prerequisite: Computer Science 
216. Alternate years. Offered 2003-04. 

Staff 

360 Principles of Database Systems Study of 
fimdamental concepts of database systems. 
Topics include physical organization of 
databases, indexing techniques, and quei^ 
processing. Particular models studied include 
the Entity-Relationship, Relational, Network, 
and Hierarchical Models. Class projects stress 
design and implementation of a database. 
Prerequisite: Computer Science 216. Alternate 
years. Offered 2004-05. 
Staff 



37 1 Introduction to Artificial intelligence Studv 
of the process by which machines mimic himian 
behavior. Topics include search heuristics, 
knowledge representation, logic, natural language 
processing, rule-based systems, and robotics. 
Appropriate programming languages are used 
to implement projects. Prerequisite: Computer 
Science 216. Alternate years. Offered 2004-05. 
Staff 

373 Computer Graphics Study of methods 
and issues surroiniding the construction of 
graphical images on the computer. Topics 
include windowing systems and user input, two- 
dimensional graphics packages, curve drawing 
techniques, modeling in three dimensions, use 
of lighting and shading techniques, and the 
process of rendering images. Student work 
consists both of using existing packages to create 
images and of implementing algorithms used in 
graphical systems. Prerequisite: Computer Science 
216. Alternate years. Offered 2004-05. 

Staff 

374 Compilers Introduction to techniques used 
to translate high level computer languages into 
machine code. Course discusses and evaluates 
ciurent implementation techniques, including 
the applicable theory. Topics include lexical 
scanning, parsing, code generation, and 
optimization. Students complete a major project 
involving the compilation of a particular 
computer language. Prerequisite: Computer 
Science 216. Alternate years. Offered 2003-04. 
Staff 

39 1 , 392 Selected Topics 

Staff 

450 Individualized Study: Tutorial Study 
through individualized reading and projects of 
an advanced area of computer science by well- 
qualified students imder the supervision of a 
faculty member. Possible areas of study are 
software engineering, compiler design, expert 
systems, parallel architecture, image processing, 
or topics in the current literature that are of 
mutual interest to the student and the supei-vising 
faculty member Prerequisites: Computer Science 
216 and permission of department. 
Staff 

460 Individualized Study: Research Intensive 
study of a selected topic in computer science or 
a related area. Research project is completed in 
collaboration with a faculty member. Prerequisites: 
Computer Science 216 and permission of 
department. 
Staff 



EAST ASIAN STUDIES 



Fritz Gaenslen, Coordinator 

Gettysburg College students have the 
opportunity to ptusue an interdepartmental 
minor in East Asian studies, which is designed to 
provide a coherent understanding and basic 
competence in the major Asian civilizations of 
Japan and China. The minor may be pursued 
with a view to broadening the scope of any 
major, to acquiring a comparative perspective 
within any of the humanistic and social science 
disciplines, or as a basis for future graduate 
work or a career related to East Asia. 

For the minor, students take one core course 
(History 221 East Asian History to 1800, or 
History 222 East Asian Histoiy 1800 to the 
Present), plus three courses in one's countr)' of 
specialization (either Japan or China). These 
courses must come from three different 
disciplines, with at least one course from the 
himianities and one from the social sciences. 

Among courses suitable for the Japan 

specialization are: 
Japanese 150 Contemporary Japanese Cultiue 

and Society' 
Japanese 247 Extraordinary Fiction in Japan 
History 224 Modern Japan 
Music 1 12 The Two Musics of Japan 
Political Science 27 1 Government and Politics 

in Japan 
Religion 249 The Religions of Japan 

Gettysburg College also maintains a cooperative 
arrangement with Kansai Gaidai University in 
Osaka, Japan. Kansai Gaidai offers a full range 
of courses appropriate for the Japan 
specialization. 

Among courses suitable for the China 
specialization are: 

History 223 Modern China 

Political Science 270 Government and Politics 
in China 

Religion 248 The Religions of China 

Students specializing in Japan must take Basic 
Japanese 101 and 102 (or their equivalent). 
Students specializing in China must take two 
semesters (or their equivalent) of basic-level 
Chinese. 

In addition to the above requirements, students 
must complete one course that offers a 
comparative perspective within East Asia. This 



may be either a course, beyond the core, that is 
explicitly comparative or a course on the East 
.Asian counti^ not in one's area of 
specialization. 

A final requirement is one elective, which is any 
course with a substantial East Asian focus. This 
may include additional language study (Japanese 
201), Women in Buddhism (Religion 252), World 
Philosophy (Philosophy 240), Cross-Cultural 
Perspectives on Gender and Sex Roles 
(Anthropology 228), and Asian Management 
Systems (Management 423). 

ECONOMICS 

Professors Fender, Gondwe, and Railing 

Associate Professors Fletcher (Chairperson), K. Niiro, 

and Stillwaggon 
Assistant Professors Hopkins, Kaiser, and Weise 
Visiting Professor Githinji 

Overview 

A knowledge of economics has become 
increasingly important for effective participation 
in a complex society. The department's courses 
present this knowledge in both historical and 
contemporary contexts, with a focus on developing 
the relevant economic theory and identifying, 
understanding, analyzing, and solving social 
problems. Economists attempt to explain how 
societies organize and make decisions for using 
scarce resoiuces to produce and distribiue 
goods and services domestically and inter- 
nationally. Economists examine both macro- 
and microeconomic problems and consider the 
implications of alternative solutions for efficiency, 
fairness, and growth. Courses in the department 
stress the critical thinking skills of a liberally 
educated person: gathering of pertinent 
information; analysis; synthesis; and ability to 
perceive, create, and choose among alternatives. 
The department also stresses effective oral and 
written communication of the insights achieved 
through study of the discipline. In addition to 
courses in economics, the department offers 
courses in introductory statistics. 

The department's courses are designed to meet 
the College's liberal arts objectives, while also 
serving students who intend to (1) pursue 
gradtiate study in economics; (2) enter graduate 
or professional schools in management, 
business administration, law, and related areas; 
(3) pursue careers in business, non-profit 
private organizations, or government. 



Requirements and Recommendations 

Kconomics majors must fulfill the following 
requirements: All core courses, comprising 
Kconomics 103, 104, 241, 243, 245, 249, and 
cither Economics 350 or Management 153. 
Vdditionally, the following sequence of advanced 
( x)urses must be completed; one course from 
those courses numbered 250-299; two courses 
from those numbered 301-399; one senior 
seminar (401-403); and one other course chosen 
from those numbered 201 or above. A student 
may take Mathematics 351—352 in lieu of 
Economics 241; both semesters of the 
mathematics sequence must be completed for 
mathematical statistics to substitute for the 
departmental statistics reqtiirement. Mtich, 
though not all, of the material covered in such 
applied statistics courses as Mathematics 107, 
Psychology 205, and Biology 260 duplicates that 
in Economics 241; therefore, credit will not be 
given for more than one of these courses. 
Research methodology basic to economics is 
covered in Economics 241 and 350. Students 
taking an applied statistics course outside the 
economics department before deciding to 
become economics majors may be reqtiired to 
demonstrate, via examination, proficiency in the 
content of Economics 241 or may be required to 
take Economics 350. 

Mathematical modeling and statistical testing 
are extensively used as tools in economic 
analysis, and majors in economics are required 
to demonstrate achievement in mathematics. 
This requirement can be satisfied by Mathematics 
105-106 or Mathematics 111. The department 
strongly encourages students who have an 
interest in majoring or minoring in economics 
to complete this mathematics requirement 
during the first year, as some 200-level courses 
have a math prereqtiisite. The department also 
strongly advises students planning to pursue 
graduate study in economics to take Mathematics 
111-112, Mathematics 211-212, and Economics 
350-352. Regardless of plans upon graduation, 
all students will find more options open to them 
if they are familiar with the use of computers in 
the manipulation of economic information. We 
urge economics majors to take a cotirse or 
courses on the use of computers, in addition to 
the departmental courses that require computer 
work. 

The department offers a minor in economics, 
which a student can complete by taking Economics 
103, 104; two courses from among Economics 



241, 243, 245, 249, and 350 and two courses 
from among those numbered 201 or above, one 
of which must be from among those numbered 
250 and above. Additionally, a student minoring 
in economics must demonstrate achievement in 
mathematics by completing Math 104, Math 
105-106, or Math 111 and must achieve a grade 
point average of 2.0 or higher in courses 
counted toward the minor. 

Economics 103, 104 are prerequisites for all 
upper-level courses in the department. Under 
special circumstances, a student may pedtion 
the instructor of a course for a waiver of course 
prerequisites. 

The departmental brochure, Economics 
Dcpeirlment Handbook, contains additional 
information about the department and the 
economic major and minor. Copies are available 
in the department office, Glatfelter 111, and 
from department faculU' members. 

Honors, Internships, Special Programs 

The Department of Economics valties intensive 
and independent work by its students, as well 
as their interaction with peers and faculty 
members on collaborative economics projects. 
To encourage and recognize high-quality work, 
we invite junior students with a grade point 
average of 3.2 or above to submit an honors 
thesis proposal at the beginning of the senior 
year Those students whose proposals are 
approved are invited to join the Honor 
Research Seminar and present their completed 
honors thesis to the economics faculty, who 
make the final decision on granting 
departmental honors. 

We encourage economics majors to consider a 
semester of off-campus study, preferably during 
the sophomore or junior year. The senior 
project makes study abroad or off-campus 
studies during the senior year inadvisable. 
Professor Gondwe has information about study 
abroad programs with course offerings in 
economics as well as information on the 
Washington Policy Semester. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Economics 103 and 104 fulfill the Liberal Arts 
Core requirement in the social sciences. 
Economics 212, 213, 250, and 253 sati.sfy the 
Liberal Arts Core requirement in non-Western 
Culture. 



103, 104 Principles of Microeconomics, Principles 
of Macroeconomics Courses provide general 
undersuuiding of economic systems and economic 
analysis, with emphasis on the operation of the 
U.S. economy. Topics in 103 include the price 
system, theory of consumer behavior, theory 
of production, theory of the firm, income 
distribution, welfare economics, and the micro 
aspects of international trade. Topics in 104 
include national income accounting, employment, 
inflation, monetai7 and fiscal policies, aggregate 
demand and supply analysis, economic growth, 
the monetary aspect of international economics, 
and comparative economic systems. 
Staff 

211-218 Regional Economic History, Growth, and 
Development Seminars Intensive examination of 
one region, using the framework of economic 
analysis and political economy to consider 
economic history, growth, and development. 
Economic theory provides the primary paradigm 
within which these regions are studied, but 
consideration is also given to historical events 
that conditioned the economic outcomes. Each 
course reviews the pertinent theory and focuses 
on application of that theory to specific historical 
events. Among the regions to be studied, one in 
each course, are Africa, the Caribbean, Japan, 
Russia and Canada/U.S. Prnequisites: Economics 
103, 104. 
Ms. Fender, Mr. Gondwe, Mr. Niiro, Ms. Slilhvaggon 

241 Introductory Economics and Business 
Statistics Topics include nomenclature of 
descriptive statistics; probabilities using the 
normal, binomial, and Poisson distributions; 
Chi-square; sampling; estimation of parameters; 
hypothesis testing; linear regression; and 
correlation. Prerequisites: Economics 103,104, 
and one of the following: Mathematics 105-106, 
1 1 1 , or the equivalent cjr permission of the 
economics department. A student may not 
receive credit for both this course and Mathematics 
107, Psychology 205, or Biology 260. 
Staff 

243 Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory 

Examination of classical, neoclassical, 
Keynesian, monetarist, new classical, and post- 
Keynesian economics, with particular focus on 
various theories and policies that relate to the 
determination of national (aggregate) income 
and price level, the determination and role of 
interest rates, and the part played by monetar)' 
and fiscal authorities in stabilizing the economy. 



Offered both semesters. Prerequisites: Economics 
103, 104 and Mathematics 105-106 or 111 or its 
equivalent, or permission of instructor. 
Mr. Gondwe, Mr. Hopkins, Mr. Weise 

245 Intermediate Microeconomic Theory Course 
uses the methodological tools of economics to 
examine consumer and prodticer behavior and 
economic behavior, both individual and 
collective, under different input and output 
market structures. Also analyzes implications of 
such behavior for general equilibrium and 
economic welfare. Prerequisites: Economics 103. 
104 and Mathematics 105-106 or 111, or the 
equivalent, or permission of instructor. 
Ms. Fender, Ms. Fletcher 

249 History of Economic Thought and Analysis 

Study of the development of economic ideas 
and policies in relation to the evolution of 
economics as a discipline from its roots in 
philosophical discourse to its modern form. 
Schools of economic thought from PhysiocraLs 
to neoclassical economics are examined. 
Emphasis is placed on the ideas of major 
contributors to economic thought from Plato to 
Keynes. Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104. 
Mr. Gondwe 

250 Economic Development Examination of 
economic and noneconomic factors accoimting 
for economic growth and development in less 
developed areas of the world. Various theories 
of economic giowdi and development are analyzed 
and major policy issues discussed. Primaiy focus 
is on the study of the development experience in 
the Third World and the roles of international 
trade, aid, multinational corporations, as well as 
the World Bank and the International Monetaiy 
Fimd, in the formation and application of Third 
World strategies for economic development. 
Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104. Recommended: 
Economics 243, 245. Satisfies distribution 
requirement in non-Westem culture. 

Mr. Gondwe, Ms. Stillwaggon 

251 International Economics Introduction to 
the histoi-y and development of international 
commerce and its relation to the rise of the 
capitalist system. Fundamentals of international 
trade and finance are also elaborated, and these 
tools are applied to such issues as international 
business cycles, global competition and technical 
change, balance of payments and trade deficits, 
and the international debt crisis. Prerequisites: 
Economics 103, 104. Recommended: Economics 
243, 245. 

Ms. Stillwa^on 



252 Gender Issues in Economics Application of 
microeconomic theory to gender issues in our 
economy. Course explores demograpiiic issues 
such as fertility and divorce, considers the effect 
of the tax structure and other public policies on 
gender differences in labor force participation 
over time, and examines economic paradigms 
for explaining gender discrimination in our 
society. Pri?r^^MW27^5.' Economics 103, 104. 
Recommended: Economics 245. 

Ms. Fletcher 

253 Introduction to Political Economy and the 
African Diaspora Examination of the origins and 
development of capitalism and the contribution 
of Third World peoples and minorities in the 
U.S. to the process and continued growth of 
capitalist development. Primary focus is on the 
contributions of Africa and people of African 
descent. Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104. 
Recommended: Economics 243, 245. 

Mr. Gondiue 

267 Finance Emphasis on financial planning, 
investment analysis, asset management, and 
sources and costs of capital. Prerequisites: 
Economics 103, 104, 241, and Management 153. 
Recommended, Economics 243, 245. 
Staff 

301 Labor Economics Theoretical and empirical 
study of the functioning of labor markets, with 
emphasis on wage and employment 
determination. Topics include time allocation, 
wage differences, discrimination, investment in 
education, mobility and migration, impact of 
legislation, imions and labor relations, and 
imperfect markets. Prerequisites: Economics 103, 
104, and 245. Recommended: Economics 241. 
Ms. Fletcher 

303 Money and Financial Intermediaries Course 
examines role of money, credit, and financial 
institutions in the determination of price 
and income levels. Coverage includes the 
commercial banking system, the Federal 
Reserve System, monetaiy theory, and the art 
of monetary policy. Emphasis is placed upon 
evaluation of current theory and practice in the 
-American economy in the context of increased 
internationalization of financial activity'. 
Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104, 243. 
Mr. Weise 

305 Public Finance Introduction to principles, 
techniques, and effects of government 
obtaining and spending funds and managing 
government debt. Nature, growth, and amoimt 



of expenditures of all levels of government in 
the U.S. are considered, along with numerous 
t)'pes of taxes employed by various levels of 
government to finance their activities. Domestic 
and international implications of government 
debt are also considered. Prerequisites: 
Economics 103, 104, 245. 
Staff 

309 International Finance and Open Economy 
Macroeconomics Study of international financial 
markets and their interactions with the 
macroeconomy. Topics include balance of 
payments accounting and foreign exchange 
markets. A theoretical model of the macro- 
economy that incorporates international trade 
and foreign exchange markets is used to address 
a number of policy issues, such as the operation 
of fixed exchange rate systems, exchange rate 
crises, the evolution of the international 
monetary system, economic integration, and 
problems in the global capital market. 
Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104, 243. 
Mr. Hopkins, Mr. Weise 

341 Environmental Economics Investigadon of 
the relationship between the economy and 
the environment. Conditions for mainstream 
theories and policies, including those based on 
externalities and social costs, property rights, 
cost-benefit analysis, and discoimting, are 
studied in light of conditions required for 
sustainabilit)'. Problems and prospects of both 
market controls and government regulation are 
considered. Special topics inchide renewable 
resources, valuation techniques, accounting for 
pollution and resource depletion in GDP statis- 
tics, and sustainable development. Prerequisites: 
Economics 103, Economics 104, and either 
Economics 245 or Environmental Studies 212. 
Ms. Kaiser 

342 Industrial Organization and Public Policy 

Application of microeconomic theory to the 
structure of industiy Course considers 
traditional, as well as recent and interdisciplinary 
theories of firm and industry behavior, with 
particidar foctis on oligopoly and game theory. 
Course also reviews the economic history of U.S. 
antitrust and regulatory policies and examines 
the effect of greater global interdependence. 
Students evaluate alternadve policies for static 
economic efficiency, technological change, and 
equit)'. Prerequisite: Economics 245 or permission 
of instructor 
Ms. Fender 



348 The Economics of Spatial Environmental 
Analysis Application of advanced economic 
analysis to en\ironmental problems. New- 
media, technology, and data have rapidlv 
enhanced the economist's abilities to study 
problems in the environment and offer policy 
recommendations. Topics include national 
and global resource use, resource valuation, 
environmental justice, and economic and 
environmental policy through the frameworks 
of integrated resource policy and spatial 
analysis. Economic problems posed by 
imperfect information, uncertainty, and 
secondar)' data sources are considered. 
Prerequisites: Economics 103 and 104 and either 
Economics 245 or Environmental Studies 212, 
or permission of instructor. 
Ms. Kaiser 

350 Quantitative Methods in Economics 

Advanced statistical theoi-v and the use of 
computers in data analysis. Topics include some 
applications of mathematics to economics, 
hvpothesis testing and model specification, 
multiple regression and the determination of 
model acceptabilitv. Preieqtiisites: Economics 241, 
243, 245. 
Ms. Fletcher, Mr. Niiro 

351 Application of Mathematics to Economics 
and Business Introduction to the application of 
calculus and matrix algebra to economics and 
business. Numerous illustrations of mathematically 
formulated economic models are used to 
integrate mathematical methods with economic 
and business analysis. Preiequisites: Economics 
243, 245, 350 and Mathematics 111 or 105-106, 
or Mathematics 104 and permission of instructor. 
Mr Niiro 

352 Econometrics Study of the application of 
nialiiematical economic theon and statistical 
procedures to economic data. Coverage includes 
the development of appropriate techniques for 
measuring economic relationships specified by 
economic models and testing of economic 
theorems. Prerequisites: Economics 241, 243, 245, 
and 350, plus one other 300-level course. 

Mr. Niiro 

401 Seminar: Advanced Topics in History of 
Economic Thought and Alternative Paradigms of 
Economic Analysis Investigation of different 
perspectives in economics. Close readings of 
classic primarv' texts are used to examine issues 
in the histoiy of economics and alternative 
approaches to understanding the contemporary 
economv-. Topics include competition, endogenous 



growth, technical change, effective demand, 
money and credit, and economic policy. 
Prerequisites: Economics 241, 243, 245, 249, plus 
at least one 3004evel course. 

402 Seminar: Advanced Topics in Theoretical and 
Applied Macro- and Monetary Economics 

Examination of advanced topics in 
macroeconomics and monetary theorv' and 
applications. Particular focus rotates, and 
includes such topics as the new neoclassical 
theor)', rational expectations and post-Keynesian 
theory, monetary issues in international trade 
and economic development, economeuic studies 
of money, regulation, and banking safetv'. 
Prerequisites: Economics 241, 243, 245, 249, plus 
at least one 300-level course. Recomnmided: 303 
as one of the two 300-level courses. 
Str>ff 

403 Seminar: Advanced Topics in Theoretical and 
Applied Microeconomics Examination of special 
topics in advanced microeconomic theoiy and 
applications. Particular focus varies, and includes 
such topics as new household economics, 
industrial organization and public policy, game 
theon, information costs-structure-behavior, 
production and cost fimctions, welfare economics, 
and micro aspects of international trade. 
Prerequisites: Economics 241, 243, 245, 249, plus 
at least one 300-level course. 

Staff 

420 Honors Research Seminar Seminar for 
students vvTiting the senior thesis. Each 
participant completes an original research 
project under the supervision of a facidt)' thesis 
adviser. Students discuss course readings, review 
research methods, and present and discuss their 
findings. Prerequisite: By department invitation 
onlv. 
Staff 

460 Individualized Study Topics of an advanced 
nature for well qualified students. Individual 
reading and research, under the supenision of 
a facultv' member. A student wishing to pursue 
independent study must present a proposal at 
least one month before the end of the semester 
preceding the semester in which the independent 
study is to be undertaken. Prerequisites: 
Permission of supervising facult)' member and 
department chairperson. Offered both semesters. 
Staff 



EDUCATION 



Professor Brough (Chairperson) 

Associate Professors Hofman and Pool 

Assistant Professor Biitin 

Director of Field Experiences and Adjunct Professor Miller- 

Adjunct Professors Foreman, Myers, and Schafer 

Overview 

The purposes of the teacher education programs 
are to give students a thorough bacl<.ground in 
educational philosophy and theoretical concepts 
of instruction, and to provide an opportunity for 
student teaching and other field experiences. 

Other departments work cooperatively with the 
education department in the preparation of 
teachers in secondary education, elementary 
education, music education, and health and 
physical education. All education programs in 
secondary school subjects, elementary education, 
music education, and health and physical 
education are competency based and have 
received accreditation from the Pennsylvania 
Department of Education. The liberal arts are 
central to the College's teacher education 
programs. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Students planning to teach must complete a 
major in an academic department of their 
choice and fulfill all the requirements for the 
bachelor of arts degree or the bachelor of 
science degree. Upon completing a program in 
teacher education, students are eligible for a 
Pennsylvania Certificate, histrucdonal I, 
enabling them to teach in the public schools of 
the Commonwealth and other states with similar 
requirements. Students who ptusue teacher 
certification are required to demonstrate 
competence in oral and written commimication 
skills and computer literacy prior to certification. 
A minimum of forty hours of observation and 
parucipation in schools is required during the 
sophomore and junior years prior to acceptance 
into the Education Semester. Students who are 
seeking an histrucdonal I Cerdficate must have 
successfully completed the Praxis Series of the 
National Teachers' Exams (NTE) PPST reading, 
writing, and mathemadcs; principles of learning 
and teaching, grades K-6 or grades 7-12; and 
specialty area (elementary education or the 
subject area for which candidates are seeking 
certification). 

Students interested in preparing to teach 
academic subjects in the secondary schools must 



complete one of the following approved 
programs for secondaiy cerdficadon: biology, 
chemistiy, physics, general science, mathematics, 
English, German, Ladn, French, Spanish, 
ciuzenship educadon, social sciences, health and 
physical educadon (K-12), or music (K-12). 
Early planning beginning in the first year is 
essendal for all of these programs. For secondary 
education, the Education Semester consists of 
Educadon 304 and 476 (Student Teaching, 
worth 2 courses) . Only these courses may be 
taken during the Secondai7 Education Semester. 

The elementary education program is disdncdve 
in giving students the opportunity to 
concentrate on liberal arts studies and complete 
an academic major, thus qualifying for the 
bachelor of arts degree. Students interested in 
this program should considt with the educadon 
department no later than the fall semester of the 
first year. For elementally educadon, the 
Educadon Semester consists of Education 334 
and 476 (Student Teaching, worth 2 courses). 
Educadon 334 includes an intensive school- 
based reading internship. Only these courses 
may be taken dining the Elementary Education 
Semester. 

Students, in consultation with their major 
department, will select either the fall or spring 
semester of the senior year as the Educadon 
Semester. A Ninth Semester Opdon offers the 
Education Semester the fall semester following 
graduation. This opdon, which includes only the 
Educadon Semester, is provided at cost to these 
recent Gettv'sbiug College graduates who have 
been accepted into the program. (Cost for 2002: 
$2,300, plus room, board, and cerdficadon fees.) 
Student teaching experiences are completed at a 
school district in proximit) to the College, or the 
student may elect to apply to student teach 
abroad, in an inban setting, or in other 
alternative sites. 

The admission of a student to the Educadon 
Semester depends upon the student's academic 
achievement, passing scores in Praxis Basic Skills 
tests, demonstrated competence in communi- 
cation skills, and a recommendation from the 
major department. Guidelines for evaluating a 
student's academic achievement are a minimum 
accimiulative grade point average of 3.0. The 
successful applicant must have earned a C grade 
or higher in all education courses and in general 
psychology and developmental psychology. The 
student is also evaluated on such professional 



tiaits as responsibility, integrity, enthusiasm, 
ethical behavior, timeliness, and communication 
skills. Applications for the Education Semester 
may be obtained in the Department of 
Education office and must be completed and 
submitted for approval by the Teacher 
Education Committee by October 15 of the 
academic year prior to student teaching. 

Students interested in teaching in states other 
than Pennsylvania will find that a number of 
states certify teachers who have completed 
baccalaureate programs in education at colleges 
approved by its own state department of 
education. Numerous states require specific 
scores on portions of the Praxis Exams. See the 
department for details. 

A student seeking teacher certification may also 
choose to minor in education. The minor in 
secondary education consists of six courses: 
Education 201, 209, 303, 304, and 476 (worth 
two courses). A minor in elementary education 
consists of six courses. Education 201, 209, and 
476 are required for the minor. The student 
dien designates three of the following five 
courses to complete the minor: Education 180, 
306, 331, 370, or 334. Completion of all courses 
is required for teacher certification in 
elementary education. A student who elects to 
student teach during die Ninth Semester Option 
is not eligible for a minor in education, but will 
have a concentration in education. 

180 Methods and Concepts of Mathematics 
Instruction The teaching of mathematics, based 
on recent research efforts that focus on such 
topics as early number, geometry, rational 
number, multiplication and division concepts; 
development of estimation strategies and 
processes; influence of gender/ minority-related 
variables on mathematics performance; impact 
of calculators and compiUers; and children's 
development of mathematics concepts. Spring 
semester only. Prerequisite: Education 201 or 
permission of instructor. 
Ms. Hofman 

20 1 Educational Psychology Study of psychological 
principles and theories of development, cognition 
and learning, motivation, classroom management, 
instructional planning, assessment, and 
reflective inquiry. Repeated spring semester. 
Prerequisite: C or better in Psychology' 101. 
Ms. Pool 



209 Social Foundations of Education Study of 
professional aspects of teaching, historical and 
philosophical development of American 
education, and the relationship of schools to 
society. Current issues affecting schools, such as 
organization, reform, and national legislation, 
are examined. Repeated spring semester. 
Mr. Butin 

303 Educational Purposes, Methods and 
Educational Media: Secondary Emphasis is placed 
on implementing methods, techniques, media, 
and technology into the teaching4eaming 
process. (]oiuse includes an examination of 
cturiculum considerations, imit development, 
reading in the content areas, accommodating 
special needs, assessment, classroom manage- 
ment, and development of a professional 
portfolio. Prerequisite: Education 201. 
Recommended: the subject methods course. 
Repeated spring semester. 

Ms. Broiigh, Ms. Hofman, Ms. Pool 

304 Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of 
Secondary Subject Secondary subjects, including 
biology, chemistry, physics, English, French, 
Spanish, German, Latin, mathematics, health 
and physical education, and social studies. Course 
is taught by a staff member of the appropriate 
academic department who has students in the 
Education Semester. Prerequisites: Consent of 
the m£yor department and acceptance into the 
Education Semester. Repeated spring semester. 
Staff 

306 Educational Purposes, Methods, and 
Instructional Media in Social Studies, Art, and 
Music Application of principles of learning and 
human development to teaching social studies 
in the elementary school. Included is the 
correlation of art and music with the teaching of 
the social sciences. A major portion of the 
course is devoted to the development and 
implementation of a social studies imit. 
Prerequisites: Education 201 and either 180 or 
370, or permission of instructor. Offered both 
semesters. 
Ms. Hofman 

33 1 Developmental Reading Instruction and the 
Language Arts Introduction to theory, problems, 
and approaches to developmental reading 
instruction and the language arts. Current 
trends relating to acquisition of language and 



ti 



Hading and writing skills are studied. Young 
adult and children's literature are explored in 
relation to the learning process. Designed for 
teachers of all grade levels. Prerequisite: C or 
better in Education 201. Fall semester only. 
Ah. Brough 

334 Corrective Reading Study of the analysis and 
correction of reading difficulties. Survey of 
diagnostic and motivational means and materials 
is covered. Course includes a reading internship 
in the public schools under the guidance of a 
reading teacher. Elementary education students 
enroll in this course during the Education 
Semester Prejequisites: Education 201, 209, 331, 
and acceptance into the Education Semester. 
Repeated spring semester 
Ms. Brough 

350 Elementary School Science and Mathematics: 
Methods, Concepts, and Instructional Media 

Study, research, and field experience in science 
and mathematics education. Course enables 
students who are pre-service elementary 
teachers to acquire the necessary theory, 
skills, concepts, attitudes, use of materials and 
resources, technology, and appropriate teaching 
techniques. The course design assists students 
in the understanding of how children learn 
science and mathematics. Students learn 
to teach effectively through curriculum 
integration. 
Ms. Hofman 

370 Elementary School Science: Purposes, 
Methods, and Instructional Media C^ourse 
emphasizes science education process skills and 
the inquiry-based approach; child development 
and its relation to learning science concepts; 
examination of science programs; multidisciplinary 
science; evaluation techniques; individualization 
(including issues related to gender, culture and 
special needs), and instructional media designed 
for the prospective teacher Prerequisile: C or 
better in Education 180 and 201, or permission 
of instructor. Fall semester only. 
Als. Hofman 

41 1 Internship in Teaching Composition Under 
the supenision of the instructor of a section of 
English 101, the intern attends classes, prepares 
and teaches selected classes, counsels students 
on their written work, and gives students' papers 
a first reading and preliminaiy evaluation. All 
interns meet regularly with a member of the 
English deparUnent to discuss mediods of teaching 
composition and to analyze the classroom 



experience. Required of all majors in English 
planning to enroll in the secondar)' education 
program. Students should register for 
Education 411 in the semester prior to 
their Education Semester. 
English Department Staff 

461 Individualized Study — Research 

Olleied both semesters. 

471 Individualized Study — Internship 

Offered both semesters. 

476 Student Teaching Student obserxation, 
participation, and teaching under supervision of 
an experienced and certified teacher 
Group and individual conferences are held for 
discussion of principles and problems. Student 
spends the full day for 12 to 15 weeks in the 
classroom. Weekly seminar is required. Course 
carries two course credits. Prerequisites: All 
required education courses and acceptance into 
the Education Semester Repeated spring semester 
Ms. Brmtgh, Mr. Butin, Ms. Pool 

ENGLISH 

Professors Berg, Fredrickson (Emeritus), Gamett, 

Lambert, Myers, Stitt, and Winans 
Associate Professors Barnes, Larsen Cowan, Johnson 

Flynn, Goldberg( Chairperson), Ryan, and Leehron 
Assistant Professors Fee, Garofalo, Rhett, and Solomon 
lecturers Keith and Lane 
Adjunct Instructors Altieri, Bloomquist, Knight, 

Lindeman, Phillips, Saltzman, .Sellers, Shuckra, 

.Singley, and Young 

Overview 

Courses offered by the English department are 
designed to train students to express their 
thoughts clearly and effectively through spoken 
and written language and to understand, 
interpret, and assimilate the thoughts and 
experiences of the great writers of English and 
American literature. English is excellent 
preparadon for careers in business, teaching, 
law, publishing, journalism, and government 
service, and for graduate study leading to 
advanced degrees in literature, writing, the 
ministn', and libran science. Majors have also 
enrolled in graduate programs in business, 
urban planning, social work, public 
administration, and others. 

The department offers a major in English and 
American literature, a minor program in each 
field, and a writing minor. 



A well-balanced program for a major in English 
and American literature should include: ( 1 ) 
knowledge of the literary history of England and 
America; (2) training in the application 
of the techniques of literai7 analysis and the 
different critical approaches to literature; 
(3) knowledge of the characterisdcs and 
development of the major literary forms or 
genres; (4) study in depth of the work of one 
author of significance; and (5) some knowledge 
of the history of the English language and of 
English as a system. 

The Writing Center 

The Writing Center, staffed by several English 
department faculty members and specially 
trained Gettysburg College students, is a 
valuable resource. The Writing Center is open 
six days a week, and there is no charge for this 
service. The Center's staff assists students with 
their writing in the following ways: 

• Discusses an assignment in order to clarify it 
or to plan a method of approach; 

• Helps in organizing a paper or other piece of 
writing, such as a letter of applicadon; 

• Suggests ways to make troublesome parts of a 
paper more effective; 

• Shows ways to correct recurring grammatical 
errors. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Major Requiremenls: Requirements for the major 
in literature are twelve coiuses in English and 
American language and literature, in addition 
to the first semester of Literary Foundations of 
Western Culture (IDS 103). To obtain the 
desired distribution of courses, majors elect 
courses from the following categories: 
I. Introducton Studies in Literature 
(English 120-139). Students may count one 
introductory literature course toward the 
major or a designated first-year seminar. 
II. Historical Surveys (English 230-239). 
Students must take at least four historical 
survey courses, but may not coimt more 
than five toward the major. 
III. Critical Methods (Engli.sh 299). Students 
must take this course concurrently with or 
prior to their first 300-leveI topics course. 
rV. Topics in Literature (English 310-375). 
Students must take at least four topics 
courses. 
V. Seminar (English 401-409). Students must 
take at least one seminar. 
W. Two additional electives. 



Of the 200- and 300-level courses, at least three 
must focus on a period of literature before 
1800. Such courses are marked with an asterisk 
(*) in the catalog. 

English 101 and courses in speech may not be 
used to fulfill the department's major 
requirements. One writing course (201, 205, 
300-307) may coimt toward the major. 

Minor Requirements: Requirements for the minor 
in literatiue are six courses. All minors must 
take two Historical Survey courses (English 
230-239), and at least two Topics in Literature 
courses (English 310-375). No more than one 
Introductory Studies in Literature course 
(English 120-39) or designated first-year 
seminar may count toward the minor. Writing 
courses, with the excepdon of English 101, may 
be used to fulfill the department's minor 
requirements. 

Writing Minor Requirements: Requirements for the 
writing minor are six courses. These include 
Introduction to Creative Wridng (English 205) 
and at least four courses from the grouping, 
English 201 and 300-309. Students may also 
take an individualized Study in Writing or one- 
semester internship at the Gettysburg Review. 

The major for students enrolled in the 
elementary education program consists of ten 
courses, in addition to the first term of Literary 
Foimdadons of Western Culture (IDS 103). 
Working with the chairperson of the English 
department, each elementary education student 
designs a major program that follows as closely 
as possible the department's distribution 
requirement for the major. Students planning to 
teach English in secondaiy schools are required 
to take English 209, either 365 or 366, Speech 
101, IDS 104, and either Theatre Arts 328 or 
329. The department cooperates in offering 
Education 411, Internship in Teaching 
Composition. Students planning to do graduate 
work in English should develop proficiency in 
Latin, French, or German. 

English majors may take internships in a variet\ 
of fields, such as journalism, law, public relations, 
publishing, radio, and television. Theatre arts 
majors may take internships in theatre, radio, 
television, public relations, and arts administration. 
Students who wish to apply for internships must 
secure from their advisers a statement of the 
department's policy regarding application 
deadline, form of proposal, reqinrements, and 
grading. 



H 



Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

All courses offered by the department, except 
English 101, 201, 203, 205, 207, 299, 300-309, 
and courses in speech fulfill the Liberal Arts 
Core requirement in the himianities. English 
205 fulfills the Liberal .\rts Core requirement 
III the arts. 

Senior Honors Program 

English majors who have shown special promise 
in English will be invited to complete a thesis 
during their senior year. Students in this 
program will typically write a thesis during the 
fall semester under the direction of a member 
of the department. Only students selected for 
and successfully completing the program will be 
eligible to receive honors in English. For details 
of the program, consult the English department. 

101 English Composition An introduction to 
academic writing with a stress on expository 
skills, which are developed as students write and 
revise a series of essays. The coinse should 
increase a student's critical capacities, sensitivity 
to language, and awareness that written 
communication is essential to success not just in 
college courses, but after graduation as well. 
Staff 

201 Writing the Essay Intensive course in 
advanced rhetorical techniques, with particular 
emphasis on analysis of evidence, selection of 
appropriate style, and importance of revision. 
Mr. Ryan 

203 Journalistic Writing Introduction to 
joinnahstic writing and a conceptual look at the 
news media and their role in a twenty-first- 
century democratic society. Students learn to 
write a strong lead, ask newsworthy questions, 
and articulate themselves precisely. Students talk 
with professionals in the field and learn the 
ethics and traditions of journalism. They are 
also encomaged to submit articles to the 
campus newspaper. Prerequisite: Eng\hh 101. 
Mr Knight 

205 The Writing of Fiction, Poetry, and Drama 

Workshop in the writing of short stories, verse, 
and plays, with an analysis of models. The course 
may be used to fulfill the distribiuion 
requirement in arts. 

stoff 

209 History of the English Language Historical 
study of the vocabulary, forms, and sounds of 
the language from the Anglo-Saxon or Old 
English period to the twentieth century. 



Language is a cornerstone of culture; a 
knowledge of how language operates serves to 
explain, in part, how we came to be what we are. 
The study of what language is and how it 
changes, and how these changes are grounded 
in parallel cultural changes, is therefore a 
subject of intrinsic value. 
Mr. Fee 

2 1 6 Images of Women in Literature Examination 
of various ways women have been imagined in 
literature, with consideration of how and why 
images of women and men and of their 
relationships to one another change, and how 
these images affect us. Emphasis is placed on 
developing the critical power to imagine 
ourselves differently. 
Ms. Berg 

*230, *23l, 232 Survey of English Literature 

Historical survey of English literature from 
Beowulf through the twentieth century, with 
some attention to the social, political, and 
intellectual backgroimds of the periods imder 
investigation. Selected works are discussed in 
class to familiarize students with various 
methods of literary analysis; students write 
several short critical papers each semester. 
Staff 

233, 234 Survey of American Literature A 

chronological study of American writing from 
colonial days through the present, with some 
attention to the social, political, and intellectual 
backgroimds. Primary emphasis during the first 
half of the sequence falls on the Puritans and 
American Romantics; the second half siuveys 
writers from the Romantics forward, including 
such figures as Twain, Chopin, James, Williams, 
Stevens, Eaulkner, Hughes, as well as selected 
contemporary wxiters. 
Staff 

235-260 Studies In Literature Intensive study of 
a single writer, group, movement, theme, or 
period. May be counted toward the major. 
Fulfills distribution requirement in literature. 
Open to first-year students. 

235 Survey of African American Literature 

Intensive study of a single writer, group, 
movement, theme, or period. May be counted 
toward the major. Open to first-year students. 

Staff 

299 Critical Methods Introducuon to advanced 
literary study. Attention is placed on close 
reading, using the library and electronic 



resources and incorporating scholarly 
perspectives. Course also considers a variety of 
theoretical approaches to literature and their 
place within contemporary literary scholarship. 

Course is required of all English majors and must be 
taken prior to or concurrently with a student 's first 
300-leiiel course. 
Staff 

300 Forms of Fiction Writing Discussion course 
in the writing and reading of alternative forms 
of fiction. Aim is to enhance imderstanding and 
implementation of various alternatives to short 
fiction, including short-short fiction, the 
novella, and the novel. Each student completes 
two short-short stories and a fragment of a 
novella or the opening of a novel. All styles and 
subjects are welcome, and students are 
encouraged to discover and exercise their 
unique writing voices. 

Air. Leebron 

301 Writing Short Fiction Workshop in the 
reading and writing of short stories. Aim is to 
understand and implement various techniques 
and strategies of short fiction, including 
characterizafion, character development, 
variance of voice, transport, and resonance. 
Each student is to complete a number of 
exercises and two short stories (with both 
revised), as well as written critiques. Prerequisites: 
English 101 (or equivalent) and English 205, or 
permission of instructor. 

Mr. Leebron 

302 Writing of Poetry Study of theory, process, 
craft, and practice of the writing of poetry. 
Course has a substantial writing component and 
combines workshop methods with lecture, 
analysis of models, and discussion. Close 
attention is paid to rhythm, rhyme, image, 
diction, syntax, open forms, and closed forms. 
Students from all disciplines are welcome. 
Prerequisites: Y.n^\s\\ 101 (or equivalent) and 
English 205, or permission of instructor. 

Ms. Keith 

304 Writing the Personal Essay Workshop in the 
personal essay, which explores an idea from an 
individual's point of view, requiring both 
persuasiveness and a distincdve voice. Students 
develop a series of essays and read a wide variety 
of model texts for analysis and inspiration. 
Students serve as peer critics. Prerequisites: 
English 101 (or equivalent) and English 205, or 
permission of instructor. 
Ms. RJiett 



306 Writing the Memoir Workshop in the 
reading and writing of memoir. Students 
develop narratives based on personal 
experience and address the quesdon of how 
to transform memoi-y into compelling writing 
through the analysis of appiopriate models 
and discussion of student work. Each student 
is expected to complete various exercises and 
critical responses, as well as a substantial memoir 
pioject. Prerequisites: English 101 (or equivalent) 
and English 205, or permission of instructor. 
Ms. Rhett 

309 Topics In Writing Writing workshops that 
are organized according to theme, motif, or 
subgenre or that address the problem of writing 
with a specific audience in mind. 

*3 1 0-^3 1 9 Topics In Medieval and Renaissance 
Literature Study of a variety of authors, themes, 
genres, and movements, ranging from Anglo- 
Saxon poetry and prose through Shakespeare's 
works. Several secdons, each with a different 
subject, are offered every year. 

312 Medieval Drama Exploration of conflicting 
theories concerning the origin and develop- 
ment of medieval drama. Students examine 
its social roles, discuss issues of text and 
performance, and compare the relative merits 
of "good literature" and "good drama." 
Examples are drawn from a variety of genres 
of drama. Students also view performances of 
several plays on sideotape — and stage their own 
production. 
Mr Fee 

=<=320-*329 Topics In Seventeenth- and Eighteenth- 
Century British Literature Study of a variety of 
authors, themes, genres, and movements, 
ranging from Donne and Herbert through 
Johnson, Boswell, and Burke. Several sections, 
each with a different subject, are offered every 
year. 

'''320 The Early Seventeenth Century In England 

Study of the literature of the early seventeenth 
centtiry (from the death of Elizabeth I in 1603 
to the exectition of Charles I in 1649) in the 
context of the culture and histor)' of the dme. 
Through poetry, drama and prose, and other 
forms of imaginative expression such as art and 
architecture, students learn various aspects of 
the early seventeenth century, including the 
high culture of the court, the vernacular culture 
of urban and rural Hfe, exploradon and 
colonization of the new world, the intensitv of 



religious beliefs and zeal, love and relationships 
between the sexes, and the violence of political 
conflict. 
Mr. Gamett 

*322 Johnson and His Circle Course focuses on 
literature written between 1660 and 1743, and 
examines dominant literary forms and modes, 
as well as such issues as the education of women 
and marriage, changing social beha\ior, and 
growing consumerism. Through plays, prose 
writings, diaries, and poetn; students sample 
the literan,' richness of the period. 
Ms. Lambert 

325 A New Species of Writing: The Eighteenth- 
Century Novel In the history of literature the 
novel is a young genre, "invented" in the 
eighteenth-centur}'. They called it "a new species 
of writing" and reveled in the freedom the form 
gave them to explore many facets of the human 
condition. Students read several novels and 
examine the particular intellectual and social 
milieu of the time that produced some of the 
best fiction ever written. 
Ms. Lambert 

330-339 Topics in Nineteenth- and Twentieth- 
Century British Literature Studv of a variet\ 
of authors, themes, genres, and movements, 
ranging from Blake, Wordsworth, and Coleridge 
through Yeats, Eliot, Woolf, and selected 
contemporary writers. Several sections, each 
with a different subject, are offered every year. 

330A Charles Dickens The best of Dickens, the 
worst of Dickens; the wisdom of Dickens, the 
foolishness of Dickens; the Dickens of Light, 
the Dickens of Darkness; the hopeful spring 
and discontented winter of Dickens: in short, 
Charles Dickens's career traced through six 
or eight novels, with supplementan,' critical, 
biographical, and historical readings, aboiu 
400 pages per week on average. 

Mr Gamett 

333A Victorian Aesthetics Exploration of the 
intersection between literatine and the \isual 
arts, with special attention paid to the Pre- 
Raphaelite, Aesthetic, and Decadent move- 
ments, which affected all branches of art. 
Course examines the treatment of women by 
these movements (both as artists and objects 
of art) and considers the political implications 
of the aesthetic theories of these artists. 
Ms. Flynn 



334 Mad Women, Fallen Women Exploration of 
the various ways in which women contributed to 
the intellectual and political excitement of mid- 
Victorian England. Course looks at novels, 
paintings, and other writings by women to 
determine if women presented different 
perspectives, if these perspectives were skewed, 
and what might have been the causes and 
consequences of their different ways of looking. 
Special attention is given to women's collective 
action in reforming lunacy laws, attittides 
toward prostitutes and prostitution, and married 
women's propern^ rights. 
Ms. Berg 

340-349 Topics in American Literature Study of a 
variety of audiors, diemes, genres, and movements, 
ranging from colonial writers through selected 
contemporary aiuhors. Several sections, each 
with a different subject, are offered even' year. 
Staff 

340 Hughes, Wright, Baldwin: I, Too, Sing America 

Examination of the literar)' works of three major 
African American writers who critique and 
explore the complexities of being both Black 
and American before integration. In their 
poetry, prose, and fiction, Hughes, Wright, and 
Baldwin refute denigrating Anglo-American 
stereotypes concerning African Americans, 
re\ise and elevate the African American's self- 
perception and social perception, and conserve 
African American cultural forms and social 
imperatives. Taken altogether, their rhetorical 
postures represent a broad spectrum of African 
American responses to America's twendeth- 
centur)' system of social, economic, and political 
apartheid. 
Ms. Staton 

344 Contemporary American Poetry Study of 
.\merican poetn written since World War II by 
such poets as Elizabeth Bishop, James Wright, 
Charles Wright, Charles Simic, Rita Dove, and 
Sharon Olds. The class may be visited by one or 
more of the poets. 
Mr. Stitt 

347 Contemporary American Fiction Course 
studies form, content, and diversit)' in American 
ficdon since the 1940s, drawing on a selecdon of 
novels and short stories by such writers as Updike, 
Nabokov, Caner, Bellow, Pjnchon, and odiers. 
Mr Fredrickson 



350-359 Special Topics in Literature Study 
of a variety of authors, themes, genres, and 
movements. These cotirses may focus on 
literature that cuts across a variety' of historical 
periods or that is from both the United States 
and Great Britain, or from non-.\nglo-.\merican, 
English-speaking coimtries. In addition, some of 
these coiuses may focus on schools of literary 
criticism and theor)'. 
Staff 

350A Post-Colonial English Literature .\n 

intensi\e introduction to what has been labeled 
"postcolonial" literature from British ex-colonies 
around the globe. Course includes novels, plays, 
and poems by writers from sub-Saharan Africa, 
India, the Caribbean, Australia, and New 
Zealand as well as a small and accessible body of 
postcolonial theon. Focus is on the historical 
context of each work as well as on the themes of 
national identity and class-, race-, and gender- 
based oppression. 
Ms. Singley 

355 Contemporary Indian Literature in English 

Study of twentieth-centur) South .-Xsian prose 
and poetr)' written originally in English, as 
stimulated by the British educational legacy, 
traditional Indian thought, Marxism, 
Independence and feminist movements, post- 
colonial thought, and magical realism. Criticism 
by Indian scholars supplements Western critical 
approaches. 
Ms. Powers 

359A American Literature of the Civil War Era 

A study of poetiT and prose works by both 
canonical and lesser-known .\merican writers 
illuminating states of mind, both southern 
and northern, before the Civil War and the 
issues leading to it, reflecting on the war 
itself, and exploring some of the issues of the 
Reconstrucdon period. Readings include works 
by authors such as Frederick Douglass, Ralph 
Waldo Emerson, Herman Melville, Harriet 
Beecher Stowe, Henrv David Thoreavi, Mark 
Twain, and Walt Whitman as well as George W. 
Cable, John W. DeForest, Harriet Jacobs, and 
Albion W. Toingee. 
Mr. Winans 

360 Visions and Discontent Intensive 
examination of the poetrv and poedc trajectorv 
of foiu" of fiv e British and ,\merican poets, 
including W. B. Yeats, T S. Eliot, and Wilfrid 
Owen. 
Mr. Garnett 



*365, *366 Shakespeare Course seeks to 
communicate an understanding both of 
Shakespeare's reladon to the received traditions 
of his time and of his achievement as one of the 
most important figures in Western literature. 
Language, characterizadon, and stmcture in 
each of the nimierous plays will be carefully 
analyzed. English 365 focuses on the early plays 
through Hamlet and Troiliis and Cressida; English 
366, on the later plays. 
Mr. Myers 

401 New Heaven, Nev^ Earth, and the Promis'd 
End?: Shakespeare's Exploration of Tragicomic 
Romance Exploration of the genre Shakespeare 
perfected at the end of his playwridng career, 
tragicomedy or dramatic romance. After some 
consideration of how King Lear and Antony and 
Cleopatra create a polarized field of existential 
paradox that defines our post-Renaissance 
world, the course traces the evolution of tragi- 
comic vision through the experimental plavs 
Pericles and Cymbeline, the generic perfecdon of 
The Winter's Tale, and finally The Tempest, a work 
that condnues to confront us with its anguished 
andjov'ful portrait of life in the modern era. 
Mr. Myers 

402A England and America in the Eighteenth 
Century: Two Parts of the Same Whole? Study 
of the literatures of both the United States 
and England to see how long the two nations 
reflected the social, political, and philosophical 
standards of the other. Although England and 
the United States were "one nation" in 1757, 
the middle of the eighteenth centurv', by 1800 
that had changed. Was there an immediate 
cultural and intellectual break in 1776, or did 
that take much longer to develop? 
A/5. Lambert 

404A Seminar: American Modernism 

Examination of a representaUve selection of 
invendve literar}' works that together consdtute 
a remarkable period of aesdiedc experimen- 
tadon in American literarv' historv; one that 
peaked in the mid-1 920s. Authors read include 
Pound, Crane, Eliot, Dos Passos, Wright, Moore. 
Stein, Hemingway, West, Miller, Williams, 
Toomer, Larsen, Faulkner, and Agee. 
Mr. Solomon 

404A Seminar: Maverick American Filmmakers 

Exploration of the genesis, development, and 
current explosion of independent film culture. 
Students study the language systems that make 
up any movie and then apply this knowledge to 



individual, contemporary American filmmakers, 
such as Nancy Savoca and Allison Anders, John 
Sayles and (Charles Burnett, Hal Hartley and 
Spike Lee, among others. 
Mr. Ryan 

464 Honors Thesis Individualized study project 
involving the research of a topic and the 
preparation of a major paper imder the 
direction of a member of the department. 
Research and writing are done during the fall 
semester of the senior year Prerequisites: By 
invitation of department only. 
Staff 

Individualized Study Individual tutorial, research 
project, or internship inider the supervision of a 
member of the staff. Student must submit a 
written proposal to the department well in 
advance of registration. Prerequisite: Approval of 
department and of directing faculty member. 
Offered each semester. 

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 

Professors Commito (Chairperson) and Mikesell 
Associate Professor Delesalle 
Assistant Professors B. Crawford, T. Crawjord, 
and Wilson 

Overview 

Environmental studies is an interdisciplinary 
department designed to provide students with 
the expertise necessary to analyze and resolve 
complex issues related to the environment. 
Faculty from eleven departments on campus 
teach courses in the environmental studies 
major and minor, making it one of the most 
comprehensive small-college environmental 
programs in the country. Although local 
terrestrial, freshwater, and marine habitats are 
studied, the program is national and 
international in scope. Students are encomaged 
to take advantage of Gettysburg's proximity to 
scientific and policy-making agencies in the 
Pennsylvania state capital and Washington, D.C. 
Environmental studies students are actively 
involved in a wide variety of activities across the 
country, from working on economic development 
issues with Native Americans in Arizona to 
collecting field data on the ecology of Maine's 
coastal zone. At the global level, students can 
utilize the College's extraordinary travel 
opportunities to investigate firsthand the 



environmental problems facing Africa, Asia, 
Europe, and Latin America. In the classroom or 
laboratory, on an internship site or service 
learning project, in the comfort of the library or 
under demanding field conditions, students are 
taught to approach environmental issues with 
an open mind, to examine alternatives carefully, 
and to wiite and speak effectively about their work. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

The Liberal Arts Core requirement in the 
natural sciences may be satisfied by two of the 
following: Environmental Studies 121, 124, 126, 
128, and 130. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Environmental studies offers three levels of 
involvement for students interested in the 
environment. Students who want to learn about 
environmental issues but are not planning a 
major or a minor in the discipline are 
encouraged to take 100-level environmental 
studies courses. Students with a stronger interest 
in environmental studies may pursue the major 
or minor 

Major in Environmental Studies 

Environmental studies at Gettysburg involves 
an interdisciplinary approach that links 
environm.ental protection, economic development, 
and human rights issues on a global scale. There 
is a strong foundation in the natural and social 
sciences, especially biology, chemistry, economics, 
and political science, with an emphasis on 
quantitative skills. Students engage in a senior 
capstone experience; they are also encouraged 
to pursue off-campus study, internships, and 
research opportunities. 

The Environmental Studies department offers a 
tnajor with two areas of concentration: 

Core Requirements 
Bio 1 1 1 Introductory Biolog)' 
Bio 1 1 2 Form and Function of Living Organisms 
Econ 1 03 Principles of Microeconomics 
Econ 104 Principles of Macroeconomics 
Econ 34 1 Environinental Economics 
ES 2 1 1 Introduction to Environmental 

Science: Principles of Ecology 
ES 212 Intermediate Environmental Science: 

Environmental Problems 
Math 1 1 1 Calculus I or Math 105-106 Calculus 

with Precalculus 
Phil 107 Environmental Ethics orRel 264 

Religion and Environmental Ethics 



Integiation Course (choose one) 
ES 240 Energy: Production, Use, and 

Environmental Impact 
ES 310 Physical and Himian Geography 
ES 3 1 5 Land: Ecology, Histoi*)', and Culture 
ES 317 Chesapeake Bay Environmental Issues 
ES 333 Environmental Policy 

Senior Capstone Experience {choose one) 
ES 400 Environmental Studies Seminar 
ES 460 Individualized Study: Research 

Area of Concentration 

Students choose one concentration, either 
policy or science. At least two electives must be 
above the 200-level. 

Environmental Policy 

Econ 24 1 Introductor)' Economics and 
Business Statistics otPoI Sci 215 Political 
Science Research Methods or both Soc 302 
Sociological Research Methods and Soc 303 
Data Analysis and Statistics 

Econ 245 Intermediate Microeconomic Theor)' 

ES 333 Environmental Policy 

Pol Sci 10! American Government or 
Pol Sci 103 Introduction to International 
Relations o/ Pol Sci 104 Introduction to 
Comparative Politics 

Plus three electives from: 
Econ 250 Economic Development 
Econ 251 International Economics 
Econ 305 Public Finance 
ES 310 Physical and Human Geography 
ES 31 1 Introduction to Geographic 

Information Systems 
ES 3 12 Environmental Applications of 

Geographic Information Systems 
ES 315 Land: Ecology, History, and Culture 
ES 317 Chesapeake Bay Enxdronmental Issues 
Geog 312 Physical and Human Geography of 

Southern Africa 
Pol Sci 252 North-South Dialogue 
Pol Sci 308 State Politics and Policy 
Pol Sci 340 Models and Policy .Analysis 
Pol Sci 363 The Politics of Developing Areas 
Soc 203 World Population 
Soc 306 Introdtiction to Sociological Theoi"y 
Soc 313 Political Sociology 

Environmental Science 
Chem 1 07 Chemical Structure and Bonding 
Chem 108 Chemical Reactivity 



Phy 103 Elementary Physics or Phy 111 

Mechanics and Heat 
Phy 104 Elementary Physics arPhy 112 Waves 

and Electricity and Magnetism 

Plus three electives from: 
Bio 200 Physiology of Plant Adaptations 
Bio 260 Biostatistics w Math 107 Applied 

Statistics or Phy 325 Advanced Physics 

Laboratoi-)' 
Bio 307 Limnolog)' 
Chem 203 Organic Chemistry 
Chem 204 Organic Chemistry 
Chem 317 Instrumental Analysis 
ES 225 Physical Geology 
ES 226 Structural Geology 
ES/Bio 306 Marine Ecology 
ES 3 1 Physical and Htmian Geography 
ES 31 1 Introduction to Geographic 

Information Systems 
ES 312 Environmental Applications of 

Geographic Information Systems 
ES 3 1 5 Land: Ecology, History, and Culture 
ES 3 1 6 Conservation Biology 
ES 3 1 7 Chesapeake Bay Environmental Issues 
ES 350 Coastal Ecology of Maine 
Phy 213 Relativity and Modern Physics 
Phy 3 1 Atomic and Nuclear Physics 
Phy 352 Optics and Laser Physics 

Minor in Environmental Studies 

The minor requires two introductoiT courses, 
three electives, and a senior capstone 
experience, including: 

ES 2 1 1 Introduction to Environmental 
Science: Principles of Ecology or Bio 305 
Ecology 

ES 212 Intermediate Environmental Science: 
Environmental Problems 

ES 400 Environmental Studies Seminar 

Plus three electives from: 
Econ 341 Environmental Economics 
ES 240 Energy: Production, Use, and 

Environmental Impact 
ES/Bio 306 Marine Ecology 
ES 3 1 Physical and Human Geography 

ES 315 Land: Ecologv', Histon, and Culture 

ES 3 1 6 Conservation Biology 

ES 317 Chesapeake Bay Environmental Issues 

ES 333 Environmental Policy 

ES 350 Coastal Ecolog)' of Maine 

Phil 107 Environmental Ethics 




Enrichment Courses 

Students are encouraged to take enrichment 
courses to add depth and breadth to their 
environmental studies major or minor. These 
courses come from departments across campus 
and relate to the environment in a variety of 
ways. In addition to courses listed as electives in 
I lie major and minor, enrichment courses 
include, but are not limited to: 

Bio 218 .\lgae and Fungi 

Bio 224 Vertebrate Zoolog)' 

Bio 227 Invertebrate Zoology 

Bio 230 Microbiology 

IDS 250 Science, Technology, and Nuclear 

Weapons 
Phil 1 05 Contemporaiy Moral Issues 
Phil 340 American Philosophy 
Pol 263 The Politics of Developing Areas 
VAH 2 1 7 Histon of Modern Architecture 
VAH 227, 228 Aits of the First Nations of North 

America 

Special Programs 

Faculty members teaching environmental 
studies are active scholars who involve students 
in their projects as research assistants. Research 
facilities include a new Geographic Information 
Systems (CIS) laboratory, electron microscopes, 
environmental growth chambers, and a fleet of 
I5-passenger vans for field trips. 

Many of the College's off-campus affiliated 
programs provide excellent opportunities to 
study environmental issues in the U.S. and 
abroad. These include the American Universitv' 
Environmental Policy Semester in Washington, 
D.C., which offers internships with government 
agencies and private environmental 
organizations, as well as research projects in 
Costa Rica and Kenya. The College is one of a 
select few to maintain cooperative programs in 
marine science with Duke University Marine 
Laborator)' and the Bermuda Biological Station. 
Students also study at affiliated environmental 
science and policy programs at univereities in 
Australia, Denmark, England, and New Zealand, 
as well as at the Eco.systems Center in Woods 
Hole, Massachusetts. In addition, the Duke 
Universit)' School of the Environment has 
entered into an agreement with the College that 
permits students to start work at Duke on a 
Master of Environmental Management or 
Master of Forestry degree after three years at 
Gettysburg. This cooperative agreement allows 
students to earn the bachelor's and master's 
degrees in just five years. 



All across the nation, public and private schools 
have recognized the importance of environmental 
issues and are adding courses in environmental 
studies to their curricula. Students interested in 
a teaching career who wish to combine training 
in education and environmental studies are 
encouraged to contact the education department. 

12! Environmental Issues Introduction to 
national and global environmental issues. Students 
learn the basic concepts of ecologv', including 
population growth models, species interactions, 
and ecosystem and biosphere processes. 
Building on this scientific base, students use an 
interdisciplinar)' approach to analyze economic, 
ethical, political, and social aspects of environ- 
mental issues. Topics include human population 
dynamics, air and water pollution, toxic wastes, 
food production, land use, and energy 
utilization. Course does not count toward the 
major or minor in environmental studies. 
Staff 

124 Meteorology Study of the atmosphere and 
atmospheric phenomena, as well as associated 
interactions with the oceans and the earth's 
surface and its organisms. Topics include 
composidon and energy budgets of the 
atmosphere, cloud development and 
precipitadon, air pressure, winds and fronts, 
and atmospheric circulation patterns. 
Destruction of the ozone layer and ultraviolet 
radiation, the greenhouse effect, pollution, and 
global warming are also examined. Course does 
not count toward the major or minor in 
environmental studies. 
Mr. Mikesell 

126 Climatology Study of the localized weather 
of a region. Influencing factors of climate are 
examined, including continental vs. 
oceanic/lake effects, temperature and 
precipitation, the role of cyclones and 
anticyclones, and topographic and organismic 
alterations. Also analyzed are specific 
climatolocial disturbances, such as 
thimderstorm formation, tornedo development 
and occurrence, hurricane structure and 
movement, el Niiio and the Southern 
Oscillation (ENSO), and la Niiia. Course 
does not count toward the major or minor 
in environmental studies. 
Mr. Mikesell 



128 Oceanography Introduction to our 
planet's oceans, beginning \vith the histoiy of 
oceanography and focusing on the fundamental 
concepts of chemical, physical, geological, 
and biological oceanography. Important 
en\ironmental problems in marine habitats 
are also explored. Topics include ocean 
exploradon, plate tectonics, hydrothermal 
vents, currents, tides, upvvelling, waves, 
tsunamis, ocean-climate interactions. El Niiio, 
global nutrient cycles, primai^y production, 
biodiversiU', pollution, overfishing, and the law 
of the sea. Course does not cotmt toward the 
major or minor in environmental studies. 
Staff 

130 The Chesapeake Bay Ecosystem Introduction 
to the physical, chemical, and biological 
components of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. 
Emphasis is placed on the history of the Bay, 
primary production dynamics, habitat types, 
and pelagic and bottom-dwelling organisms. 
Human impacts on the Bay and its watershed 
are discussed, including contemporary issues 
such as crab and oyster fisheries, aquaculture, 
nutrient inputs, toxic chemicals, exotic species 
invasions, and the management goals of 
the Chesapeake Bay Program. Course does 
not count toward the major or minor in 
environmental studies. 
Staff 

1 1 1 Introduction to Environmental Science: 
Principles of Ecology Introduction to current 
ideas in theoretical and empirical ecology. A 
quantitative approach is used to examine 
population dynamics, competition, predator- 
prey interactions, life-history strategies, species 
diversity patterns, community structure, energ\ 
flow, biogeochemical cycling, and the biosphere. 
Course provides a foundation for further work 
in environmental studies. Three class hours and 
laboratory. Credit is not given for both 
Environmental Studies 211 and Biolog)' 205. 
Prerequisite: One year of college science. 
Mr. Commito 

212 Intermediate Environmental Science: 
Environmental Problems .\nalysis of the major 
environmental problems facing the U.S. and the 
world. Application of modern ecological theoiy 
to cunent environmental problems is emphasized. 
Perspectives from the natural sciences, social 
sciences, and humanities are used to investigate 
population growth, agricultural practices, 
pollution, energy, natural resource use, 



endangered species, and land-use patterns in tin 
industrialized and developing nations. Prerequisite: 
Environmental Studies 21 1 or Biology 205. 
Mr. Wilson 

225 Physical Geology Investigation of the earth's 
materials and processes that explain the physical 
structures that make our planet unique. Topics 
include the Earth's position in space, rock 

and mineral t^pes, volcanism, glaciation, and 
seismic events influenced by tectonic activity. 
Alternate years. Prerequisite: One year of college 
science. 
Mr Mikesell 

226 Structural Geology Investigation of the 
earth's varied topographical regions and the 
processes that produce change. Topics include 
tectonism. orogenesis, crustal deformation, and 
erosional agents such as wave action, wind, 
water, and mass wasting. Alternate years. 
Prerequisite: One year of college science. 

Mr Mikesell 

240 Energy: Production, Use, and Environmental 
impact Conventional and alternative energy 
sources are examined with respect to supply, 
price, technology, and environmental impact. 
U.S. consumption patterns are studied and the 
potential of conservation is addressed. Topics 
include nuclear reactors, fossil fuel supply, 
photovoltaics, air pollution, greenhouse effect, 
and energy efficient architecture. Prerequisite: 
One year of college science. 
Mr. B. Crnuford 

306 Marine Ecology Analysis of the ecology' of 
marine systems. The open ocean, estuaries, sail 
marshes, beaches, mud and sand flats, seagrass 
beds, rocky shores, coral reefs, and deep sea 
are examined. Problems of pollution, beach 
erosion, and the management of declining 
fisheries are also presented. Quantitative field 
work in a variety of coastal habitats is conducted 
on a required field trip to Duke University 
Marine Laboratory and the Outer Banks barrier 
island chain. Three class hours and laboraton- 
field work. Prerequisite: Environmental Studies 
211 or Biology 205. Alternate years. Course is 
cross-listed as Biology 306. 
Mr Commito 



N 



3 1 Physical and Human Geography Studies of 
human activities in its locational context. Topics 
include basic place name geography, weather 
and climate, population trends and 
characteristics, health and human development, 
culture and language, technology and economic 
development, human ecology, and 
environmental problems. 

Ah: T Crawford 

3 1 1 Introduction to Geographic Information 
Systems Analysis of geographic data and issues 
relevant to their use. Topics include digital 
geographic information technologies, digital 
data sources and database development, 
geodesy and map projections, data models and 
structures, data quality and sources of error, 
spatial analyses, and introduction to basic 
satellite image processing. Laboratory uses 
ArcView GIS software to provide hands-on 
experience in the use and analysis of geographic 
data. Prerequisite: One year of college natural 
science, social science, or computer science. 

Mr. T. Crawford 

312 Environmental Applications of Geographic 
Information Systems Application of geographic 
information systems, spatial data, and spatial 
analytic methods to selected environmental 
problems. Many environmental problems have 
an inherent spatial component that can be 
addressed using spatially referenced data and 
quantitative methods. Topics include how to use 
GIS, spatial data, and spatial analytic approaches 
to study selected environmental problems, 
including land resources management, land 
conservation, watershed systems, and non-point 
polliuion. 

Mr. T. Crawford 

3 i 5 Land: Ecology, History, and Culture 

Exploration of the ecology, histoiT, and cultine 
of land, the foundation upon which human and 
natural communities exist, focusing on 
landscape ecology as a tool for analyzing the 
terrestrial environment at the scale of human 
intervendon. Course also looks at land in 
western culture and contemporary issues of 
land management. Prerequisite: Environmental 
Studies 21 1 or Biolog)' 205. Alternate years. 
Offered 2001-2002. 



316 Conservation Biology A discipline 
comprising pure and applied science, which 
focuses on the preservation of biological diversity. 
Focus implicitly recognizes that preserving the 
genetic and ecological features of a species 
requires preservation of that species' niche. 
Topics include food web organization, spatial 
heterogeneity and distiubance, consequences of 
small population size and inbreeding, captive 
propagation, demographics of population 
growth, and species reintroduction and 
management. Prerequisite: Environmental Studies 
21 1 or Biology 205. Alternate years. 

Ms. Delesalle 

3 1 7 Chesapeake Bay Environmental Issues 

Analysis of the geology and natural history of 
the Chesapeake Bay region in the context of 
society's exploitation of a natural system. Course 
traces the settlement of the region, as well as 
how the Bay affected the society that developed 
along its shores, and how the Bay was, in turn, 
affected by this growth and development. 
Readings from the scientific, historical, 
sociological, and economics are studied to form 
a coherent portrait of the interplay between 
society and the environment. Prerequisite: 
Environmental Studies 21 1 or Biology 205. 
Alternate years. Offered 2001-02. 
Staff 

333 Environmental Policy Analysis of the policies 
that guide the use, control, and management of 
natural resources. Students examine the laws, 
bureaucracies, economics, politics, and 
ideologies imderlying policy-making processes 
in order to understand how and why certain 
policies emerge, as well as their social and 
ecological effects. Primary focus is on the U.S., 
but the growing international dimension of 
environmental policies and the ambiguous role 
of the U.S. in these efforts are also considered. 
Prerequisite: Y.nv\\'onvaenX3\ Studies 121 and an 
introductory social science course, or 
Environmental Studies 212. 
Mr. Wilson 

350 Coastal Ecology of Maine Intensive two-week 
field and laboratory experience to investigate 
marine and terrestrial environments in Maine. 
Students collect and analyze data, using 
quantitative sampling techniques to test hypotheses 
on the ecology of major habitats. Field sites 
include rocky and soft-sediment shores, open 



beaches, spruce-fir forests, blueberry barrens, 
and peat bogs. Emphasis is on the geological 
phenomena that created North America's 
glaciated landscape. Relationships between 
en\ironment and human activities in this rural 
area with its natural resoiuce-based economy 
are explored. Prerequisite: Environmental Studies 
211 or Biology 205. 
Mr. Co mini to 

400 Seminar Advanced study of an important 
national or global environmental issue. 
Interdisciplinaiy approach is used to analyze the 
problem from a variety of viewpoints in the 
humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. 
Students are responsible for a major term paper 
involving independent research. Topics differ 
each semester. Prerequisite: Senior standing aS a 
minor or major in environmental studies or 
permission of instructor. 
Staff 

460 Individualized Study: Research Independent 

investigation of an environmental topic of 
interest to the student. In conjunction with a 
faculty member, the student writes a research 
proposal due the tenth week of the spring 
semester of the junior year for a project to be 
conducted in the senior year. Sttident usually 
defines a research question and collects data to 
test a hypothesis. Such work may be done in the 
laboratory or field or vrith a computer database. 
A substantial paper is written and presented 
orally. Studio, performance, and writing 
projects may also be appropriate individualized 
study activities. Prerequisite: Senior standing as a 
major or minor in environmental studies and a 
GPA of at least 2.8, or permission of instructor. 
Staff 



FRENCH AND ITALIAN 



Professors Gregorio, Richardson Viti, and 

Viti (Chairperson) 
Associate Professor Binet 
Assistant Professors Anchisi, Jurney, and Perry 
Instructors Martin and Qiiinn 

Overview of French 

Foreign language study not only teaches sttidents 
much abotu their native tongue, biu also 
introduces them to another people's language, 
literature, and customs. This awareness of 
cultural and linguistic relativity is one of the 
hallmarks of a liberal arts education. 

Introductory French courses develop students' 
skills in spoken and written French and acquaint 
them with the literature and culture of the French- 
speaking world. Language laboratory work is 
mandatorv' for all beginning students. With 
cmphiisis on oral/ aural proficiency, it complements 
classroom instruction in the language. 

Advanced language allows the student to reach 
the higher level of masteiy in French required 
in more specialized sttidy and usage. In the 
more advanced literature and civilization courses, 
sttidents study French writing and cultiue in 
greater depth, thereby gaining considerable 
knowledge of and insight into France's past and 
present achievements in all fields of endeavor. 
Students at all levels of French are encouraged 
to study abroad, either in the College-sponsored 
programs at the InstitiUe for American 
Universities in Aix-en-Provence or at the Centre 
d'Etudes Frangaises in Avignon, or in another 
approved program, as an inestimable 
enhancement to their understanding of the 
country, its people, and its language. When 
students choose the College-sponsored course 
of study in Aix or Avignon, both credits and 
grades are transferred and financial aid may 
be applied to participation in the program. 

Students specializing in French will find that 
their major studies, in addition to their 
himianistic value, afford sound preparation for 
graduate study and for careers in teaching or 
interpreting. A knowledge of French will also be 
invaluable to them in the fields of international 
business and government, as well as social work. 
All courses offered in the department are conducted in 
French. 




Requirements and Recommendations 

Major Requirements: The French major 
curriculum, which inchides a minimum often 
courses at or above the 300-level, is macie up of 
two sequences: 

1 ) A group of four required courses, three of 
which— 300 first, then 305 and 310— should 
be taken before further progress in the major 
program unless there is a valid reason for 
exception, (305 or 310 may be taken 
simultaneously with 300); and French 400, 
which must be taken in the spring semester 
of the senior year. 

2) A set of six electives chosen from the other 
departmental offerings at the 300 level. 

All French majors are required to spend at least one 
semester studying abroad in a program approved by 
the department. The number of courses taken 
abroad for credit toward the major is limited to 
three. 

Students planning on certification in secondan' 
education must include both a histon/ 
geography/ civilization course, a phonetics 
course and a linguistic component in their 
program of study. These requirements can be 
met by completing French 351 and Education 
304 or by taking the equivalent courses in a 
program of study abroad. 

lndi\idualized study ma\ be taken only once as 
part of the minimimi requirements for the 
major. All majors must take at least one course 
wthin the department during their senior year. 
These requirements may be waived in special 
cases at the discretion of the department. 

Minor Requirements: Six courses are required for 
a minor in French. For students who begin in 
the 101-102, 103-104, or 201-202 sequences, 
202 will count toward the minor. In addition, 
students must take 205, 300, and three 
additional courses above 205. 

Students who begin in 205 must take, in addition, 
300 and four other courses above 205. 

Students who begin on the 300 level must take 
300 and five additional courses above 300. As 
A\ith the major, courses taken abroad may be 
coimted toward a minor, subject to the approval 
of the department chairperson. The number 
of courses taken abroad for credit toward the 
minor is limited to two. 

Students contemplating a minor in French 
should register widi the department chairperson 
and be assigned a minor adviser. 



French 305 is a prerequisite for majors and 
minors for all literature and film courses above 
the 205 level. 

Students who have completed the language 
requirement and who wish to continue in 
French, but do not contemplate either a major 
or minor, may take 205, 211. 300, or 305. 
Pennission of die department chairperson is 
required for entr)' into all other courses. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Prior to their first registration at the College, 
all students receive preregistration materials, 
which give detailed instructions on language 
placement and fulfillment of the Liberal Arts 
Core requirement in foreign language. 

The Liberal Arts Core requirement in foreign 
language may be satisfied by successful 
completion of French 202. Achievement 
equivalent to 202 may be demonstrated by an 
advanced placement examination or a 
departmental placement examination. No 
student may continue French unless he/she has taken 
the Departmental Placement Examination. 

All French literature and civilization courses 
may be used to satisfv' the liberal arts humanities 
requirement, including any approved literature 
or civilization course completed abroad. 

Study Abroad for Majors 

Jimiors and first-semester seniors who have 
completed French 300 or its equivalent may 
study for one or two semesters at the College's 
affiliated program in A\ignon, France. Both 
credits and grades from this program will be 
transferred, and Financial Aid may be applied to 
parucipation. Students vvill live with French 
families. (See Off-Campus Study.) 

Study Abroad for Minors 

Students pursuing a minor in French may study 
for a semester at the College's affiliated 
program in .\ix-en-Provence. Both credits and 
grades from this program will be transferred, 
and Financial Aid may be applied to 
participation. Students will live with French 
families. (See Off-Campus Study.) 

Intermediate Program Abroad 

Students ma\ complete the language 
distribution requirement in French by studying 
for a semester in Aix-en-Provence. The 
department's Intermediate Program is offered 
ever)' fall semester and includes two required 
courses in French language, plus three elecfive 
courses from areas such as political science, 
history, art, psychology, etc., which may satisfy 



liberal arts and/or major/ minor requirements. 
Students will live with French families. 

Special Facilities 

Technology classroom in McKnight Hall. 

Special Programs 

See Study Abroad, Institute For American 
Universities Programs in Avignon and Aix-en- 
Provence. 

Other Activities 

The department and the French Teaching 
Assistant sponsor various activities and 
organizations, such as the weekly Table frangaise 
in the Dining Hall, the Cercle Frangais (French 
Club) , French films, and lectures. 

FRENCH 

101-102 French for Beginners Elements of 
speaking, reading, and writing French. Language 
laboratory usage is required. Enrollment limited 
to those who have not studied French previously. 
Successful completion of 101 is a prerequisite 
for entity into 102. A student may not receive 
credit for both 101 and 103; 102 and 104. 
Staff 

103-104 Elementary French Fimdamentals of 
speaking, reading, and writing French. Language 
laboratory usage is required. Enrollment limited 
to those who have previously studied French 
and who are enrolled according to achievement 
on the Departmental Placement Examination. 
Successful completion of 103 is a prerequisite 
for entry into 104 imless a student is placed 
in 104 according to the placement exam. A 
student may not receive credit for both 101 
and 103; 102 and 104. 
Staff 

201-202 Intermediate French Grammar review 
and practice in oral French in the fall semester, 
with stress on reading and written expression in 
the spring. Contact with French culttire is 
maintained throughoiU. Enrollment limited to 
those who have previously studied French and 
who have completed 101-102 or 103-104, or 
who are enrolled according to achievement on 
the Departmental Placement Examination. 
Successful completion of 201 is a prerequisite 
for entry into 202, unless student is placed there 
according to the placement examination. 
Stnff 

205 Readings In French Literature Two 

objectives: skill in reading French prose for 
comprehension and reading a significant 
amoimt of French literature of literan' and 



cultural merit. This course differs from French 
201, 202 in that it emphasizes reading for 
comprehension of content. Offered every fall. 
Stajf 

2 1 i French Civilization Introduction to aspects 
of contemporai7 French society through a study 
of French history. Offered every spring. 

Staff 

300 Practice in Communication Oral, aiual, and 
written practices of French structures. 
Collaborative writing, group discussions, 
individual compositions, and presentations. 
Recent French films serve as text. Offered every 
semester. 
Staff 

305 Approaches to Literary Analysis Reading 
and analysis, in their entirety, of representative 
selections of prose, poetry, and theatre. Cotuse 
aims to introduce students to interpretive 
strategies, and to make them more aware of and 
competent in the reading of literature. 
Prerequisite: French 202 or equivalent. Required 
of all majors. Course is a prerequisite for all 
literature courses on the 300-level for both 
majors and minors. Offered ever}' year. 
Staff 

310 French Revolutions: Political, Social, and 
Cultural Upheaval Since 1 789 Overview of the 
various revolutions in France following the 
Revolution of 1789. Course examines the many 
political changes from the rise of the French 
Republic to the current phenomenon of 
cohabitation, as well as changes that have 
transformed the face of France in the last two 
centuries, on fronts as diverse as architecture, 
the fine arts, demography, and culture. Offered 
ever)' year. 
Staff 

331 Francophone Identities Study of literary 
texts from the Francophone world (French- 
speaking cotintries in North Africa, sub-Saharan 
Africa, the Caribbean, Quebec, and Vietnam). 
In addition to their intrinsic literaiy worth, the 
selections bring to light the changing identities 
of formerly colonized people in a post-colonial 
world. Major emphasis is placed on the study of 
the literary texts, biu the historical and cultiual 
context is also covered. Offered 2004—05. 

Ms. fumey 

332 French Film: Images, Sounds, Theories Study 
of selected major French films from the New 
Wave movement to recent cinema. Course is an 



introduction to the study of the techniques, 
theory, and semiotics of film as an art form. 
It inchides a reflection on the relationships 
between image production, social landscapes, 
and lifestyles in changing contemporary France. 
Students learn to distinguish between the 
production and reception of cinematic 
language. Prerequisite: French 305 or equivalent. 
Offered 2004-05. 
Ms. Binet 

333 French Cultures: Visuals and Texts from 
Contemporary France Study of specific 
intersections and influences among selected 
visual arts productions, motion pictures, and 
poetic texts in a changing twenty-first-century 
France. Students are invited to read between 
shapes and colors, to see and hear poetry, to 
decode film languages and to detect 
correspondences. Definitions of techniques 
and decoding systems pertaining to each 
artistic expression are presented and debated. 
Prerequisite: French 305 or equivalent. Offered 
2005-06. 
Ms. Binet 

335 A Woman's Life: Fact and Fiction About the 
Female Experience Study of the female 
experience through the words of women 
themselves. As Annie Leclerc pointed out in 
Parole defemme, for too long men have coopted 
language and assumed the task of telling women 
who they are. Course addresses such a 
presumption and examines, in both fiction and 
nonfiction, firsthand experience from 
childhood through aging. Prerequisite: French 
305 or equivalent. Offered 2003-04. 
Ms. Richardsoyi Viti 

340 Masterpieces of French Literature Reading 
and discussion of masterworks of French poetry, 
prose, and theater in their historical, artistic and 
social contexts. Works by such aiuhors as Villon, 
Montaigne, Moliere, Mme de Lafayette, Voltaire, 
Balzac, Flaubert, Colette and Beckett are read 
in their entirety'. Prerequisite: French 305 or 
equivalent. Offered 2004-05. 
Staff 

342 Classical Greek Heroes on the French Stage 

Reading and analysis of plays based on Greek 
myths by such authors as Corneille, Racine, 
Cocteau, Anouilh and Sartre. Comparison and 
contrast with the original myth and/or play 
helps elucidate "modern" responses to the 
eternal questions posed by classical Greece and 



its literary masters. Prerequisite: French 305 or 
equivalent. Offered 2004-05. 
Mr. Viti 

343 He Said, She Said: Gender Perspectives in the 
Contemporary French Novel Study of the 
conflicting male/female perspective in 
representative works by major twentieth-century 
French writers from Colette and Butor to Proust 
and Beauvoir. Prerequisite: French 305 or 
equivalent. Offered 2004-05. 

Ms. Richardson Viti 

344 Moralists and Immoralists in French 
Literature Study of topics in French literature 
over the centuries, examining works of prose 
whose thematics revolve around the question of 
morality. Course presents a survey of novels, 
short fiction, maxims, and fragments that either 
advance or reject the conventional moral 
system. Authors studied include La Bruyere, La 
Rochefoucauld, Pascal, Mme de Lafayette, de 
Bergerac, Sade, Diderot, Balzac, Flaubert, 
Huysmans, Gide, Duhamel, and Camus. 
Prerequisite: French 305 or equivalent. Offered 
2003-04. 

Mr. Qregorio 

350 Advanced Stylistics Intensive practice in the 
refinement of writing skills directed toward a 
sophisticated and idiomatic use of the language. 
Course work includes composition, translation, 
comparative stylistics, French for use in 
commercial and other correspondence, and 
work in the spoken language. Prerequisite: 
French 300 or equivalent. Offered 2004-05. 
^taff 

35 1 Phonetics and Diction Phonetic theory, 
practice, and transcription. Intensive training 
in pronunciation and diction. Intended for 
majors/minors prior to foreign study. Offered 
2005-06. 

Staff 

352 French Translation Study and practice in 
translating from French to English and from 
English to French. Course develops the ability to 
render idiomatic French into idiomatic English, 
and vice-versa. Offered 2005-06. 

Staff 

400 Seminar Intensive study of a particular 
aspect of French literature, civilization, or 
culture to be determined by the instructor. Past 
offerings include The Art of Emile Zola, The 
Image of Women in French Literature: A 



Feminist Perspective and The Gaze and Self- 
image in French Fihn, 1959-89. Course is for 
seniors (in the final semester) to complete 
undergraduate work in French. Prerequisites: 
Limited to seniors, except with permission of 
instructor and approval of department 
chairperson. Offered every spring. 

Individualized Study Guided readings or 
research luider the supervision of a faculty 
member. Prerequisites: Permission of instructor 
and approval of department chairperson. 
•^■'«# 

ITALIAN 

Overview of Italian 

Learning Italian is an integral part of the liberal 
arts experience. It enriches one's capacity to 
think, empowers one to write more effectively, 
and solidifies one's understanding of language 
systems. As an undergraduate discipline, Italian 
further opens the door to a coimtiy rich in art, 
music, literatiue, histor\', and cinematography. 

The Italian program at Gettysbiug College offers 
beginning and intermediate language learning, 
complemented by courses in Italian cinema and 
culture taught in English. Instructors provide 
dynamic, grannnar-based oral activities that aim 
at communicative proficiency. Students master 
both passive (reading and comprehension) and 
active (speaking and writing) skills. Throughout 
this process, students are exposed to Italian film, 
web sites, contemporai^ events, music, and 
lifestyle. Study-abroad opportiuiides exist at all 
levels. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Italian 222 and 260 fulfill the Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in the humanities. 

Study Abroad 

Fall Semester in Florence, Italy. Every fall students 
are invited to participate in the semester study 
abroad program sponsored by Syracuse 
University. Students will take coiuses in Italian 
language, the arts, himianities, and social 
sciences. (See Off-Campus Study.) 

101, 102 Elementary Italian Fimdamentals of 
Italian granunar, composition, pronunciation. 
Emphasis on oral comprehension, verbal 
communication, reading, and wridng. 
Classroom interaction stresses aural-oral 
method of language learning. Regular 
laboratory work reinforces grammar and v\Titing 
skills and is required of all students. Course 



includes use of audio-visual materials and 
introducdon to important aspects of Italian 
culture. Successful completion of 101 is a 
prerequisite for entry into 102. 

201, 202 Intermediate Italian Review of Italian 
grammar as well as finther development of 
speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills. 
Text includes culturally aiuhentic excerpts 
from Italian newspapers and magazines. Course 
content helps students learn about modern 
Italian civilization and current social problems. 
Regular compositions develop students' writing 
skills; audiovisual materials and required 
listening assignments improve listening and 
speaking abilities. Enrollment is limited to 
those who have completed 101-102 or who are 
enrolled according to the departmental 
placement examination. Successful completion 
of 201 is a prerequisite for entry into 202. 
Staff 

222 Introduction to Italian Cinema 

C'hronological and stylistic siuTey of Italy's 
contributions to world cinema. Films selected 
also draw attention to major historical events 
and cultural developments in Italy. Course 
examines neorealism and reactions to it, and 
presents the work of noted auteurs Antonioni, 
Bertolucci, Fellini, Pasolini, and Wertmiiller. 
Weekly screening of films on video in Italian 
with English subtitles; lectures and discussions 
conducted in English. Not offered eveiy year. 
Staff 

260 Italian Culture Explorafion of some of the 
most influential examples of Italian history, 
literature, art, music, film, and philosophy in 
their historical context, from the Roman period 
to the present, with emphasis on the twentieth 
century. Students gain familiarity with a wide 
range of Western culture's most celebrated 
accomplishments, a solid appreciation of Italian 
history, and an enriched ability to think 
critically about their own culture. Taught in 
English. Offered 2004-05. 
Mr. Perry 




GERMAN 



Associate Professors Armster, McCardle (Chairperson), 
and Ritterson 

Overview 

Learning German is more than learning a 
language. It's also the study of a culture and its 
histor). The German program offers a wide 
range of cotirses so that the student of German 
can become proficient in understanding 
German literature, history, art, and politics in 
the context of modern society. At all levels, we 
encourage the partnership between the study of 
Germany's historical and cultural development, 
and the study of its language. 

Courses are offered at all levels, from beginning 
to advanced, for majors and nonmajors. We 
encourage all of our students to study on our 
semester program in Cologne, Germany. On 
this program, students live with German families, 
participate in weekly exclusions, and study 
Gemian language, art, political science, literature, 
and histoiy under the direction of a U.S. facult)' 
member and resident Gennan faculty. In addition, 
qualified students may study on the Gettysburg 
College-affiliated, junior-year program at 
Heidelberg University. 

A resident German assistant and various 
cocurricular activities — films, visiting lecturers, 
excursions to cultural centers in Washington 
and Baltimore, German Club — all foster a close 
working relationship between students and 
facult)'. German television broadcasts are 
received by a campus-wide satellite system, and in 
addition to library subscriptions to important 
journals and newspapers, the department itself 
maintains subscriptions to newspapers, 
magazines, and a collection of source materials 
for use bv students and facult)'. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

German 202 or equivalent proficiency is 
considered a prerequisite to all higher-numbered 
German courses, unless specified otherwise. 

Major Requirements: A major consists of 
a minimum of ten courses beyond the 
intermediate language level, including 301 (or 
303-304), 305, and 306; 311, 312, 400; at least 
two courses from those numbered 325, 328, 331, 
333, 335, or 340; and one course from History 
218, History 218-GC, or German 120. Women's 
Studies/German 351 (Women in Nazism) also 
coimts for major credit with the approval of the 
instructor. Majors preparing to teach German in 
secondary schools must also lake Education 304, 



Techniques of Teaching, and Curriculum of 
Secondary German (does not count toward 
German major). No more than three courses 
taken in Cologne may count toward the major. 

Majors must spend at least one semester 
stud)ing in an approved program in a German- 
speaking countr)'. Majors who take a study 
abroad program may count no more than three 
courses per semester or six courses for the year 
toward the major and must take at least two 
German courses in their senior year. 

Majors who, by the end of the junior year, have 
not demonstrated a satisfactory level of 
competency in the reading, writing, speaking, 
and listening comprehension of German, as 
determined by the deparUnent's staff, will be 
assigned such additional work as considered 
necessar) and appropriate to the attainment of 
such compelencv bv the end of the senior year. 

Minor Requirements: For students beginning at 
202 or below, the German minor consists of 202 
(or equivalent intermediate course work in 
Cologne), 301 (or equivalent advanced course 
work in Cologne), and four additional courses. 
For students beginning at the 301 level, the 
minor consists of 301 (or equivalent advanced 
course work in Cologne) and five additional 
courses. No more than three courses taken in 
Cologne may count toward the minor. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Prior to their first registration at the College, 
all students receive preregistration materials 
that give detailed instructions on language 
placement and fulfillment of the Liberal Arts 
Core requirement in foreign language. 

Achievement equivalent to 202 may be 
demonstrated by an advanced placement 
examination or a departmental placement 
examination given during orientation before 
the initial week of fall semester. 

The Liberal Aits Core requirement in foreign 
language may be satisfied by successful 
completion of German 202 or any 300-level 
course. 

All German literature and civilization courses 
safisf)' the Liberal Arts Core requirement in the 
humanities. 

With the consent of the histon' department, 
German 311 or 312 may be counted toward a 
histor)' major. 



SPECIAL PROGRAMS 

Fall Semester in Cologne, Germany 

Every fall semester students are invited to 
participate in the semester study abroad 
program cosponsored by the Pennsylvania 
Colleges in Cologne Consortium (PCIC). This 
program is open to all students, sophomore 
through first-semester senior, regardless of 
major, who have completed a minimum of 
one year of college German or the equivalent. 
Students register for a normal course load (4-5 
courses) . Two courses are German language 
courses: 

203, 204 Intermediate German 

2 1 4 Cologne: 2000 Years of History and Culture 

303, 304 Advanced German 

325 German Literature since 1945 

The other courses (taught in English) are from 
the areas of political science, history, art history, 
and literature and may satisfy' distribution 
and/or major/minor requirements in those 
areas. These include: 

Art Hist. 2 1 S German .^j t from the Middle 
Ages to Today 

History 218 History of Germany from 1815 
to the Present 

Pol. Sci. 273 Political Systems of Germany 

Credit for the two German courses is for the 
200- or 300-level and constitiues the completion 
of the language requirement. Students live with 
German families as regular members of the 
family. Regular Gettysburg College tuition, room, 
and board cover all but personal expenses. 

Junior Year Abroad 

Qualified students are encouraged to study 
abroad one or both semesters of their jiuiior 
year. Students can choose from the Gettysburg 
College-affiliated American Junior Year in 
Heidelberg program or other programs 
administered by American institutions at 
imiversifies in Mimich, Freibing, Marburg, 
Berlin, Bonn, and elsewhere. (See Study 
Abroad). 

GERMAN LANGUAGE 

101, 1 02 Elementary German Essentials of 
grammar, composition, pronimciation. Course 
includes oral and wiitten work, graded elementary 
reading, and use of audiovisual cultural materials 
and correlative drill in the language laboratory. 
Prepares for German 201, 202. 
Staff 



103, 104 Fundamental German Fundamentals of 
understanding, speaking, reading, and writing 
German. Course includes oral and written work, 
graded elementary reading, use of audiovisual 
cidtural materials, and correlative drill in the 
language laboratoiy Enrollment is limited to 
those who have previously studied German and 
who are enrolled according to achievement on 
the Departmental Qualifying Examination. 
Students cannot receive credit for both 101 and 
103; 102 and 104. 
Staff 

201, 202 Intermediate German Continuation of 
the work of German 101, 102. Progressively 
more difficult readings introduce the student to 
German literature and civilization. Course 
includes use of audiovisual cultural materials 
and correlative drill in the language laboratory. 
Prerequisite: German 102 or equivalent. 

Staff 

301 Advanced German Designed for advanced 
work in language and intended for students who 
have successfully completed at least German 

202, as well as for qualified incoming students. 
Intensive practice in developing oral 
communication skills, listening comprehension, 
and written expression. Conducted in German 
Staff 

GERMAN CULTURE STUDIES 

205 Understanding Cultural Differences 

Intercultiual workshop focusing on everyday-life 
situations in the German-speaking world. 
Course highlights similarides and differences 
between Americans and Germans in order to 
improve students' understanding of other 
cultures and to train them to participate 
sucessfidly in intercultural communication. 
Readings are in German; course is conducted in 
German. Prerequisite: German 201 or equivalent. 
Course receives half credit. 

305 Modern Germany: Issues and Identity 

Introduction to the German major through the 
study of cultural, social, economic, and political 
developments in postwar Germany from division 
to die present. Extensive use of ciidcal/anal)tical 
readings, memoirs, literature, film, newspapers/ 
magazines, and German television via satellite. 
Conducted in German, with additional language 
practice integrated into the course. Oral reports 
and short papers. Prerequisite: German 202 or 
equivalent. Course is required of all German 
majors. 
Staff 




3 1 I From Tacitus to Frederick the Great: German 
Culture from Origins to 1790 Study of Cierman 
cultural history from its origins to the Age 
of Romanticism, including such topics as 
Germanic tribes, medieval dynasties, roman- 
esque, gothic and baroque styles. Reformation 
and Age of Absolutism. Aim is to deepen the 
student's understanding of and interest in the 
culture of the German-speaking peoples and 
their major contributions to the world's cultural 
heritage. Conducted in German. Prerequisite: 
German 301 or equivalent, or permission of 
instructor 
Slaff 

312 From Beethoven to Brecht: German Culture 
from 1790 to 1945 Study of the cultural histoid 
of the German people from the Age of 
Romanticism through the end of World War II, 
within the context of major social, political, and 
economic developments. Goal is to understand 
the creative spirit in nineteenth- and twendeth- 
century German-speaking countries, and to 
appreciate their major contributions to the 
world's cultural heritage. Conducted in 
German. Prerequisite: German 301 or equivalent, 
or permission of instructor. 
Staff 

GERMAN LITERATURE 
120 German Literature in English Critical 
analysis and appreciation of form and content 
of representative German literary masterpieces, 
selected from the literary periods from the 
Middle Ages to the present, together with 
an examinadon of the dmes and cultural 
circumstances that produced these works. 
Counts toward a major in German. 
Staff 

306 German Literature: An Introduction 

Introduction to the development of German 
literature and how to read and comprehend 
literary prose, poetty, and drama. Course aims 
to develop a sense for the art of reading, 
interpretive strategies for literary study, and a 
valid basis for the appreciation and judgment 
of literatiue. Students read, discuss, and write 
about literaiy texts in various genres and from 
various historical periods. Conducted in 
German Prerequisite: German 202 or equivalent. 
Course is required of all German majors and is a 
prerequisite for all higher-numbered literature 
courses. Offered every year. 
Staff 

328 Goethe's Faust Intensive reading and 
analysis of Faust. Lectures and discussions 
highlight its aesthetic, moral, and ethical values 



and autobiographical significance. Modern 
cultural implications are also examined. Outside 
reading and reports. Conducted in German. 
Prerequisite: German 306 or permission of 
instructor. 
Staff 

33 1 German Tales from Goethe to Grass Course 
in German prose narraUve, represented 
primarily in writings from the early eighteenth 
centiu-y to the present. Works read reflect 
particularly the development of German 
narrative since the emergence of the modern 
novel and Novelle. Readings are in German; 
course is conducted in German. Prerequisite: 
German 306 or permis.sion of department. 
Staff 

333 The Poetic Voice: German Verse Study of 
German lyric poetry from the earliest examples 
to the works of contemporary poets. Class 
discussions of the readings concentrate on 
the interrelations of form, content, and idea. 
Course also considers the historical place 
of works by major figures. Readings arc in 
German; coiuse is conducted in German. 
Prerequisite: German 306 or permission of 
department. 
Staff 

335 The German Stage Reading and critical 
analysis, through discussion and lecture, of 
representative dramas from the eighteenth 
century to the present. Includes works by 
Lessing, Schiller, Goethe, Kleist, Buchner, 
Hebbel, Hauptmann, Brecht, Diirrenmatt, 
Frisch, Braun, Hacks, or others. Readings are in 
German; course is conducted in German. 
Prerequisite: German 306 or permission of 
department. 
Staff 

340 Topics in Modern German Culture Study of 
selected aspects of German cultural history, 
including authors, themes, genres, movements, 
etc., ranging from the eighteenth centuiy to the 
present. One course in this category offered 
every year. 
Staff 

35 1 Women and Nazism Examination of the 
effects of Nazism on women, primarily (but not 
exclusively) in Germany, beginning in the 1920s 
and extending to postwar times. Course focuses 
on women's perspecdves as exhibited in 
historical and literary documents. Fulfills 
literature requirement. May be counted toward 
the German major uith approval from professor. 
Ms. Armster 



400 Seminar Intensive study of selected aspects 
of German language, literature, and civilization 
through reading, discussion, and oral and 
written reports. Topics are selected with a view 
to affording students an opportunity to 
strengthen their knowledge in areas not covered 
in their other course work in the department. 
Conducted in German. 
Staff 

IN COLOGNE: 

214 Cologne: 2000 Years of History and Culture 

hitermediale-level course for students enrolled 
in German Language and Culture I and 11. 
Study of the development of the city of Cologne 
as an urban complex and as a mirror of German 
and European history. Course also builds 
vocabulary and further strengthens language 
skills, hicludes lectures, discussions, readings, 
field trips, essays, and group projects. 

325 German Short Fiction Study of the literature 
of German-speaking countries from the end of 
World War II to the present. Course introduces 
students to authors and genres representing 
important literar)' currents and historical 
developments of the postwar era. Conducted 
in German. 

individualized Study Guided reading or research 
under the supervision of a faculty member. 
Prerequisite: Permission of department. 

HEALTH AND EXERCISE SCIENCES 

Assistant Professors D. Drury (Co-Chairperson), 

A. Hoffman, and K. Stueyripfle (Co-Chairperson) 
Lecturer D. Petrie 
Instructor C Wright 
Adjunct Instructors M. Cantele and K Lehman 

Overview 

The Health and Exercise Sciences Department 
is one of the most diverse departments on 
campus. The multidisciplinary approach of a 
liberal arts education is a perfect setting for a 
student interested in studying the fascinating 
world of the human body. Students in the 
Health and Exercise Sciences Department 
will take courses in a variety of departments, 
including Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and 
Psychology. There are two majors in the Health 
and Exercise Sciences Department: Health and 
Exercise Sciences (HES) and Health and 
Physical Education (HPE). Students with these 
majors complete different sets of courses, which 
prepare them for different futures upon their 
graduation from Gettysburg College. 



Health and Exercise Sciences Major: HES majors 
will develop a strong scientific foundation for 
the study of the human body, focusing on the 
structure and function of the body under a 
variety of conditions. Central to this foundation 
is an understanding of the body in conditions 
of wellness and disease. This program includes 
a strong base of natural science courses, 
combined with human science courses and 
practical/clinical experiences. Additionally, 
students are required to complete a senior 
research project. Students with this major 
typically go to graduate school in a variety of 
areas, including physical therapy, physician 
assistant, occupational therapy, nursing, exercise 
physiology, cardiac rehabilitation, and medicine. 

Health and Physical Education Major: HPE majors 
will study the practical applicadon and 
implementation of knowledge related to health 
and fitness. This major also has a scientific 
foimdation, but focuses on how this scientific 
knowledge can be used to promote health, 
wellness, and fitness in a variety of school, 
community, or work-site settings. Students 
complete human science courses as well as 
courses in personal and commimity health, 
nutrition, and administrauon. Emphasis is 
placed on practical experiences, the 
development of communication skills, and an 
imderstanding of the current health issues in 
our society. Students with this major pursue 
careers in commiuiitv' health, corporate fitness, 
coaching, recreation, sport administration, or 
sport management. In addition, students have 
the option of completing additional courses to 
acquire K-I2 Health and Physical Education 
Teaching Certification from the state of 
Pennsylvania. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Health and Exercise Sciences Major: HES majors 
must satisfy all College Liberal Arts Core 
requirements. Biology 101 and 112 are the 
required natiual sciences courses and should be 
taken during the first year. 

HES majors are required to take the following 
courses: HES 112, 209, 210, 214, 218, 309, 310, 
376, and 449. Each student must take one of the 
following statistics courses: Math 107, Biology 
260, Psychology' 205, or HES 332. Each student 
must also take Chemistry 107 and 108, or 
Physics 103 and 104. 

Health and Physical Education Major: HPE majors 
must satisf\' all College Liberal .\rts Core 
requirements. Biolog)' 101 and 102 are the 



► 



1 equired natural sciences courses and should be 
laken during the first year. 

UPE majors are required to take the following 
( nurses: HES 112. 209, 210, 214, 218, 309, 211, 
-'12, 220, 230, 320, 332, 101, 102, 201, 202, 301, 
and 302. 

Students seeking K-12 Health and Physical 
Kducation Teaching Certification from the stale 
I )f Pennsylvania must complete the following 
courses: HES 250 and 251; Education 201, 209, 
'M)4, and 476; Psychology 101 and 225; English 
101 and any other literatme course; and any two 
mathematics courses. 

Faculty advisors are available to help in coim- 
seling, but students have the sole responsibilit)' 
for meeting all requirements for the HES or 
HPE major. It is important to declare the HES 
or HPE major early in the four-year curriculum. 
Failure to do so often results in an extra semes- 
ter or two to complete the program. HES and 
HPE majors must take all required courses from the 
HES department at Gettysburg College. 

The HES Department strongly recommends 
that all HES and HPE majors complete an 
internship in order to gain practical experience 
and insight into a specified area of interest. 
Internships may be taken during the regular 
academic year or during the summer. For HES 
majors, internships may be arranged in such 
settings as physical therapy, occupational 
therapy, cardiac rehabilitation, nutrition, 
physician assistant, nursing, exercise physiology, 
or medicine. HPE majors may choose to do 
internships in settings such as community 
health, corporate fitness, coaching, recreation, 
sport administration, or sport management. 
Grading is contracted between the student and 
a facult)' sponsor on an S/U basis and is 
determined by the faculty sponsor and the 
cooperadng internship supervisor. 

Health and Exercise Sciences Minor: For HES 
minors, Biology lOI and 112 are the required 
natural sciences courses and should be taken 
during the first year. 

The following five HES courses are required: 
HES 209, 210, 214, 218, and 309. In addition, 
students must choose one of the following 
courses to complete the HES minor: 230, 240, 
310, 311,342, 376, or 449. 

Affiliations 

Gett)sburg College has an agreement with 
Drexel University for early acceptance of 
selective graduates who meet the criteria for 



admission to the Doctor of Physical Therapy 
(DPT) program. The College also has an 
agreement with the Johns Hopkins University 
School of Nursing for a combined (3-2) degree 
program and with Philadelphia College of 
Optometry for an accelerated (3-4) degree 
program. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

For nonmajors, the one-quarter credit course 
in fitness/recreational skills is required for 
graduation. This course is graded on an S/U 
basis. 

HES 332 and 342 fulfill the Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in quantitative reasoning. 

FITNESS/RECREATIONAL SKILLS ACTIVITIES 

Aerobics 
Badminton 
Basketball 

Body Conditioning (Aerobics, Anaerobics, 
Weight Training) 
Challenge Course 
Fitness Swim 
Golf 

Indoor Soccer 
Indoor Lacrosse 
Lifeguarding** 
Power Walking 

Running & Jogging (Self-Paced) 
Skiing** 
Softball 
Tennis 
Volleyball 
**Requires extra fee 

Students who are unable to participate due to 
medical reasons in the regular programs should 
enroll in HES 106, Adapted Physical Education, 
which can be subsdtuted for any 
fitness/recreational skills course. 

101. 102, 201, 202, 301. 302 Major Skills Skill 
development and methods and techniques of 
class organization and instruction for the 
following physical education activities: lacrosse, 
field hockey, WTestling, swimming, gymnastics, 
folk-square-social dance, baseball, softball, 
tennis, aerobics, conditioning, weight-training 
badminton, elementar\' school teaching, golf, 
archeiy, soccer, elementary-junior high-senior 
high games and recreational activities, basketball, 
volleyball, and track and field. Course is for health 
and physical education majors. 1/4 course each. 
Staff 



1 12 Foundations of Health and Exercise Sciences 

Introchu tion to the- clexelopiiu-nt of health, 
physical education, and recreation programs 
from historical, philosophical, and 
contemporary perspectives. Special emphasis is 
placed on current controversial issues existing 
in physical education and athletics, as well as on 
the diversity of career options available within 
allied health sciences. Prerequisite: Majors only or 
prospecdve majors. 
Ms. Wright 

209 Human Anatomy and Physiology I Systems 
approach to study the structure and function of 
the human body. Emphasis is placed on the 
levels of organization within the human body, 
and the anatomy and physiolog) of the 
integumentan, skeletal, muscular, and nervous 
systems. (The remaining systems are covered in 
HES210.) Prerequisites: Eio\og\' 101 or 111 and 
Biology 102 or 112. 

Ms. Stuempjle 

2 1 Human Anatomy and Physiology II Systems 
approach to study the struciiue and function of 
the human body. Emphasis is placed on the 
anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular, 
lymphatic, respiratory, urinary, digestive, 
reproducdve, and endocrine systems of the 
human body. (The remaining systems are 
covered in HES 209.) Prerequisites: Biolog)' 101 
or 11 1 and Biologv 102 or 1 12. 

Ms. Stuempjle 

2 1 1 Concepts in Personal Health Critical look at 
current health issues. Careful inspection of data 
concerning drugs, human sexuality, marriage 
and family living, old age, and pollution is 
included, along with an examination of the 
relationship of personal health problems to the 
commimit)' at large. 

Ms. Wright 

212 Introduction to Community Health Broad 
overview of community health. Health 
promotion, consumer health, public health, 
school health, environmental health, 
preventative medicine, and the health care 
system are examined. Each area's contribution 
to community health is discussed. 

Ms. Hoffman 

214 Care and Prevention of Athletic Injuries 

Course includes instruction aboiu protective 
equipment, safet)' procedures, and facilities, 
as well as preparation of the athlete for 
competition, emergency procedures, post-injury 



care, and medical research related to training 
and athletics. Material in the official Red Cross 
Standard First Aid courses is given, and 
certificates can be earned. Practical work 
covered includes massage, taping, bandaging, 
and application of therapeutic techniques. 
Mr Can tele 

218 Kinesiology Examination of the interaction 
of the skeletal, nuiscular, and nervous systems 
that create movement. Areas of study include 
the osteology, arthrology, myology, and 
neurology of the head, neck, trunk, and limbs. 
Various skills are analyzed to determine joint 
motion, types of muscle contracdon, and 
involved muscles. Prerequisite: HES 209. 
A/5. Lehman 

220 Administration in Health and Exercise 
Sciences Study of the administrative theoiy, 
principles, and problems in health and exercise 
science. 
Ms. Hoffman 

230 Nutrition and Performance InvestigaUon of 
himian niUrition, focusing on the nutrients and 
factors that affect their utilization in the human 
body. Emphasis is placed on the effects of vaiious 
nutrients on fitness and athletic performance. 
Topics include nutritional quackery, weight 
conuol, and pathogenic pracdces among athletes. 
Prerequisite: Biology 101 or 111. 
Mr D. Petrie 

240 Sport Psychology Study of the principles 
and concepts used in sports psycholog)'. Topics 
of personality and the athlete, success strategies 
of performance, and motivadonal theories are 
covered in depth. History of sports psychology 
and the psychology of play and competition are 
also stressed. Prerequisite: Psvcholog\' 101. 
Mr Janczyk 

250 Methods of Teaching Elementary Health and 
Physical Education Examination of history and 
philosophies of teaching elementaiy health and 
physical education. Principles, methods, and 
strategies for teaching elementary health and 
physical education will be invesdgated. Students 
explore lesson planning, classroom management 
intervention, and assessment strategies. 

Ms. Hoffman 

251 Methods of Teaching Secondary Health and 
Physical Education Examinadon of histoiy and 
philosophies of teaching secondary health and 
physical educadon. Principles, methods, and 
strategies for teaching secondary health and 



pliysical education are investigated. Students 
1 \plore lesson planning, classroom 
management intervention, and assessment 
strategies. 
Ms. Hoffman 

309 Exercise Physiology Study of integration of 
the body systems in performance of exercise, 
work, and sports activities. Both acute and 
chronic stresses are considered. Performance 
of exercise activities by the body under 
environmental stress situations is covered. 
Laboratory experiences include the measure- 
ment of physiological parameters under 
exercise conditions. Prerequisites: HES 209, 210. 
Mr. Dniry 

3 1 Clinical Exercise Physiology Provides an 
understanding of exercise prescription for 
healthy adults and those with coronary heart 
disease risk factors. Standard fitness testing 
techniques are demonstrated in supplemental 
laboratoi7 sessions. AJl exercise testing and 
prescription considerations are taught in 
accordance with guidelines established by the 
ACSM. Prerequisite: HES .'^09 or permission of 
instructor. 

Mr D. Pehie 

3 1 1 Cardiorespiratory and Neuromuscular 
Conditioning Principles of cardiorespiratory 
conditioning and neuromuscular training, with 
emphasis on the scientific basis of the theories. 
Management of persons with and without 
chronic disease and its incorporation into 
contemporai^y medical care is discussed. 
Selected topics include exercise techniques, 
program design, and modifications of health 
behaviors. Prerequisites: HES 209, 210, and 309. 
Mr Drury 

320 Adapted Physical Education and Sport 

Provides instruction, experiences, and 
observations of the school environment and 
of school children. Specific abnormalities of 
people are studied, and exercises are adapted 
for individuals to allow more complete per- 
sonality and physical development through 
activity. A laboratory experience allows students 
to gain first-hand experience in working with a 
special-needs person. 
Ms. Wright 

332 Measurement and Evaluation in Health 
and Exercise Sciences (loncentration on test 
preparation in the cognitive, psychomotor, and 
affective domains; application of measurement 



and evaluation topics; analysis of data through 
the use of computers; and participation in field 
experiences with standardized testing. 
Ms. Hoffman 

342 Biomechanical Analysis of Sport Skills 

Study of the science that investigates the 
mechanics of the human body at rest or in 
motion. Course covers basic mechanical 
principles of statics and dynamics and 
application of these in the analysis of sport 
activities. Laboratory experiences include an 
analysis of a selected sport skill. 
Mr D. Petrie 

376 Exercise and Chronic Disease In-depth study 
of various factors affecting human performance, 
with emphasis on regulation of various bodily 
functions at rest and during physical activity. 
Laboratory activities acquaint students with 
equipment and testing procedures used in 
measuring physiological parameters. 
Prerequisite: HES 309. 
Mr Drury 

449 Introduction to Research Provides 
theoretical basis for t t)iiducting, interpreting, 
and analyzing research in physical education 
and exercise science. Course focuses on 
problem identification, project planning and 
instrumentation, and data collection. Written 
senior thesis presented to HES faculty is 
required. Prerequisite: HES 332, Math 1 07, Bio 
260, Psych 205, or permission of instructor. 
Mr Drury 

462 individualized Study: Research Independent 
investigation of a topic of special interest, 
normally including both literature and 
laboratory/field research. Directed by a faculty 
member familiar with the general field of study. 
Students are required to present an acceptable 
research proposal no later than four weeks 
following the beginning of the semester, or to 
withdraw from the course. An oral presentation 
to the department and a written thesis are 
required. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. 
Staff 

473 Individualized Study: Internship 

Independent internship experience under the 
direct supervision of professional personnel 
in a variety of HES- and HPE-related areas. 
Internship must be approved by the Center for 
Career Development and the HES Department 
internship coordinator Graded S/U. 
Ms. Wright 



475 Individualized Study: Internship (Summer) 

Iiulependeiit internship experience under the 
direct supervision of professional personnel 
in a variety of HES- and HPE-related areas, 
hiternship must be approved by the Center for 
Career Development and the HES Department 
internship coordinator. Graded S/U. 
Ms. Wright 

HISTORY 

Professors Birkner (Chairperson), Boritt, and Gallman 
Associate Professors Bowman, Chiteji, Sanchez, and 

Shannon 
Assistant Professors Hancock, Sommei', and Loiuy 
Visiting Assistant Professors Landweber and Weitz 
Adjunct Instructors Brasher, Domhroivsky, and 

Ericson-Hansen 

Overview 

The study of histor\' challenges students actively 
and creatively to engage sources of many kinds 
in order to construct persuasive verbal and 
written argimients about the past. Through an 
ongoing process of interpreting incomplete and 
often contradictory sources and participating 
in scholarly debates, students acquire critical 
thinking skills, such as the ability to make 
connections across time and place, to relate 
the specific to the general, and to recognize 
trends and change over time. Doing history 
encoiuages taking the long view of things; it 
is enjoyable; and it is liberating. Comparing 
different regiotis in different periods encour- 
ages students to appreciate the diversity of the 
human experience and leads them to a deeper 
understanding of their own history. In addi- 
tion to preparing imdergraduates for graduate 
studies, professional endeavors, and careers 
in teaching and writing, majoring in histoiT 
sharpens skills of independent inquiry and 
encourages habits of informed citizenship. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Recjuirements for a major are ten courses, 
including a 100-level histoid course, History 300 
(in the sophomore year), and one of the senior 
research seminars. All majors must pass at least 
three additional 300-level coiuses and three 
courses at the 200 or 300 level chosen from at 
least three of five groups: American, European, 
Latin American, African, or Asian history. 
(Hist 345 and CWES 205 may not both count 
toward the major.) Senior research seminars, 
numbered 408 to 422, are normally restricted 



to history majors, for whom one is required. 
A selection from the list of seminars is offered 
each year. They provide students with an oppor- 
tunity to work in small groups with a faculty 
member in research upon a selected topic. 
Typically, participants are expected to engage 
in reading, discussion, oral reports, writing of 
formal papers based on individual research, 
and critiques of each other's work. 

The minor in history consists of six history 
courses, of which no more than two may be at 
the 100 level and at least two must be at the 300 
level. One course may be among the courses of 
other departments listed below. No courses 
taken S/U may be included. 

Classics 251 (Greek History) and Classics 251 
(Roman History) may be counted toward the 
ten-course requirement for the history major. A 
student who has declared a double major in 
histor)' and a modern language may, with 
special permission from the chair of the 
deparUnent of histoiy, count one of the following 
courses toward the ten-course requirement for 
the history major (biU not toward the 300-level 
requirement): French 211; German 311, 312. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

All courses fulfill the Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in the humanities. History 104, 
221-224, 271, 272, and 373 satisfy the 
requirement in non-Western cultiue. 

103 Europe, Asia, and Africa: 1750-1930 

Introduction to the history of the modern world 
(app. 1750-1930). Focus is on the comparative 
global history of Asia, Africa, and Europe 
during this period. Course examines economic, 
political, and cultural interactions between these 
three continents, and includes some history of 
the Americas to roimd out the picture of world 
histoiy Themes include global economics (slave 
trade, industrial revolution (s), world markets), 
imperialism, nationalism, and world war. Course 
is intended as an introductory history class for 
all students and fulfills one of the Humanities 
requirements. Course also fulfills the global 
history requirement for majors. 
Mr Bonnnan, Ms. Landiveher 

104 History of the islamic World to 1800 

Introduction to the Islamic world from the 
origins of Islam to the decline of the Ottoman 
Empire. Course covers the geographical spread 
of Islam, terms of encounter with regional 




populations, and resulting exchanges. Students 
read the work of a Muslim historian and explore 
the role of Sufism in winning converts. 
Ms. Powers 

105 The Age of Discoveries, 1 300- 1 600 Course 
tocuses on cultiual and economic interactions 
between Europe, Asia, the Muslim world, and 
the Americas, and places great "discoveries" 
of Western histoiy — the new World, conquests, 
the"rebirth" of antiquity, and the beginnings of 
modern science — within their context of cross- 
cultural exchange. Students consider literary, 
scientific, and religious influences on individual 
encounters, as well as historians' explanations 
for long-term global realignments during a 
dynamic period in world histoiy 

Afi. Brasher, Ms. Sanchez 

106 The Atlantic World, 1600-1850 Examination 
of the development of an Atlantic world system 
that connects Europe, Africa, and the Americas. 
Students study Atlantic commimities in a 
comparative context that emphasizes inter- 
national trade and communication, encounters 
between native and colonial peoples, the 

rise and fall of New World slaver)', and the 
development of new national identities. 
Mr. Shannon, Ms. Sonimer 

1 1 The Twentieth-Century World Historical 
change in the global setdng, from the 
ascendancy of the pre-First World War empires 
to the present. Topics include technological 
development, imperialism and decolonization, 
world wars, political revolutions, social and 
economic forces, and the reshaping of thought 
and the arts in the diverse cultures of humanit)'. 
Mr. Birkner, Mr Chiteji, Ms. Ericson-Hansen, Ms. Laii^ 

203, 204 History of the British Isles Survey of 
British history from ancient times to the present, 
hicludes belaud, Scotland, and the overseas 
empire. Dividing point between the two courses 

is 1800. 
Mr. Shannon 

206 Spain and the New World Examination of 
the social, cultural, and political history of Spain 
and the New World from 1450 to 1700. Special 
attendon is given to the effects which the 
discovery of the New World had on Spain and 
Latin America and the manner in which Spain 
imparted its institutions, culture, and beliefs to 
the peoples it conquered. 
Ms. Sanchez 



209 Women's History since 1 500 Sui-vey of the 
histoi-y of women since 1500, with particular 
attention on women's participation in the polit- 
ical, economic, cultural, and familial realms. 
Focus is primarily on European women, with 
occasional comparisons to the United States. 
Ms. Landweber, Ms. Sanchez 

210 History of Early Modern France 

Examination of major themes in French social, 
economic, and cultural history, from the reign 
of Francis I and the emergence of the 
Renaissance state to the Revolution with its 
sweeping away of the order associated with that 
state. Course concentrates on the changing 
social and economic structure of the period, as 
well as on the contemporaneous evolution of 
"popular" and political culture. 
Ms. Landwebei- 

2 1 1 Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe, 
1500—1800 Suney of developments in French, 
Italian, English, and German popular cultine 
over three centuries. Inquii'y covers whether 
elite culture-makers were waging war upon 
popular culture in early modern Eiuope and 
whether popular culture was being driven 
underground from the sixteenth to the 
eighteenth centuries. Topics of study include 
Carnival, commimity policing, ritual behavior, 
family life, violence, deviant behavior, religion, 
magic, and the transmission of culture. 

Ms. Landweber 

1 1 6 Modern Russia and the Soviet Union 

Introduction to the histon of modern Russia 
and the Soviet Union. Course follows political, 
economic, cultural, and social developments in 
Russia from the time of Catherine the Great and 
the French Revoludon to the collapse of the 
former Soviet Union. Topics include Tsarist 
Russia, Russia in World War I, the Russian 
Revolution of 191 7, Stalinism, the Cold War, the 
Post-1945 period, and Gorbachev and the end 
of single-party rule. Course also addresses the 
role of women, minorities, and social classses in 
the histoiy of modern Russia. 
Mr. Bowman 

218 Modern Germany Introduction to the 
history of modern Germany, addressing 
political, economic, cultuial, and social 
developments since 1800, with special attention 
given to the Bismarckian and Wilhelminian era. 
World War I, the Weimar and Nazi periods, 



World War II, the Holocaust, and the era of the 
two Germanys. Students may not receive credit for 
this course and Hist 218-GC taught in Cologne. 
Mr Bowman 

22 1 , 222 History of East Asia Survey of East Asian 
cixilizations to app. 1800 (in 221), and of East 
Asian political, social, and intellectual develop- 
ments since the beginning of the Qing Dynasty. 
Ms. Lowy 

223 Modern China Study of Chinese history since 
the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, with 
emphasis on transformations of the nineteenth 
century and the Nationalist and Communist 
revolutions. 

Ms. Lowy 

224 Modern Japan Examination of Japanese 
history and culture from the beginning of the 
Tokugawa period (ca. 1600) to the present. 
Explores Japan's attempts at constructing a 
nation that would meet the challenges of 
modernity, while at the same time preserving 
Japanese traditions. 

Ms. Lowy 

230 The Native American-European Encounter in 
North America Course focuses on encounters 
and adaptations bet\\'een native American and 
European peoples in North America from 1500 
to the present. Topics include the demographic 
consequences of contact; impact of European 
trade, religion, and war on native societies; 
relations between native 7\mericans and the U.S. 
government; and the question of native 
American identity in the modern world. 
Mr. Shannon 

236 Urbanism in American History Introduction 
to American history from the perspective of 
urbanism. Beginning with the colonial town and 
continuing to the megalopolis of the late 
twentieth centuiy, students investigate the 
nature of urban life and its influence on the 
course of American development. 
Staff 

238 African American History: A Survey Broad 
o\ er\iew of the Mrican and Afric an .\merican 
experience in colonial North America and the 
United States. Course considers how black 
peoples have responded to and been shaped by 
their experience during slavery and freedom, as 
well as examining the considerable economic, 
cultural, social, and political impact of their 
presence in the United States. 
Mr Hancock 



244 American Military History A sur\'ey of the 
American military experience from the early 
colonial period to the most recent experiences 
in the Gulf War and Afghanistan. The course 
encompa.sses a study of the relationships and 
impact of warfare and militar)' forces in the 
establishment, expansion, preservation, and 
development of the United States. Emphasis is 
on the context of American warfare and how it 
has influenced our history and way of life. The 
course analyzes factors that have influenced 
military operations, such as strategy, tactics, 
organization, technology, logistics, national will, 
leadership, and luck. 

Mr Domhrojvsky 

245 Gender and the American Civil War Study of 
the experiences of women and men during the 
Civil War era (app. 1840-1870s), with particular 
attention given to the following questions: How 
did the public role of women evolve during 
these decades? How did the experiences of 
women and men vary according to race, class, 
condition of servitude and location? How did 
the war illuminate or challenge existing gender 
roles? How did the militar)' experiences of the 
war shape notions of masculinity? 

Afc. Ericson-Hansen, Mr Gallman 

248 Poverty and Welfare in American History 

Survey of the histor)' of povert)' and responses 
to poverty in .\merica, from the colonial period 
to the passage of recent welfare reforms. Class 
focuses on three interrelated clusters of 
questions. Wlio were the poor and how have 
they lived? Wliat have Americans thought about 
poverty? And what have been the public and 
private policy responses to poverty? Course has a 
required service-learning component 
Mr Gallman 

26 1 Colonial Latin America Exploration of 
Spanish and Portuguese America from its roots 
in Iberia and indigenous .America through 
three centuries of change. During the period. 
Native Americans, Europeans, and .Africans 
transformed their economies and cultures and 
created new societies. Cross-listed as LAS 261. 
Ms. Sommer 

262 Modern Latin America Survey of Latin 
.American history from independence through 
the formation of national identity and the quest 
for modernity to dictatorship, democracy, and 
neoliberalism. Cross-listed as LAS 263. 

Ms. Sommer 



264 Brazil: Earthly Paradise to Industrial Giant 

Major themes in Brazilian history from early 
Portuguese-indigenous relations, expanding 
frontiers, colonial society, and the development 
of African slaver)' through nineteenth-centur\' 
formation of national identit)' to twentieth- 
century industrialization, political struggle, and 
cultural change. 
Ms. Sommer 

271, 272 African History and Society Study of 
African history from the pre-colonial era to 
the present. First semester covers traditional 
societies, state formations, Africa's relationship 
to the world economy, and European exploration 
and conquest. Second semester examines 
developments leading to the colonization of 
Africa, changes in African societies under colonial 
rule, African responses to colonialism, African 
nationalist movements, and post-colonial 
socioeconomic and political experiments. 
Mr. Chiteji 

119 U.S. and the Middle East U.S. relations with 
the Middle East 1880-present. Topics include 
great power rivalry, oil, the Arab-Israeli dispute, 
regional wars, political Islam, cultural and 
religious differences, revolution in Iran, U.S. 
wars in the Persian Gulf and Afghanistan, and 
international terrorism. 
Staff 

300 Historical Method Course introduces majors 
to the techniques of historical investigation, 
considers the nature of histoi-y, and examines 
the relation of history to other fields of study. 
Prerequisite: Two courses in history. 
Mr. Birkner 

308 Women, Power, and Politics in Early Modern 
Europe Study of women's access to political 
power and their participation in politics in early 
modern and modern Europe. Consideration is 
given to different ways women exercised 
authority and influence and how they expressed 
a political voice. Includes an analysis of 
perceptions of politically powerful women. 
M.S. Landweber Ms. Sanchez 

3 1 1 Medieval Europe Survey of the period from 
the breakdown of Roman institutions in the 
West to the coming of the Black Death in 1347. 
Special emphasis is given to political, cultural, 
and social developments, including such topics 
as the Germanic invasions, the reign of 
Charlemagne, the struggle between secular 
rulers and the papacy, the Crusades, and the 
twelfth-century renaissance. 
M.S. Sanchez 



3 1 3 Renaissance and Reformation Study of the 
gradual transition from the medieval to the 
early modern world, from ca. 1350 to the end of 
the sixteenth century. Course covers the cultural, 
political, economic, and religious changes and 
discusses such seminal figines as Petrarch, 
Machiavelli, Luther, Calvin, and Loyola. 

Ms. Sanchez 

314 Early Modern Europe, 1550-1750 Course 
begins with the sixteenth-century wars of 
religion and continues with a study of the 
Habsburgs' attempts to dominate Europe, the 
emergence of France to predominance, and the 
development of the absolute state. The cultiual 
and social impact of those political changes 
form a central part of the class. 

Ms. Sanchez 

315 Europe and the Age of Revolution Intensive 
analysis of the origins and implications of the 
French Revolution. Course explores the 
differing aspirations of the nobles and peasants, 
lawyers and artisans, clerics and women, soldiers 
and philosophers whose world was transformed 
during the revolutionary decades. Students 
assess diverse interpretations of the revolution's 
causes and its consequences for the 
development of modern political culture. 

Staff 

3 1 6 Transformations in Nineteenth-Century 
Europe In-depth analysis of the histor)' of 
nineteenth-centun' Europe. Course follows 
political, economic, cultural, and social 
developments in Europe beginning with the 
Ancien Regime and the French Revolution. 
Focus is on the transformations in the 
nineteenth century that brought Europe and 
much of the world into the modern era. Topics 
include the industrial revolution, Napoleon, 
political ideologies, the creation of new social 
classes, and scientific and medical revolutions. 
Course emphasizes the differences between the 
world before 1789 and the world in which we 
live today. 

Mr. Bounnan, Ms. Landweher 

317 Europe 1871-1919 Period from the Paris 
Commime of 1871 to the settlement of 

the Great War in 1919. Course explores 
transformations in European economies, states, 
foreign relations, societ\', and thought that 
formed the backdrop for the Great War. 
Mr. Bowman 



318 Europe and the Two World Wars Studies of 
selected aspects of European history from the 
outbreak of the First World War in 1914 to the 
end of the Second World War in 1945. 

Mr. Bowman 

3 1 9 Europe since 1 945 Perspectives on postwar 
Europe: reconstruction, de-Nazification, de- 
Stalinization, the end of the colonial empires, 
nationalism and European integration, and the 
role of the state and of religion, with the 
reflection of these in culture and society. 

Mr. Bowman, Ms. Landweher 

335, 336 American Social and Cultural History 

C'oinse traces .\nierica"s major social, religious, 
artistic, and philosophical movements and their 
immediate and long-range impact on American 
life and culture. Beginning with the American 
Revolution, History 335 covers the period to 
the Civil War. History 336 continues from that 
period to the present. Offered alternate years. 

34 1 Colonial America Examination of the 
colonization of North American from ca. 
1500-1750, with emphasis on the European- 
Indian encounter, the origins of slavery, and 
comparative analysis of family, gender, and labor 
relations. Students also study provincial American 
culture from different regional perspectives and 
within a wider British-Atlantic world. 

Mr. Shannon 

342 Revolutionary America Examination of the 
origins, conduct, and results of the American 
Revolution, from ca. 1750-1790. Emphasis is on 
the social and cultural transformation of 
American life and the political ideology of the 
revolutionaries. War for Independence is 
explored from the perspectives of soldiers, 
civilians, women, African Americans, loyalists, 
and Indians. 

Mr. Shannon 

343 The Early Republic Coiuse covers the period 
from the 1790s to the Mexican War and 
explores currents of American national life 
under such influences as Jefferson's agrarian 
republicanism, the emergence of liberal 
capitalism, and the democratic movements 

of thejacksonian period. Attention is paid to 
slavery and sectionalism. 
Mr. Birkner 



345 Civil War The trauma of America from 
the end of the Mexican War to Appomattox, 
moral judgments in history, political culture, 
economic interests, diplomacy, and war. 

Mr. Boritt 

346 Slavery, Rebellion, and Emancipation in 
the Atlantic World Comparative study of slave 
systems, enslaved peoples, and emancipation 
in the Atlantic World. Processes of slavery, 
resistance, and emancipation in Africa, the 
Caribbean, and the Americas from the 1500s 

to today are examined. Course also analyzes the 
effectiveness of emancipations and concludes by 
heightening awareness of ongoing slavery in 
Sudan and other countries. 
Mr. Hancock 

348 Early Twentieth-Century America Focus is 
primarily on the major political, economic, and 
social developments in the U.S. from about 
1900 to 1945. Some attention is given to the role 
of the U.S. in the world during this period. 

Mr. Birkner 

349 The United States Since 1 945 Examination of 
niiijor political, economic, and social developments 
in the U.S. since 1945, including demands made 
on the U.S. as a leading world power. 

AJr. Birkner 

361 Mexican Revolution Study of the background, 
precursor movements, participants, events, and 
outcome of the violent social revolution that 
swept the Mexican coimtryside between 1910 
and 1917. 
Ms. Sommer 

373 History of Sub-Sahara Africa in the Twentieth 
Century Study of the impact of European 
colonial rule on African cultines, African 
respon.ses to colonialisiu, and the impact of the 
colonial experience on contemporary African 
nations. Course also examine various methods ol 
African resistance to colonial rule. 
Mr Chiteji 

SENIOR RESEARCH SEMINARS: 
408 The Reformation 

Ms. Sanchez 

410 Abraham Lincoln 

Mr. Baritt 

412 Eisenhower and His Times 

Mr Birkner 

4 1 3 Decolonization in Africa 

Mr. ChiU'ji 



417 Meaning of Independence 

W/; Shannon 

418 Nazism 

Mr: Bowman 

42 1 The United States and World War II 

Mr. Birkner 

422 The Pacific War, 1931-1945 

Ms. iMwy 

Individualized Study Individual tutorial, research 
project, or internship, requiring the permission 
of an instructor who supervises the project. 
Instructor can supply a copy of the statement 
of departmental policy regarding grading and 
major credit for different types of projects. 
Either semester. 
Staff 

INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDIES 

Professor Cushing-Daniels (Chairperson) 

Associate Professor Poioers 

Adjunct Instructors Lindernan and Lane 

The Committee on Interdisciplinary Studies 
offers courses and coordinates specialized 
interdisciplinary programs. These may include 
international programs and global/area studies. 

.'Vmong other opportunities for interdisciplinary 
studies is the special major: a student, with the 
consent of two supervising faculty members 
from different departments, may design a 
coherent program of at least ten courses focusing 
on a particular issue or area not adequately 
included within a single department. It may be 
based on any grouping of courses drawn from 
any part of tlie curriculum so long as tlie proposed 
major is coherent, serves a carefully defined 
academic purpose, and includes no fewer than 
eight courses above the 100 level, three or more 
courses at the 300 level, and a 400-level 
individualized study course. The Committee on 
Interdisciplinary Studies has final responsibility 
for approving special majors. (See "Special Major" 
for afulhr description.) 

By nature of their objectives and content, 
interdisciplinary studies courses cross the lines 
of departments and specialized disciplines. 
For example, some of these courses attempt 
to provide the common body of knowledge 
traditionally associated with a liberal education; 
others attempt to integrate the understanding 
of different kinds of subject matter; and still 



others combine methodologies from diverse 
departments and disciplines. Most notably, the 
Senior Scholars' Seminar challenges an invited 
group of seniors, representing as many academic 
departments as possible, to apply their skills to 
the investigation of a problem that crosses the 
boundaries of, and demands the methods of, 
several disciplines. (See "Senior Scholars' Seminar" 
for a fuller description.) 

In addition to the courses listed below, courses 
of an interdisciplinar)' nature can be foiuid in 
this catalog under the .African American Studies 
Program, the Environmental Studies Program, 
the Latin American Studies Program, and the 
Women's Studies Program. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

IDS 103, 104, 161, 211, 216, 229, 239, 241, 243, 
244, 246, 247, 249, 260, and 272 fulfill the 
Liberal Arts Core requirement in the humanities. 
IDS 229, 239, and 268 satisfy the requirement in 
non-Western culture. IDS 267 fulfills the 
requirement in the arts. 

103 Literary Foundations of Western Culture 

Exploration of the origins of major genres of 
Western literature and thought, including epic 
and narrative poetrv', drama, philosophical 
dialogue, and literan criticism. Authors read 
may include Homer, Sophocles, Euripides, 
Plato, x\ristotle, Virgil, Seneca, Ovid, and others. 
Through reading, writing, and discussion of 
complete works, the student is introduced to 
those hiunanistic skills and critical methods that 
have traditionally distinguished the liberally 
educated person. 
Mr. Lane, Ms. Lindernan 

104 Literary Foundations of Western Culture 

Exploration of the development of major genres 
of Western literature and thought (from the fall 
of the Roman Empire to the 18th centurv), 
including epic and narrative poetry, drama, 
the novel, and literary nonfiction. Authors read 
may include St. Augustine, Dante, Rabelais, 
Shakespeare, Milton, Voltaire, and others. 
Through reading, writing, and discussion of 
complete works, the student is introduced to 
those humanistic skills and critical methods that 
have traditionally distinguished the liberally 
educated person. 
Ms. Linderrum 

161 Introduction to Jewish Studies: The People 
of the Book Introducdon to the wide range of 
Jewish experience from the biblical period 



to the present. Given the diversity of the 
experience, students are encouraged to 
develop and articulate their own answers to the 
question: How have various historical, cultural, 
political, and economic contexts affected 
Judaism and how has Judaism affected them in 
turn. Students stvtdy historical materials, as well 
as religious, cultural, and political artifacts. 
Mr. Stem 

2 1 1 Perspectives on Death and Dying Study of 
death and dying from a variet)' of perspectives: 
psychological, medical, economic, legal, and 
theological. Dignity in d\ing, what happens after 
death, euthanasia, body disposal, AIDS, and 
other such problems are examined. May be 
counted in requirements for a religion major. 
Prerequisite: permission of instructor. 
Mr C. Myers 

214 Medusa's Laugh: The Newest Wave in French 
Cinema Study of selected comical films made 
by French women directors. Course reflects on 
laughter and provides a historical presentation 
of French comedy traditions. Both ob\ious 
and subtle "meanings" in comical films are 
deciphered. Humor is identified in three 
contextual "languages": cinematic codes, gender 
codes, and cultural codes. How universal is 
laughter for humankind? To what extent is 
humor related to culture and gender? Fulfills 
the Liberal .\rts Core requirement in arts. 
Ms. Binet 

223 Literature of Anger and Hope That families 
through the ages have struggled with enmity 
and abuse we know from reading Greek tragedy 
and Shakespeare's plays, hi the twentieth 
century, violence has come to the fore in terms 
of ethnic and religious hatred, war, and racism. 
Yet in response to these events, major writers 
have created significant works of literature 
which transform the worst acts into promises 
of healing and reconciliadon. Our objectives 
are to understand the terms of the conflict 
represented in each text and to explore the 
techniques by which each writer generates a 
sense of hope for humankind. Offered spring 
2002. 
Ms. Powers 

229 South Asia: Contemporary Issues in Historical 
Perspective StucK of coniemporai'v cultural issues 
in the hidian sub-continent, \iewed dirough die 
historical events and texts that have generated 
them. Alternate years. Offered spring 2003. 
Ms. Powers 



239 South Asian Literature Study of major South 
Asian literar)' works in translation, including 
epics from North and South India, Sanskrit 
drama, Muslim literature, modern novels and 
short stories. Complete works read from an 
interdisciplinan' perspective, using criticism 
from Western and South Asian sources. 
Alternate years. Offered spring 2002. 
Ms. Powers 

241 Modern Irish Drama Exploration of the 
evolution of modern Irish theatre within the 
matrix of the esthetic and political revolutions 
that occurred, and continue to occur, in 
twentieth-century Ireland. Irish dramatists have 
produced a body of literature remarkable for 
both its unparalleled artistic achievement and 
its acute political and social responsiveness. 
Major emphasis is accorded W. B. Yeats, Lady 
Augusta GregoiT, John M. Synge, Sean O'Casey, 
Samuel Beckett, and Brian Friel. Not offered 
ever)' year. 
Mr. J. P. Myers Jr. 

246 Irish Quest for Identity: The Irish Literary 
Revival Study of the culttire and histoiy of 
Ireland as refiected in its literature in English, c. 
1880-c. 1940. Course explores how Ireland, 
principally through her writers, succeeded in 
reviving and asserting her unique Gaelic identit) 
during the decades immediately preceding and 
follovring the War of Independence (1916-1921). 
Authors studied include Augtista Gregory, W. B. 
Yeats, J. M. Synge, Sean O'Casey, and James 
Joyce. Not offered ever)' year. 

Mr J. P. Myers Jr 

247 Maintaining Irish Identity: Modern Irish 
Literature Survey of Irish literature since the 
1940s. Course examines how poets, dramatists, 
and writers of ficdon have responded to the 
problems of maintaining an Irish idenUty on a 
partitioned island and in the contemporary 
world. Special attention is given to the 
iiiterreladonship of Cadiolic and Protestant and 
rural and tirban traditions. Authors studied 
include dramatists such as Samuel Beckett, poets 
such as Seanius Heaiiey, and ficdon writers such 
as Sean O'Faolain. Not offered every year. 

Mr. J. P. Myers Jr 

249 Jewish Writing in the Modern World 

Introduction to a wide-ranging \ariet) of Jewish 
uiiting from die past 100 yeai-s, including religious, 
political, philosophical and literar) texts. 
Course explores such questions as: What makes 
a text Jewish? How do writers express, repress. 



redefine the meanings of Jewishness/Judaism? 
Wliat is Jewish self-hatred? Students examine 
different stages of Jewish immigrant Hfe and 
ways that films (such as The Jazz Singer, Fiddler on 
the Roof, and Goodbye, Columbus) are botli a product 
and a recorder of that experience. 
Mi. Berg, Mr. Coldberg 

252, 253 Area Studies Seminar: Peace Studies 

Interdisciplinaiy study of conflicts, conflict 
resolution, and world systems, including 
paradigms for peacemaking, philosophies of war 
and peace, global orders and disorders, issues in 
international conflicts, prevention of nuclear 
war, and environmental issues. Course work 
includes lectures and films of the 2003-2004 
.\rea Studies Symposium. Offered 2003-2004. 
Mr. RamrinathapiUai 

255 Science, Technology, and Nuclear Weapons 

Study of the effect of technology on the many 
issues related to nuclear weapons. Coverage 
includes nuclear weapons effects, strategic 
arsenals, past and current attempts at arms 
control, nuclear proliferation, and nuclear 
disarmament. Special emphasis is given toward 
imderstanding future technological trends in 
the post cold war climate. 
Mr Pella 

260 The Holocaust and the Third Reich Intensive 
study of selected writings (poetry, prose, drama) 
that demonstrate possibilities of literary 
expressions in response to the Holocaust. 
Students read various writings in English by 
German and non-German writers, including 
Heinrich Boll, llona Karmel, Giinter Grass, and 
Elie Wiesel. Coiuse also includes such films as 
The 7 in Di'um, The Wliite Rose, and Night and Fog. 
Knowledge of German is not required. Not 
offered ever)' year. 
Ms. Armster 

267 Theatre and Religion Investigation of the 
theatre "s role in various Western and non-Western 
religions. Students gain an understanding of 
and an appreciation for the function of 
performance and design in worship, liturgy, and 
ritual. They also develop a cridcal sense of the 
theatre's effectiveness as a teaching deNice 
within a religious context. A significant effort is 
made in assessing religion's impact on the 
theatre's evohition in form, style, and purpose. 
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. 
Mr Hanson 



268 The Arts, Environment, and Religions of 
Indonesia Study of the arts, cultural traditions, 
environmental issues, and religious practices of 
the people of Bali. Students live with local 
families, where they experience the significance 
of the family structure in Balinese life, art, and 
religion. Students witness a vast assortment of 
art-based experiences, including theatrical and 
dance programs and participation in master 
classes with painters, dancers, musicians, 
car\'ers, and actors. Offered annually, mid-May 
to midjiuie. One class unit of credit. Prerequisite: 
Permission of instructor. 
Mr Hanson 

ni Gods, Heroes, and Wagner Study of the 
artistic and philosophical thought of Richard 
Wagner as expressed in Der Ring des Nibelungen — 
an adaptation of the myths and legends of the 
Germanic past used to dissect Eiuopean reality 
in the nineteenth century. Utilizing various 
approaches (biographical, mythological, literary, 
political/historical, aesthetic, musical, 
psychological) , course investigates Wagner's 
position in his own age, as well as his impact on 
succeeding generations, including the ideology 
of national socialism. Knowledge of German or 
background in music not required. 
Mr McCardle 

322 I. W. Foundation Public Policy Seminar. 

Interdisciplinarx public policy seminar offered 
on a specific topic each year. Seminar 
encompasses an examinadon of the decision- 
making process from the original arficuladon of 
needs through official responses and on to 
measuring the impacts of those decisions in the 
public domain. A prominent authority in the 
field of public affairs is invited to direct the 
seminar each year, with the focus of each course 
being determined by that person's field of 
endeavor and expertise. 

Topic for spring 2003: Public Policy: The 
Economics and Politics of Antitrust Regulation, 
taught by Ms. Fender- and Mr Bender 

325-L London Seminar: John Maynard Keynes 
and Britain Between the Wars Interdisciplinary 
seminar that examines the events of the 
tin bulent years betvveen the two world wars 
through the works of the Bridsh economist John 
Maynard Keynes. Course explores how Keynes' 
work reflected and profoundly influenced the 
psychological, social, political, and economic 
transformauon of Britain and the world during 
this period. Readings include works by Keynes 



and others that address the pohtical and social 
aspects of economic policy and the interplay 
between art, philosophy, science, and 
economics. Field trips in and aroimd London 
are an integral part of the coiuse. Offered fall 
2003. 
Mr. Weise 

401 Senior Scholars' Seminar: The Future of 
Humanity Seminar for selected senior students 
addressing an important contemporai-y issue 
affecting the future of humanity. Approach to 
this issue is multidisciplinary. Authorities of 
national stature are invited to serve as resource 
persons, and seminar participants present a 
final report on the topics discu.ssed. 

SPECIAL PROGRAMS 

The following is a partial list of special major 
programs pursued in recent years: Japanese 
studies, law and ethics, foundations of 
writing, sports management, ethical writing, 
comparative literature, international economics, 
behavioral neuroscience, music management, 
African cultiue and development, cinematic 
arts, cultural studies, museimi studies, and 
foundations of journalism. 

American Studies 

Gettysburg College offers a variety of courses 
analyzing American life and thought, which 
provide students with many opportunities for 
creating special majors in American studies. 
Such majors may emphasize behavioral analyses, 
historical perspectives, literary and artistic 
dimensions, or coherent combinations of such 
approaches as they are reflected in courses from 
several departments. For example, special majors 
could be designed in the areas of early-American 
culture, modern American social stratification, 
ethnicit)', or the religious and economic values 
of the American people. Students should seek 
assistance in planning an American studies 
special major from Professors Birkner (History) 
or Winans (English), or other faculty members 
who teach courses in these areas, or from the 
Committee on hiterdisciplinary Studies. 

Asian Studies 

Gettysbiug College offers a number of courses 
for students wanting a sotmd introduction to 
Asian cultiue as part of their liberal arts 
curriculum. Each Asian studies course fulfills a 
distribution requirement. These courses are 
presented by members of various departments, 



persons with interests and competence in Asian 
studies. A student may minor in East Asian 
studies by completing the following: One core 
course, three courses in one's country of 
specialization (China or Japan), one year of 
Japanese or Chinese language, one course 
offering a comparative perspective within East 
Asia, and one elective course. Students 
interested in the minor in East Asian studies 
should consult with Professors Gaenslen 
(pohtical science), Sommer (Religion), or 
Hogan (Japanese). A student may construct a 
special major with concentration in Asian 
studies. Students should seek assistance in 
planning an Asian studies special major from 
Professors Gaenslen, Hogan, Lowy, Klian, 
Powers (IDS), or Sommer, or other faculty 
members who teach courses in this area, or 
from the Committee on Interdisciplinaiy 
Studies. Course offerings suitable for special 
majors in Asian studies are found under many 
departmental listings. 

Comparative Literature 

Gettysburg College offers courses in many 
literatures in the original languages (ancient 
Greek, Latin, Italian, Spanish, French, German, 
English, and Japanese). In addition, a number 
of courses are offered in foreign literature in 
translation (Classics, IDS, Japanese). Students 
who work in more than one language (e.g., 
English and Spanish) are encouraged to 
consider creating a special major in 
Comparative Literature in consultation with 
faculty in the appropriate departments. The 
study of comparative literature enables students 
to emphasize a particular period, theme, or 
genre across cultures, instead of the traditional 
focus on the chronological study of a national 
literatiue. A particular theoretical approach can 
also be cultivated (such as feminist, reader- 
response, structuralist, Marxist, and Freudian). 
Special courses, such as Art Song, may also 
count towards a special major in Comparative 
Literature. Students who wish more information 
are encouraged to consult with any of the 
following advisors to the program: Professors 
Cahoon and Zabrowski (classics); Gaudenzi 
(Italian); Fee (Old Norse; Middle German); 
N. Cushing-Daniels (Spanish); Armster, 
McCardle, and Ritterson (German); Binetand 
R. Viti (French); Hogan (Japanese); and Ramos 
and Rolon (Latin American studies). Professor 
Powers (IDS; Indian literature) and Professor 



Myers (English; Irish literature) are also advisors 
to the program, as are many members of the 
English and Tlieatre depaimients. 

Global Studies/Area Studies 

Gettysburg College offers an array of courses in 
global studies through the coiuse offerings of 
several departments and through its yearly .\rea 
Studies program. Each year the College 
arranges a program of films, lectures, symposia, 
and special events focused on an area of critical 
interest in the world. The program has dealt 
with such topics as Central America, Vietnam 
Ten Years After, and Struggle in Southern 
Africa. Most recendy. Area Studies has focused 
on China in Revolution, Mexico, the Caribbean, 
Japan, Sotith Asia, Latin America, Eastern 
Europe, and the Middle East. The focus of the 
2003-04 .\iea Studies program is on Nature, 
War, and Peace. To enhance the academic 
offerings in these areas of study, the College has 
the privilege of scholars-in-residence from 
various areas of the world. Scholars-in-residence 
offer courses and guide individualized studies 
for students in their areas of interest. Often 
several specific courses are available that study 
the area focused on for the year. Students may 
enroll in IDS 252, 253, the Area Studies course, 
in either or both semesters. These tutorial 
courses require parucipation in the several 
aspects of the Area Studies Symposium. 

Law, Ethics, and Society 

Gettysburg College offers several law-related 
courses which present students the opportvmit}' 
to explore fundamental aspects of the law as 
part of the liberal arts curriculum: ci\il rights 
and liberdes, constitutional law, the criminal 
justice system, ethical issues and the law, legal 
reasoning, business law, environmental law, and 
criminolog)'. Through such interdisciplinaiy 
study, students explore the close interplay of 
law, ethics, and the societv from which law 
springs and which it senes. Special majors may 
be designed that emphasize the law within its 
social and historical context and that, combined 
with internships, research opportunities or off- 
campus study (such as our affiliated program 
with .American University), give sttidents a rich 
appreciation for the law in its many dimensions. 
Students who wish more information may 
contact any of the following advisors to the 
program: Professors Mott (political science), 
Portmess (philosophy), and Hinrichs 
(sociology), and Dean Nordvall (college life). 



INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS CONCENTRATION 

An77 Fender and Jean Fletcher, Directors 

Overview 

The International Affairs Concentradon (L\C) 
exposes students to factors and forces that have 
shaped the contemporarv world. The program 
promotes a multidisciplinar)' approach to the 
study of internadonal reladons by focusing on 
issues facing the internadonal community and 
the interactions of states and other actors as 
they attempt to achieve their foreign policies or 
goals. Students pursuing careers connected with 
international issues or interested in graduate 
school should find this program attractive. 

The program provides students with an 
opportimitv to gain specialization in the 
multidisciplinarv field of international relations, 
while at the same time developing a disciplinary 
foundation vsithin their major concentration. 
lAC primarily serves the departments and 
programs whose majors display an interest in 
internadonal relations. These are economics, 
environmental studies, French, German, history, 
Italian, Japanese, LaUn American studies, 
management, poliucal science, sociology, 
Spanish, and women's studies. Students 
majoring in other disciplines, such as English 
and philosophy, may also pardcipate in the lAC. 
Their specific programs will be developed with 
the assistance of their major adviser and lAC 
adviser. LAC students are also able to develop a 
specific regional track, such as Ladn America, 
Europe, Africa, or Asia. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The lAC consists of nine core courses drawn 
from the departments of economics, history, 
and political science, as well as a series of 
elecdves available from other departments. 
Study of a language beyond the College 
requirement and study abroad are not required, 
but are strongly encouraged. Students 
interested in LAC should begin taking core 
courses in their first or second year. Application 
for the program is made through the LAC 
director. Students should apply for the LAC 
between the second semester of their first year 
and the end of their sophomore year. To be 
accepted into the program, students must have 
a GPA of 2.0 or above overall and in their major. 
To remain in the program, students must have a 
GPA of 2.0 or above in the major, the lAC 
courses, and other College courses. 



All lAC students must take the following Core 
Courses: 

Economics 103 Principles of Microeconomics 
Economics 104 Principles of Macroeconomics 
Economics 25 1 International Economics 
History 1 1 Twentieth-Century World 
Select Concentration Elective in History (200-, 

300-level course) 
Political Science 103 Introduction to 

International Relations 
Political Science 242 U.S. Foreign Policy 
Select Concentration Elective in Political 

Science 
lAC 400 Junior-Senior Seminar 

History, economics, and political science majors 
take core courses in their respective majors 
(which count toward the major requirement 
only) and courses in each of the other core 
disciplines. These students will also take three 
SCE courses outside of their major program 
in at least two different disciplines. All other 
majors take the same core courses as the 
economics, history, and political science majors. 
All students must take lAC 400 Junior-Senior 
Seminar. A list of electives is available from the 
director of lAC and the lAC web page. 

JAPANESE STUDIES 

Assistant Professors Hogan and Khan 
Instructor Yonezawa 

Overview 

Gettysburg College offers both a major and 
minor in Japanese studies. Crossing disciplinaiy 
boundaries, the Japanese studies major and 
minor combine the study of langviage and 
culture through a variety of required core 
courses. Areas of study include language, 
basic culture and society, literature, history, 
education, art, management, music, religion, 
and political science. A full four years of 
Japanese language courses are offered, and 
there are opportunities to study at more 
advanced levels on an indi\idual or small-group 
basis. Advanced-level courses in culture are 
taught in English but those students who can 
read primary texts in the original Japanese are 
encouraged to do so. 

It is strongly recommended that students study 
abroad for a semester or year at a Japanese 
University. We are affiliated with Kansai Gaidai 
University, located in Hirakata City, between the 



business and industrial center of Osaka and the 
ancient capital of Kyoto. Kansai Gaidai offers 
instruction in Japanese language and a full 
range of courses on Japanese topics in English. 
The program at Kansai Gaidai provides many 
opportunities for students outside the class- 
room: living with a Japanese host family, field 
trips to cultural and historical sites, study of 
traditional arts, and visits to Japanese businesses. 
Students may also choose to attend other 
universities in Japan. Credit for courses taken at 
Kansai Gaidai may be transferred and counted 
towards the electives for the major and minor 
with departmental approval. 

Requirements and Recommendations for the 
Major 

The major consists of twelve courses: four 
required and eight electives. Ten courses must 
be above the 100 level; three courses must be at 
the 300 level. (First-year language courses 101 
and 102 do not count toward the major.) The 
following core courses are required and must be 
taken at Gettysburg: 

JPN 150 Japanese Culture and Society (in first 
or second year) 

HIST 224 Modern Japan 

Any Japanese literatme course 

400-level capstone seminar or course (limited to 
seniors and second-semester jimiors) 

In addition, Japanese language proficiency 
up through the 301 level must be attained. 
Language credits may be attained at Gettysburg 
College or through study abroad or a summer 
program; 301 proficiency is determined by the 
department. 

Electives: Five of the eight electives are to be 
chosen from three categories. At least one 
course must be chosen from each category 
below and at least one of these courses must be 
comparative within East Asia. (East Asian 
courses are marked with an asterisk). 

I. Literature and Culture: 
JPN 238 Pre-Modern Japanese Literature 
JPN 247/347 Extraordinary' Fiction in Japan 

and the West 

JPN 250/350 Japanese Women's Literature 

JPN 340/401 Images of Modernit)' in 

Modern Japanese Literature 

REL 244 Introduction to Buddhism* 

REL 249 Religions of Japan 



^^ 



REL 252 Women in Buddhism* 
VAH 131 East Asian Art* 
MUS 112 The Two Musics of Japan 
PHIL 240 World Philosophy* 
II. Language: 
JPN 302 Advanced Japanese II 
JPN 303 Advanced Readings, Composition, 
and Conversation in Japanese I 
JPN 304 Advanced Readings, Composition, 
and Conversation in Japanese II 
1 1 1. History and Society: 

HIST 221 Histoiy of East Asia to 1800* 

HIST 222 Histon' of East Asia from 1800 

to the Present* 

JPN 230/330 Education and Modernization 

in Japan 

POL 271 Government and Politics in Japan 

MGT 423 Asian Management 

HIST 422 The Pacific War 

Requirements and Recommendations for the 
Minor 

Tlie minor requires seven courses. Six courses 
must be above the 100 level; one course must be 
at the 300 level. (JPN 101 and 102 do not count 
towards the minor ) 

Two of the following three core courses are 
required: 

JPN 150 Japanese Culture and Society 

HIST 224 Modern Japan 

Any Japanese literature course 

In addition, Japanese language proficiency 
up to the 202 level is required. Proficiency is 
determined by the department. 

Electives: Three electives must be chosen from 
the two categories below. Students must take 
one course from each category. 

I. Literature and Culture: 
JPN 238 Pre-Modern Japanese Literature 
JPN 247/347 Extraordinary Fiction in Japan 

and the West 

JPN 250/350 Japanese Women's Literature 

JPN 340/401 Images of Modernity in 

Modern Japanese Literature 

REL 244 Introduction to Buddhism 

REL 249 Religions of Japan 

REL 252 Women in Buddhism 

VAH 131 East Asian Art 

MUS 112 The Two Musics of Japan 

PHIL 240 World Philosophy 



II. Histoi^y and Societ)': 

HIST 221 History of East Asia to 1800 

HIST 222 History of East Asia from 1800 

to the Present 

JPN 230/330 Education and Modernization 

in Japan 

POL 271 Government and Politics in Japan 

MGT 423 Asian Management 

HIST 422 The Pacific War 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Japanese 202 fulfills the Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in foreign language. Japanese 150, 
238, 250 247, 347, 340, 350, and 401 satisfy the 
non-Western requirement. Japanese 150 and 
230/330 fulfill the requirement in social 
science, and Japanese 238, 247/347, 250/350, 
and 340/401 fulfill the requirement in the 
humanities. 

LANGUAGE COURSES 

101, 102 Beginning Japanese Introduction to the 
fundamentals of speaking, listening, reading 
and writing. Students master hiragana and 
katakana and learn basic Chinese characters as 
they are used to write Japanese. Students shop 
for various items, describe objects, use counters, 
ask prices, and hold basic conversations all in 
Japanese. The course also acquaints students 
with basic patterns, ritual greetings and phrases, 
and cultural aspects imbedded within the use of 
language. 
Ms. Hogan, Ms. Yonezawa 

201, 202 Intermediate Japanese Extension of 
beginning Japanese. Building on the basics, the 
course emphasizes communication. Students 
learn to ask and give directions, use honorific 
and humble verbs, conduct interviews, and 
discuss family and work situations. Chinese 
characters (kanji) are introduced at a more 
rapid rate, and students are able to read and 
write simple texts and some authentic materials. 
Ms. Ynnrzawri 

301, 303 Advanced Japanese Continuation of 
intermediate course. Course refines and 
integrates skills learned in intermediate level 
to allow students to handle more complex 
communications and comprehend more 
advanced readings. Emphasis on reading and 
writing kanji. 
Ms. Yonezaiua, Mr. Khan 

303, 304 Advanced Japanese II Course focuses 
on the development of speaking in honorific 
language, developing proficiency in reading in 
journalistic style, and becoming more accurate 



in writing short essays. Discussions are based 
on advanced-level readings on contemporary 
issues. Readings include various essays, news- 
paper articles, and short stories. Students will 
increase their ability to use more sophisticated 
expressions in both oral and written form. 
Mr. KImn 

COURSES ON JAPAN 

1 50 Contemporary Japanese Culture and Society 

Investigation of the development of the cultural 
and social institutions that characterize contem- 
porary Japanese society. Students observe 
patterns of behaviors and thought that are 
distinguished from those of Western culture. 
Conditions that contributed to the development 
of Japanese ways and traditions are studied. 
Course allows students to compare and contrast 
Japanese culture and society with various 
cultiues of the Western world. 
Mr. Khan 

238 Pre-Modern Japanese Literature Survey of 
Japanese literature, beginning with the creation 
myth recorded in 712 and continuing to the 
dramatic arts of the 1600s. Course examines 
legends, folk tales, poetic anthologies, diaries, 
and fiction. Readings in English; no knowledge 
of Japanese required. 
Ms. Hogan 

230/330 Japanese Education and Modernization 

Study of the establishment of Japan's 
educational systems, the role of education in 
the Westernizadon and modernization of Japan, 
the effects of Meiji and prewar educational 
policies on Japanese society, the development 
of women's colleges, changes in Japanese 
educational policies and practices since the 
end of World War II, the impact of the U.S. 
occupation of Japan, and educational issues of 
contemporaiy Japan. Readings in English; no 
knowledge of Japanese required. /P7V 550 is the 
same course asJPN 230, unth additional readings 
and assignments designed for Japanese studies majors. 
Mr. Khan 

2471347 What Is Real? Extraordinary Fiction 
in Japan and the World Study of various 
permutations of the science fiction genre — 
legends, faiiy tales, myths, supernatural and 
futuristic short stories, and novels. Major 
emphasis on Japanese works, with cro.ss-ctiltural 
comparisons to offer diverse perspectives. 
Course focuses on the literary analysis of the 
individual texts, while exploring the real 



purpose sei"ved by these unreal creations. 
Readings in English; no knowledge of Japanese 
required. JPN 347 is the same course asJPN 247, 
u'ith additional readings and assignments designed 
for Japanese studies majors. 
Ms. Hogan 

250/350 The Ebb and Flow: Japanese Women's 
Literature, the First 1200 Years Examination 
of a variet)' of Japanese women writers, genres, 
and movements ranging from 800 to 2002. 
Using feminist and other literary criticism, the 
course analyzes the categoiyjoiyubungaku 
(women's literature) and its import in relation 
to the Japanese literary canon. Authors include 
Murasaki Shikibu, Enchi Fumiko, Nogami 
Yaeko, Machi Tawara, and Yoshimoto Banana. 
Readings in English. yPiV 350 is the same course as 
JPN 250, with additional readings and assignments 
designed for Japanese studies majors. 
Ms. Hogan 

340/401 Notions of Modernity in Modern 
Japanese Fiction Seminar on the modern 
Japanese novel from the late Meiji period to 
the present. Of primary concern is the Fictional 
and psychological portrayal of the changes 
Japan faces as it emerges from a feudal society 
to a modern nadon. Nodons of self, other, 
gender, class, and race are considered alongside 
the concepts of modernism, post-modernism, 
and pure and popular literature. Works include 
those by Tanizaki Jimichiro, Oe Kenzaburo, 
and Murakami Haruki. JPN 401 is the required 
capstone seminar for majors and is open to 
senior majors and second-semester junior 
majors. Prerequisites for 340: Previous background 
in Japanese literature and HIST 224. Readings 
in English and Japanese. 
Ms. Hogan 

LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 

Caroline Hartzell, Coordinator 

Overview 

Gettysburg College offers a minor in Ladn 
American studies and, in conjuncdon with the 
Spanish department, a combined major in 
Spanish and Latin American studies. The minor 
consists of six courses in the social sciences and 
in the humanities. Students who minor in Latin 
American studies are encouraged to spend a 
semester studying abroad in Latin .America or 
the Caribbean. The combined major in Spanish 
and Latin American studies requires a total of 



twelve courses, including one semester of study 
abroad in a college-affiliated program in a Latin 
American country. 

The goal of the Latin American studies minor and 
the combined major with the Spanish deparmient 
is to promote a multidisciplinary approach to the 
study of Latin America. Drawing on courses in the 
himianities and social sciences, the minor and 
major expose students to factors and forces that 
have shaped the region. This approach to 
learning about Latin America allows students to 
develop informed views of complex regional 
issues. In addition, by emphasizing the 
interdependence of our environments, it seeks to 
help students understand civic responsibilities in 
teiTiis that go beyond national borders. 

The College, the town of Gett)sburg, and the 
greater Washington area provide a stimulating 
environment for the study of Latin America. 
On campus, our program of activities includes 
lectiue and colloquium series, musical 
performances, panel discussions, art exhibits, 
and films focused on Latin America. Ample 
opportimities exist for students to interact with 
the growing Latino community in Gettysburg by 
participating in heritage festivals and service- 
learning-based courses and volunteering with 
local communitv' groups. Students can also 
pursue internships in Washington, D.C. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Latin American Studies 140, 220-229, 26L 262, 
263, 264 and 361 fulfill the Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in the humanities; LAS 232, 236, 
262, 267, 275, 33L and 412 fulfill the require- 
ment in the social sciences; and LAS 232 and 
236 fulfill the requirement in non-Western 
cultures. 

Requirements and Recommendations for the 
Minor 

In order to minor in Latin .\merican studies, 
students must fulfill the College's language 
distribution requirement in Spanish or one of 
the other principal languages spoken in Latin 
i\merica. Students on the alternate laiiguage 
track may also minor in Latin .\merican studies. 
Students must take six courses from the list 
below. Students must take two courses from those 
listed as core courses and foin^ coiuses from those 
listed as distribution courses. In the case of the 
core courses, all students must take LAS 140 and 
either LAS 331 or LAS 300. In the case of the 
distribution courses, students must draw from 
coin"ses in at least two of the College's divisions. 



Core Courses: 
LAS 140 Introduction to Latin American 

Studies 
LAS 300 Special Topics in Latin .American 

Studies 
LAS 33 1 Reinventing Latin American Societies 

Distribution Courses: 
LAS 147 Contemporarv' Latin .American 

Culture 
LAS 220 Topics in Latin American Literature 
LAS 22 1 Transitions and Desire in Latin 

i\merican Literature 
LAS 222/WS 221 Bridging the Borders: Latin 

and Latin American Women's Literature 
LAS/Anth 232 Precolumbian Civilizations of 

Mesoamerica 
LAS/Anth 236 Precolumbian Civilizations of 

Soiuh America 
LAS/Hist 261 Historv' of Colonial Latin America 
LAS/Soc 262 Social Development of Latin 

America 
LAS 263/Hist 262 Modern Latin America 
LAS/Hist 264 Brazil 
LAS/Soc 267 Societ)' and Politics in Latin 

America 
LAS/Pol 275 Latin American Polidcs 
LAS/Hist 361 Mexican Revolufion 
LAS/Pol 412 Women and the Political Economy 

of Dev elopment 
LAS 46 1 Individualized Study 
Anth 237 Mrican and Afro-Latino Cultures: 

Studies in Power and Ritual 
FYS 1 29 Music of Spain and Latin America 
FYS 157 First Contacts 
FYS 195 Latino/a LISA 
Pol 252 North-South Dialogue (only when 

course includes travel to Latin America) 
Span 309 Current Events in the Hispanic 

Worid 
Span 343 Survey of Latin American 

Literature I 
Span 344 Survey of Latin American 

Literature II 
Span 351 Lyric Poetiy 

Span 353 Introduction to Hispanic Cinema 
Span 354 Nineteenth-Centurv Literature in 

Spain and Latin America 
Span 355 Hispanic Theater 
Span 376 Latin American Contemporar)' Prose 
Span 379 Colonialism and Latin America 

Requirements and Recommendations for the 
Combined Major 

The combined major requires a total of twelve 
courses. Six of these must be Latin American 



studies courses and six (above the 202 level) 
must be Spanish courses. In addition, one of 
the courses taken during the student's senior 
year must include a project to be considered 
the majors capstone experience. During the 
semester of study abroad, a maximum of two 
courses can be applied to the Latin American 
studies component of the major and a 
maximum of two courses can be used to fulfill 
electives for the Spanish portion of the major. 

Spanish Department Course Options 
Core Courses: The following three courses are 
required as part of the Spanish component of 
the major. 
Span 301 Spanish Composition and 

Conversation 
Span 343 Survey of Latin American 

Literature I 
Span 344 Survey of Latin American 
Literature II 

Elective Courses: Select three of the following: 
Span 303 Cultural Images II: Social Sciences 
Span 309 Current Events in the Hispanic 

World 
Span 351 Lyric Poetry 

Span 353 Introduction to Hispanic Cinema 
Span 354 Nineteenth-Century Literature in 

Spain and Latin America 
Span 355 Hispanic Theater 
Span 376 Latin American Contemporan' Prose 
Span 379 Colonialism and Latin America 

Latin American Studies Course Options 
Required Core Courses: Students must take 
both of the following: 
LAS 140 Introduction to Latin American 

Studies 
LAS/Soc 262 Social Development of Latin 
America 

Students must also take one upper-level coiuse 
from the following list: 
LAS 300 Special Topics in Latin American 

Studies 
LAS 331 Reinventing Latin .\iTierican Societies 
LAS/Pol 412 Women and the Political Economy 
of Development 

Elective Courses: Select three of the following: 
LAS 147 Contemporan' Latin .\merican 

Ciultme 
LAS 221 Transitions and Desire in Latin 

American Literatiue 
LAS/Anth 232 Precolumbian Civilizations of 

Mesoamerica 



LAS/Anth 236 Precolumbian Civilizations of 

South America 
LAS/Hist 26 1 History of Colonial Latin America 
LAS/Soc 262 Social Development of Latin 

America 
LAS 263/Hist 262 Modem Latin America 
LAS/Hist 264 Brazil 
LAS/Soc 267 Society and Politics in Latin 

America 
LAS/Pol 275 Latin American Politics 
LAS/Hist 361 Mexican Revolution 
LAS/Pol 412 Women and the Political Economy 

of Development 
Anth 237 African and Afro-Latino Cultures: 

Studies in Power and Ritual 
FYS 129 Music of Spain and Latin America 
FYS 1 57 First Contacts 
FYS 195 Latino/a USA 
Pol 252 North-South Dialogue (only when 

course includes travel to Latin America) 

140 Introduction to Latin American Studies 

Study of the peoples and civilization of pre- 
Columbian America, and of the instituUons, 
economy, history, and culture of Latin America 
and the Caribbean, from the Spanish conquest 
to the present. Course reviews several case 
studies and examines how modern Latin 
America responds to underdevelopment in its 
struggle for political and cultural integration. 
Mr. Betances 

147 Contemporary Latin American Culture Study 
of contemporai-v Latin .Ajiieiican cultures 
through examination of their art — literature, 
music, film, painting, and photography — 
viewed as an expression of the relationship 
between the artist and his/her social 
environment. Course focuses on the inter- 
relationship between the social, political, and 
intellectual factors that shape Latin .\iTierican 
cultures and their unique artistic creations. 
Ms. Rolon 

220-229 Special Topics in Latin American 
Literature and the Arts Study of Latin American 
literature and related arts from varving 
perspectives. Taught in English 

11 1 Transitions and Desire in Latin American 
Literature Examination of Latin .\merican 
narratives that question sexual difference while 
engaging and representing sociohistorical 
contexts of crisis and change. 
Ms. Ramos 



222 Bridging the Borders: Latina and Latin 
American Women's Literature Study of selected 
works in English by Latin .\nierican women and 
Latina women from the United States. Course 
explores both connective links and dividing 
lines of women's lives in the context of a 
ct)mnion ciiltinal heritage that has evolved into 
multiple variants as a result of geographical, 
historical, economic, ethnic, and racial factors. 
Cross-listed as Women's Studies 22 L 

232 Precolumbian Civilizations of Mesoamerica 

hitroduction to the organization and 
development of Native American civilizations in 
Mexico and Central America. Evidence from 
archaeological and ethnographic research. 
Native texts and art, and Spanish Colonial 
writings is used to study religious beliefs, 
sociopolitical organization, economic 
relationships, and intellectual achievements of 
such groups as the Olmec. Maya, and Aztecs. 
Period prior to the sixteenth-century Spanish 
conquest is emphasized, but modern indigenous 
cultiues are also studied. Cross-listed as 
Anthropology 232. Prerequisite: AnlhropoXo^ 
103 or 105 or consent of instructor. 
Ms. Hendon 

236 Precolumbian Civilizations of South America 

Introduction to the organization and 
development of Native American civilizations in 
South .\merica. Evidence from archaeological 
and ethnographic research. Native texts and art, 
and Spanish Colonial writings is used to study 
religious beliefs, sociopolitical organization, 
economic relationships, and intellectual 
achievements of such groups as the Inka, 
Moche, and Chavin. Period prior to the 
sixteenth-century Spanish conquest is 
emphasized, but modern indigenous cultures 
are also studied. Cross-listed as Anthropology 
236. Prerequisite: Anthropology 103 or 105 or 
consent of instructor. 
Ms. Hendon 

261 Colonial Latin America Exploration of 
Spanish and Portuguese America from its roots 
in Iberia and indigenous America through 
three centuries of change. During the period, 
Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans 
transformed their economies and cultures 
and created new societies. Cross-listed as 
History 261. 
Ms. Sommer 



262 Social Development of Latin America Study 
of the formation of Latin American republics, 
focusing on the interplay between internal 
processes and external influences. Students 
examine Latin Americans' struggle for political 
and cultural integration to overcome their 
colonial heritage and to build nation states. 
Cross-listed as Sociology' 262. 

Mr. Betances 

263 Modern Latin America Survey of Latin 
American history from independence through 
the formation of national identity and the quest 
for modernity to dictatorship, democracy, and 
neoliberalism. Cross-listed as History 262. 

Ms. Sommer 

264 Brazil Major themes in Brazilian history 
from early Portuguese-indigenous relations, 
expanding frontiers, colonial society, and the 
development of African slavery through 
nineteenth-centur)' formation of national 
identity to twentieth-century industrialization, 
political struggle, and cultural change. Cross- 
listed as History 264. 

Ms. Sommer 

267 Society and Politics in Latin America: A Case 
Study of the Dominican Republic Study of the 
sociopolitical evolution of nineteenth- and 
twentieth-centuiT Dominican Republic. Course 
examines the tension between dictatorship and 
democracy, changing economic patterns of 
Dominican life, and the influence of the U.S. 
military interventions of 1916-1924 and 
1965-1967 on the modern Dominican state. 
Emphasis is placed on how the Dominican 
Republic mirrors contemporary Caribbean 
socio-political development. Cross-listed as 
Sociology 267. 
Air. Betances 

275 Latin American Politics Introduction to 
Latin American politics. Focus is on political 
issues surrounding economic development 
in the Latin American context: political 
preconditions, policy choices of Latin American 
regimes and leaders, and political consequences 
of development in general and of policy choices 
in particular. Course also compares the political 
systems and development trajectories of Latin 
.\merican countries to other countries in the 
world. Cross-listed as Politcal Science 275. 
Prerequisite: Political Science 104 or permission 
of instructor. 
Ms. Hartzell 



300-309 Special Topics in Latin American Studies 

A thematic course focusing on twentieth- 
century Latin America. 
Staff 

33 1 Reinventing Latin American Societies Study 
of the changing role of the state in twentieth- 
century Latin America. Course explores why 
Latin American states shifted from promoting 
national development to preparing the region 
for globalization. Issues of social movements, 
political control, citizenship, and neoliberalism 
are examined in the context of a widespread 
economic, social, and political restructuring of 
Latin American societies. Prerequisite: LAS 140 or 
any course focusing on Latin America. 
Mr. Betances 

36 1 Mexican Revolution Study of the back- 
ground, precursor movements, participants, 
events, and outcomes of the violent social 
revolution that swept the Mexican coimtryside 
between 1910 and 1917. Cross-listed as 
History 361. 
Ms. Sommer 

412 Women and the Political Economy of 
Development Examination of the central role 
that women in developing countries perform 
in the development process, as well as of the 
impact that development has on women. 
Analysis covers the role that women play in 
household production and in the care of their 
families and their participadon in both the 
formal and informal economies. Perspectives 
ranging from economists' efforts to accurately 
measure women's contributions to develop- 
ment, to political scientists' focus on the 
political power of women, to feminist critiqties 
of mainstream development theories are 
employed. Course includes a service-learning 
component. Cross-listed as Political Science 412. 
Prerequisites: Political Science 103 or permission 
of instructor. 
Ms. Hartzell 

MANAGEMENT 

Professors Bobko, Gilbert, Rosenbach, and Schein 
Associate Professors Frey (Chairperson) and Walton 
Assistant Professors Samaras and Volkmar 

Overview 

The deparuuent pro\ides a disdncdve cuniculum 
designed to engender understanding of the role 
of management in a variety of organizational 
settings: public, private, local, national, and 



international. In order to develop the breadth 
of understanding appropriate for a liberal arts 
education, the curriculum is integrative. The 
curriculum incorporates the historical and 
social contexts within which managerial decisions 
are made and brings into clear focus the moral 
and ediical dimensions of .such decisions. Students 
are encouraged and equipped to become 
informed decision-makers, who employ carefully 
considered values and the aesthedc and intuitive 
components of leadership, as well as the relevant 
analydc and technical skills. Most importantly, 
the curriculum and the manner in which it is 
taught foster the qualities of critical, creative 
thinking; the entrepreneurial disposition to be 
intellectually bold, independent, and innovative; 
the zest for lifelong learning; and the values so 
important to vital and socially responsible 
niimagement in otir public and private enterprises. 

Requirements 

Majors in management are required to 
complete ten core courses, plus a minimum 
of two elecUves and/or senior seminars. At least 
one of these two additional courses must be a 
senior seminar. The ten core courses are as 
follows: Math 104 (or Math 105-106 or 1 1 1 ), 
Economics 103, 104, and 241, and Management 
153, 266, 270, 365, 385, and 400. Students 
anticipating a management major are 
encouraged to take Economics 103-104 in the 
first year 

To qualify for departmental honors in 
management, a student must 1 ) satisfactorily 
complete Management 400 during the senior year 
with a grade of B or better; 2) be recommended 
by his or her adviser; and 3) have earned a 3.3 
departmental grade point average. 

153 Financial Accounting Study of basic 
principles, concepts, and problems in recording, 
siunmarizing, reporting, and analyzing financial 
data. Emphasis is placed on reports used by 
decision-makers, both inside and outside the 
firm. Prerequisite: Sophomore status. 

Staff 

154 Managerial Accounting Study of accounting 
concepts for planning, control, modvadon, 
reporting, and evaltiation by management of 
the firm. Prerequisite: Management 153. 

•sv«// 

247 Management Information Systems 

Introduction to information technologv' and 
management of information systems. Focus is 



on the management of change, computer 
applications, and information technology 
applications. Prerequisite: Management 266 or 
permission of instructor. 

266 Management and Organization hitroduction 
to management ideas, processes and techniques 
used in both profit and not-for-profit organizations. 
Focus is on the challenge of managing different 
organizations in contemporary' society. 
Prerequisites: Sophomore status or higher. 

Staff 

267 Finance Emphasis on financial planning, 
investment analysis, assets management, and 
sources and costs of capital Prerequisites: 
Economics 103, 104, 241, and Management 153. 
Recommended: Economics 243. [Sartie as Economics 
267.] 

Staff 

270 Organizational Behavior Theor\' of 
beha\ioral science applied to the organization, 
with emphasis on the interaction of the 
individual and the organization. Topics range 
from individual attitudes and behaxdor to 
organizational change. Prerequisite: Management 
266 or permission of instructor. 
Staff 

360 Organizational Ethics Exploration of the 
relationship between law and ethics, of ethical 
factors and restraints, recognition of ethical 
dilemmas affecting managerial decision-making, 
and policy in private and public sector 
organizations; examinadon of a variety of 
ethical issues, such as those relevant to the 
environment, consumer protection, discrimination 
in the workplace, conflict of interest, global 
economy, social responsibilit)' of organizations, 
and professionalism; emphasis on case study 
method. Prerequisite: ]un\ov status or higher. 
Staff 

36 1 Marketing Management Study of the 
dynamic nature of contemporary marketing: the 
marketing concept, consumer buying behavior, 
marketing research, the promotional mix, and 
international marketing. Course incorporates 
case studies, current problems, and ethics of 
marketing. Preiequisites: Y.conom\cs 103, 
Economics 104, and statistics (Economics 241 or 
equivalent); Math 107 or Psycholog)' 205 (for 
double-major). 

Staff 



365 Human Resources Management Major 
principles of human resource management, 
from the perspectives of both organizational 
demands and indiridual interests. Basic theoretical 
and applied concepts are covered, including 
recruitment, selection, performance appraisal, 
labor relations, compensation, training, and 
productivit)' improvement. Focus is also on 
relevant issues of the decade, such as the work/ 
family interface, privacy, cultural diversity, 
workplace discrimination, and legal issues. Project 
work with organizations reqiured. Preiequisites: 
Management 266 and 270. 
Staff 

381 Small Business Management Study and 
critical analysis of the principles and procedures 
for establishing, developing, and managing 
a small business. The relevant differences 
between large and small business management 
are examined. Prerequisites: Management 153 
and 266. 
Staff 

385 international Management Examination of 
problems and opportimities confronting business 
enterprises that operate across national borders, 
with emphasis on adaptation to different cultural, 
legal, political, and economic environments. 
Prerequisites: Management 153 and 266, plus 
Statistics (Economics 241, Mathematics 107, or 
Psycholog)' 205). 
Staff 

400 Policy and Strategy Integrative capstone 
course concerned with the role of senior 
executives in business enterprises. Course 
focuses on problems of strategy' formulation, 
organization design, and organization renewal. 
Required of all seniors. Prerequisites: Senior 
status plus completion of all core courses. 
Staff 

410 Senior Seminar Investigation of contem- 
porary problems and special topics of current 
importance in the field of management. Specific 
issues to be addressed are determined by 
instructor. Topics of senior seminars vary across 
the semesters. Possible topics include leadership 
and followership, communication, organiza- 
tional structure, diversity' in management, 
planning and information systems, human 
resources accounting. Seminars are integrative 
and build upon prior course work. Most include 
significant writing, presentation, and/or 
research components. Prerequisite: Senior status. 
Staff 



460 Individualized Study Topics of an advanced 
nature pursued by well qualified students through 
individual reading and research, under the 
supervision of a faculty member. Students 
wishing to pursue independent study must 
present a proposal at least one month before 
the end of the semester preceding the semester 
in which the independent study is to be 
undertaken. Pmequisite: Permission of 
supervising faculty member. 
Please note that the department and College have 
policies for students interested in credit for their 
internship experience. Students interested in this 
option should obtain a copy of the procedures and 
must discuss the internship with a faculty advisor 
prior to the internship experience. 
Staff 

MATHEMATICS 

Associate Professors Bajnok, DeSilva, and 

Flesner (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professors Bekmetjev, Egge, Kremer, 

and Weinreich 
Adjunct Assistant Professor Washinger 
Adjunct Instructors Fiscus and Y. Niiro 

Overview 

A knowledge of mathematics is an essential 
part of what it means to be a liberally educated 
person. Mathematics is both an art and a 
science. It possesses an inherent beauty and a 
purity of expression not found to the same 
degree in any other discipline. 

Beyond its intrinsic value, mathematics is 
indispensable in both the natural and social 
sciences. It occupies a position of increasing 
importance in many other fields. The computer 
has played a major role in this mathematical 
renaissance. Thus, it is essential that mathematics 
majors, as well as other students who will apply 
mathematics, learn how to use the computer as 
a problem-solving tool. 

The mathematics curriciikmi provides a 
foimdation for students who specialize in 
mathematics or in fields that use mathematics. 
By a careful selection of couises, a student can 
prepare for graduate study in mathematics, for 
secondary school teaching, or for a career in a 
mathematically related field. Indeed, a major in 
mathematics provides a good background for 
virtually any career. Recent graduates have 
found careers in government, law, management. 



medicine, and quality control, as well as in more 
traditional areas of employment for mathematics 
graduates. No matter what the student's objectives, 
the curriculum provides courses appropriate for 
the study of mathematics within the context of 
the liberal arts. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Major Requirements: Mathematics majors 
must complete six core courses, plus five 
additional 300-level courses. The core 
courses are Mathematics 111 (or 105-106 or 
exemption), 112 (or exempdon), 211, 212, 215 
(by the middle of jimior year), and Computer 
Science 103 or 111 (by end of sophomore year). 
In addinon to the core program, majors must 
take one of Mathematics 315, 321, or 331, plus 
four other 300-level mathematics courses. 

Students considering graduate study in 
mathematics are advised to take both Mathematics 
321 and Mathematics 331. Department honors 
in mathematics require participation in the 
cocurricular activities of the department, an 
overall grade point average of at least 3.0, and a 
mathematics grade point average of at least 3.5. 

Minor Requirements: A minor in mathematics 
consists of six mathematics courses numbered 111 
or above. At least one of these courses must be 
at the 300 level. 

Grade Requirements: All courses taken to satisfy 
the requirements for the major or minor must 
be taken using the A-F grading system. To 
advance to a course with prerequisites, a 
minimum grade of C- is required for each 
prerequisite coiuse. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

.\ny mathematics coiuse fulfills the Liberal .\rts 
Core requirement in quantitative reasoning. 

103 Mathematical Ideas Introduction to the 
power and scope of mathematical ideas by 
investigating several particular topics. Topics 
vary among sections. Examples of topics include 
basic madiematical modeling, dynamic geometi^, 
puzzles and recreational mathematics, linear 
programming, game theory, voting power, 
legislative representation, and cryptolog). Coiu^se 
is intended for fii^st-year and sophomore students 
in the arts, humanities, and social sciences who 
do not plan to take calculus. Students who have 
completed a mathematics course at Gettysburg 
College may not enroll in 103. No prerequisites. 
Staff 



1 04 Quantitative Methods Introduction to 
rcjuations, graphs and functions, matrices, 
systems of linear equations, and the derivative 
and its applications. Course is designed for 
students in the social sciences. Students 
who have completed Mathematics 105-106 
I )r Mathematics 111 may not enroll in 
Mathematics 104. No prerequisites. 

105-106 Calculus with Precalculus 1, 11 Study 
of differential and integral calculus with 
precalculus. Topics include basic algebraic 
concepts, equations and inequalities, ftmctions, 
introduction to limits, continuity, the derivative, 
and the definite integral. Mathematics 105 and 

106 together cover the same calculus material as 
does Mathematics 111. 

Staff 

107 Applied Statistics Introduction to statistical 
methods, with applications from social, 
biological, and health sciences. Topics include 
descriptive statistics, fimdamentals of probability 
theory, probability distributions, hypothesis 
testing, linear regression and correlation, 
analysis of categorical data, and analysis of 
variance. Laboratory work is designed to utilize 
the computational power of a statistical 
computer package. Credit cannot be received 
for both this course and Mathematics 205, 
Biology 260, Economics 241, or Psychology 205. 
No prerequisites. Three lectiue hours and one 
laboratory session. 

Sloff 

1 08 Mathematical Reasoning Study of 
mathematical reasoning. Possible topics 
include nimiber theoiy bases, logic and 
problem-solving, rational expressions, algebra, 
straightedge and compass constructions, 
tessellations, polyhedra, symmetry, stadstics, and 
mathematical models. Prerequisite: At least one 
mathematics course numbered 103 or above. 
Staff 

1 1 l-l 12 Calculus I, II Differential and integral 
calculus of one real variable. Topics include 
introducdon to limits, continuity, the derivative, 
the definite integral, and series. ApplicaUons 
are drawn from the natural and social sciences. 
No prior experience with calculus is assumed. 
Students who have received credit for 
Mathematics 105-106 cannot also receive credit 
for Mathematics 111. These students may 
register for Mathematics 112. 
Staff 



205 Introduction to Statistics Introduction to 
descripdve and inferential statistical methods 
with applications in psychology. Laboratory 
work involves the use of a computer software 
package that allows for the application of 
statistical procediues. Credit may not be granted 
for this course and Mathematics 107, Biology 
260, Economics 241, or Psychology 205. 
Prerequisite: High school algebra. Open only to 
declared majors in psychology. Three class 
hours and three laboratory hours. 
.Staff 

2 1 1 Multivariable Calculus Vectors, vector 
functions, functions of several variables, partial 
differentiadon, optimization, multiple integration, 
transformation of coordinates, line and surface 
integrals, and Green's and Stokes' theorems. 
Prerequisite: Mathematics 112. 
.Staff 

1 1 2 Linear Algebra Systems of linear equations, 
algebra of matrices, determinants, abstract 
vector spaces, linear transformations, eigenvalues, 
and quadratic forms. Prerequisite: Mathematics 
112. 
Staff 

215 Abstract Mathematics I Introduction to 
abstract mathematical thinking, emphasizing 
mathematical reasoning and exposition. Students 
study elementary logic and basic set theoi^)' with 
rigorous definitions and proofs. This foundation 
is then used to explore one of several optional 
topics chosen by the instructor. Prerequisite: 
Mathematics 112. 
Staff 

308 Introduction to Combinatorics Topics 
selected from graph theory, enumeration, 
recursion, partially ordered sets, and design and 
coding theory. Applications are chosen from 
computer science, optimization, and the social 
and life sciences. Prerequisite: Mathematics 215 
or 212. 
Staff 

314 Philosophical Revolutions in Mathematics 

Study of philosophical foundations of mathe- 
matics starting with the concept of number and 
culminating with Godel's groundbreaking in- 
completeness result. Specific topics include the 
historical developments and mathematical and 
philosophical ramifications of zero, rational, 
irrational, imaginary, and transfinite numbers as 
well as an examination of the completeness of 
arithmetic. Cross-listed as Philosophy 314. 
Stajf 



3 1 5 Abstract Mathematics II FiirtJier development 
of the skills of abstract mathematical reasoning 
and writing proofs. Course is grounded in a 
particular subject area chosen by the instructor. 
Possible areas include topology, number theory, 
and combinatorics. Prerequisite: Mathematics 215. 
Not offered eveiy year. 
Staff 

321 Real Analysis Rigorous treatment of concepts 
studied in elementaiy calculus and an introduction 
to more advanced topics in analysis. Topics 
include elements of logic and set theor)', properties 
of real numbers, elements of metric space 
topology, continuity, the derivative, the Riemann 
integral, .sequences and series, and uniform 
convergence. Prerequisite: Mathematics 215. 
Alternate years. Offered 2004-05. 
Staff 

33 1 Abstract Algebra Study of basic structures 
of modern abstract algebra, including groups, 
rings, fields, and vector spaces. Prerequisite: 
Mathematics 215. Alternate years. Offered 
2003-04. 
Staff 

343 Topics in Geometry Study of both synthetic 
and analytic approaches to geometry. Topics 
include axiomatic systems, Euclidean geometry. 
non-Euclidean geometries, projective geometry, 
and subgeometries of projective geometiy 
Prerequisites: Mathematics 212 and 215. Alternate 
years. Offered 2004-05. 
S<»ff 

351 Mathematical Probability Combinatorics, 
discrete and continuous random variables and 
their distributions, expected value and variance, 
functions of random variables, the Law of Large 
Numbers, the Central Limit Theorem, 
generating functions, and applications such as 
Markov chains, random walks, and games of 
chance. Prerequisite: Mathematics 21 1 and 
Mathematics 215 (or 212). Alternate years. 
Offered 2004-05. 

Staff 

352 Mathematical Statistics Expectation, 
special probabilitv distributions and densities, 
bivariate and multivariate distributions, 
sampling distributions, theory and applications 
of estimation, hypothesis testing, regression, 
correlation, analysis of variance, and 
nonparametric methods. Prerequisite: 
Mathematics 351. Alternate years. Offered 
2004-05. 

Staff 



362 Operations Research Study of techniques 
and tools used in mathemadcal models applied 
to the biological and social sciences. Topics 
include optimization, linear and nonlinear 
programming, transportation problems, network 
analysis, dynamic programming, and game 
theory. Prerequisite: Mathematics 212. Alternate 
years. Offered 2003-04. 

363 Differential Equations Analytical, numerical, 
and qualitative approaches to differential 
equations. Topics include linear equations and 
systems, series solutions, Laplace transform, 
Fourier series, nonlinear equations, phase 
plane analysis, and an introduction to partial 
differential equations. Prerequisite: Mathematics 
212. Not offered every year. Offered 2003-04. 
Staff 

364 Complex Analysis Complex numbers, analydc 
functions, complex integration, Cauchy's 
Theorem, Taylor and Laurent series, contoiu 
integrals, the residue theorem, and conformal 
mapping. Preiequisite: Mathematics 211. 
Alternate years. Offered 2003-04. 

Staff 

366 Numerical Analysis Nimierical techniques 
for solving mathematical problems. Topics 
include solutions of equations, solutions of 
simultaneous linear equations, interpolation 
and approximation, numerical differentiation 
and integration, the eigenvalue problem, 
numerical solutions of ordinary differential 
equations, and error analysis. Prerequisites: 
Mathematics 212 and Computer Science 103 
or 11 1. Alternate years. Offered 2003-04. 
Staff 

38 1 Selected Topics Study of an advanced phase 
of mathematics not otherwise in the 
curriculum. Subject matter and frequency of 
offering depend on student interest. Possible 
areas for study are point set topology, graph 
theory, advanced combinatorics, partial 
differential equations, differential geometry, 
and number theory. Prerequisite: Depends on 
topic. Not offered every year. Offered 2004—05. 
Staff 

Individualized Study Pursuit of topics of an 
advanced nature by qualified students through 
individual reading, research, or internship, 
under supervision of a faculty member. 
Prerequisite: Permission of department. 
Staff 



MUSIC 



Associate Professors Gratto, Jones (Chairperson), 

Matsinko, and Rober-tson 
Assistant Professors Natter and Peddell 
Adjunct Assistant Professors Bowers, Botterbusch, 

and Gumerl 
Adjunct Instructors Brown, Fahnestock, Freund, 

Hartung, Hontz, Henry, Ryon, Yoshikami, 

and Zeshonsky 

Overview 

The department endeavors to introduce 
students to the historical significance of Western 
music and to the variety of world music so that 
they have an understanding of their musical 
heritage and knowledge of current musical 
trends. Familiarity with the basic elements of 
music and discovery of their own abilities through 
direct contact with and creative manipulation 
of materials is basic to the program. The music 
ciuTicuhmi also involves the student in an 
intensive study of applied music. This encompasses 
individual and ensemble experience, hi the 
practice room, studio, and recital hall the student 
has an opportunity to refine techniques for 
musical performance. In the small and large 
ensemble the individual must work within a 
greater social context to achieve a common 
musical goal. The program also provides courses 
for the student who plans to enter the field 
of music education based on competencies 
prescribed by the Pennsylvania Department 
of Education. The music department offers 
programs leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree 
in music and a Bachelor of Science degree in 
music education. Also available are a minor in 
music as well as a major in music within the 
elementary education certification program 
and an opportunity to double major in music 
and another discipline, both of which lead to a 
Bachelor of .'Krts degree. .\n audition is required 
for acceptance into the music major programs. 

Bachelor of Science Program 

Prospective teachers of music in the elementaiy 
and secondar)' schools should complete the 
program for the degree of Bachelor of Science 
in music education. This requires successful 
complefion of 35 courses, exclusive of courses 
in applied music. A quarter course in fitness/ 
recreadonal skill activities is also required. 

The program includes twelve full courses in 
music: Music Theory (141, 142, 241, 242, and 
341); Music History (212, 213, 214, and 315); 
Conducting (205 and 206); and Applied Music 



(456). The program also includes an elective. 
Analysis Seminar (442). 

In addition to the typical four or five full courses 
per semester, students also carry several quarter- 
and half-courses in applied music. As many as 
19 1/2 quarter- and half-courses may be taken 
during the four-year program; however, they do 
not coimt toward the 35-course graduation 
requirement. 

Applied music areas taken as quarter- or half- 
courses include 121-129Q (major performance 
area; voice, piano, organ, guitar, wind, percussion, 
or string orchestral instruments) and 150-155Q 
(instruments of the band and orchestra). 

Five imits in music education are also required: 
Music 320, 321 (for two units) and 474 (for 
three units), as well as one quarter course. 
Music 149. Eight other courses are required for 
certification: Psychology 101; Education 201, 
209, and 303; t^vo math courses; and two English 
courses (one each in literature and writing). 

Participation for four years in an authorized 
music ensemble and presentation of a recitiil in 
the senior year are required. 

A cumulative overall grade point average of 3.0 
is required for acceptance into the student 
teaching semester. 

The successful completion of the program 
leading to the Bachelor of Science degree in 
music education satisfies the certification 
requirements for teaching instrumental and 
vocal music in elementary and secondary 
schools, grades K-12. 

Students interested in pursuing the Bachelor of 
Science program should consult with the music 
department as early as possible. 

Bachelor of Arts Program 

For students pmsuing a Bachelor of Arts degree, 
the department offers a major and minor in 
music. 

Major Requirements: Requirements for a major 
in music leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree 
consist often full courses (Music 141, 142, 205, 
212, 213, 214, 241, 242, 315, and 456) plus 
quarter courses in the student's major applied 
area (7 quarter courses). The major must also 
participate for four years in an authorized 
departmental ensemble and present a recital in 
the senior year. 

Music majors in the elementary education 
program must meet the same requirements as 
the B.A. degree candidate. 



Minor Requireynents: A minor in music consists of 
Music 141, 142, and 212; Music 205; one course 
selected from Music 213, 214, or 315; Music 241 
or one of the remaining music history courses. 
Also required are four consecutive semesters of 
applied lessons on the same instrument or voice 
and four consecutive semesters of participation 
in a performance ensemble. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

The Liberal Arts Core requirement in the arts 
may be fulfilled by one of the folloHing: Music 
101-112, 141, 212, 213, and 214. Music 102 and 
212 also fulfill the non-Western requirement. 

101 Introduction to Music Listening 

Consideration of the principal music forms 
against the background of the other arts and in 
the context of historical events. Active listening 
is an essential part of the course. Repeated 
spring semester. 
Staff 

1 02 World Music Survey Study of music found 
in cultures around the world, including sub- 
Saharan Africa, the Middle-East, and Asia, as 
well as selected ethnic cultures within the 
Americas. Related arts are examined in relation 
to the cultural contexts in which they are found. 
Music making activities and small group projects 
are part of the course. Special event attendance 
is required. 

Ms. Robertson, Ms. Gratto 

1 03 Music of the Classical Period Study of the 
major composers — Haydn, Mozart, and 
Beethoven — and the significant genres of the 
late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. 
Musical achievements of this period are studied 
within the social and economic milieu. Listening 
and analyzing musical compositions will be an 
integral part of the course. 

Staff 

1 04 Opera Study of opera history and production 
through selected operatic works as examples of 
total music drama. Related genres of operetta, 
musical, and oratorio are also included. 
Extensive listening and viewing assignments are 
required. An opera field trip is usually planned. 
Staff 

105 Introduction to Contemporary Music 

Stiid\ of music from a varietv of Western and 
non-Western genres from the beginning of the 
t^ventieth century to the present. Emphasis is 
placed on the development of perceptive 
listening skills and the analysis of cultural 
context. 
Ms. Robertson 



106 Art Song Study of the historv', interpretation, 
and style of the art song. Literature includes 
German, French, English, and American art 
songs. Extensive listening assignments are 
required. 

Mr. Matsinko, Mr. Natter 

107 Music of the Romantic Era Study of the 
philosophical background for nineteenth- 
century music and its stylistic features. Extensive 
listening is done in the areas of orchestral, 
vocal, and chamber music. 

Staff 

108 Women in Music Study of women's 
contribution to music from the Middle Ages to 
the present. Extensive listening assignments 
required. 

Staff 

109 Mozart: The Man and His Music Study of 
Mozart's music, with a focus on his life, times, 
and musical analysis. Extensive listening 
assignments required. 

Mr. Matsinko 

\ 10 Survey of jazz Study of America's 
indigenous musical art form from early blues 
and Dixieland through current trends. A "live" 
jazz quartet is an integral part of stvle analysis. 
Concert attendance and listening assignments 
are necessary to attain an understanding of the 
genesis and development of jazz. 
Mr Jones 

\ 1 1 Fundamentals of Music Study of the 
fundamentals of music through reading, 
wriUng, singing, listening, instrument playing, 
and computer technology. Emphasis is on the 
development of skills and understanding relatefi 
to a thorough knowledge of music notation. 
Course is intended for non-majors with little 
theory background and for minors or majors in 
need of remedial help prior to beginning the 
regular music theor)' sequence. 
Staff 

1 1 2 Two Musics of Japan Study of the two musics 
of contemporai")' Japan, ho-gaku (pre-Western 
Japanese music) and Japanese music of Western 
influence. Course examines the historical roots 
of ho-gaku in religious kagura and Buddhist 
chants, as well as the secular music genres of 
gagaku, biwa, noh, shamisen. shakuhachi, 
percussion, and koto music to determine what is 
quintessentially Japanese. A comparative study 
of ho-gaku and Western music aims to show a 
synthesis of the two cultures. 
Ms. Yoshikami 




i 



1 4 1 Theory I Fundamentals of basic theoiy, 
notation, and nomenclature; introduction to 
writing skills and music technology; elementary 
analytic technique; melodic analysis; correlated 
sight-singing (using a moveable DO Kodaly- 
based system), keyboard playing, movement 
(Dalcroze Eurhythmies), and aural perception 
skills. Prerequisite: ability to read musical notation 
and permission of instructor. 

Ms. Gratto, Mr. Peddell 

142 Theory II Continuation of Theory I writing 
skills; focus on analysis and writing of chorales; 
correlated sight-singing and aural perception 
skills; movement; and keyboard harmony. 
Prerequisite: Grade of C- or better in Music 141. 
Ms. Gratto, Mr Peddell 

149 Introduction to Music Education 

Introductoi-y study of tlie field of music education 
to prepare for K-12 certification to teach music. 
Focus is on current trends and issues in the 
field, including advocacy, special learners, arts 
assessment, multicultural music, ciuriculimi 
integration, copyright, standards, and music 
technology. Students observe school music 
classes at the elementary and secondary level. 
Ms. Gratto, Mr. Peddell 

205 Conducting I Development of basic 
conducting techniques, with an emphasis on 
choral music. Areas of study include conducting 
gestures, rehearsal planning and execudon, 
score analysis and interpretation, ear training, 
diction, group vocal technique, concert 
programming, and management of a choral 
program. Prerequisite: Music 142 or permission 
of instructor Alternate years. 

Mr Natter 

206 Conducting II Concentration on advanced 
conducting skills, with an emphasis on 
instrimiental score study, .\reas of study include 
advanced conducting techniques, advanced 
interpretive and rehearsal techniques, the 
instrimiental program, and supplemental 
materials. Prerequisite: Music 205. Alternate 
years. 

Mr. Jones 

212 Cross-Cultural Elements and Contexts of 
Music Study of the elements and contexts of 
music in a cross-cultural global perspective. 
Extensive use of musical and videotaped 
performances is included, within an 
introduction to listening, writing, and thinking 
critically aboiU music. Prerequisite: ability to read 
musical notation. 
Ms. Robertson 



2 1 3 Music of the Medieval, Renaissance, and Early 
Baroque Study of the major forms and stales of 
music and composers from andquity through 
the seventeenth century. Course includes 
extensive use of musical scores and recordings 
in addition to early music performance by 
students. Prerequisite: Music 212. Offered 
alternate years. 

Ms. Robertson 

214 Music of the High Baroque, Classical, and 
Romantic Eras Study of the principal stylisdc 
tendencies from J. S. Bach through the end of 
the nineteenth century. Extensive use of musical 
scores, recordings, and secondary source 
materials are included. Prerequisite: Music 212. 
Offered alternate years. 

Mr. Matsinko, Ms. Robertson 

221/222 Vocal Literature and Diction Study 
of classical vocal literature from 1600 to the 
present with emphasis on singing in Italian and 
English (221) or German and French (222). 
Extensive listening assignments and class 
performances required. Prerequisite: ability to 
read music and concurrent registration for 
applied voice or voice class. 
Mr Fahnestock 

241 Theory ill Study of the common practice 
period; extensive written and analytic projects; 
study of musical structure through small forms; 
correlated sight-singing, aural perception 
skills, and keyboard harmony are included. 
Prerequisite: A grade of C- or better in Music 142. 
Mr. Jones 

242 Theory IV Study of chromatic harmony from 
1850 to the present. Analysis of standard forms 
and compositional techniques. Correlated sight- 
singing, aural perception skills, and keyboard 
harmony are included. 

Mr Jones 

261 Technology in Music Study of technology 
as it pertains to music applications, including 
the historical uses of technology in music, 
theoretical and practical uses of computers 
for music, MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital 
Interface) hardware and software, recording 
technology, and music notation software. 
Prerequisites: Music 142 and consent of 
instructor. 
Mr Natter 

304 Eighteenth-Century Counterpoint 

Introduction to contrapuntal style of the 
eighteenth century and an analysis of the 
Baroque forms, with attention to linear motion 



and fundamental harmonic progression. 
Composition in the various forms is required. 
Mr. [ones 

3 1 5 Contemporary Music Study of musical 
developments since the beginning of the 
twentieth centiuy In addition to Euro-American 
art music, folk, vernacular, jazz, and global 
musics are considered. Extensive use of musical 
scores, recordings, and some musical creation 
are included. Prerequisites: Music 212; Music 213 
or 214. 
Ms. Robertson 

320 Principles and Procedures of Teaching Music 
in the Elementary Schools Study and e\aluation 
of methods, materials, and techniques of 
teaching music in the elemental^ grades. 
Various approaches to guiding children to listen 
to, create, and perform music are included. 
Classroom instrument competencies, including 
the recorder, are developed. This course 
contains a service learning component at 
Gettysburg Head Start. Alternate years. 

Ms. Gratto 

321 Principles and Procedures of Teaching Music 
in the Secondary School Study and evaluation of 
methods, materials, and techniques of teaching 
music in the secondary grades. A personal 
philosophy of music education is developed, 

as are competencies in selected classroom 
instruments, including the recorder. Apprentice 
"shadowing" assignments with area music 
teachers are arranged. Alternate years. 
Ms. Gratto 

341 Theory V (Orchestration) Study of 
capabilities and limitations of die standard wind, 
string, and percussion instruments. Included is 
score study, transposition, transcription, and 
emphasis on applied orchestration projects for 
laboratoi'y performance and critique. Alternate 
years. 
Mr. Jones 

442 Analysis Seminar In-depth study, using 
analytical methodologies from musicology, 
ethnomusicology, and music theory, as 
applied to the imifying theme of the seminar. 
Prerequisites: Music 212, 213, 214, and 315 or 
permission of instructor. 
Staff 

476 Student Teaching Teaching in public schools 
in cooperation with and imder the supervision 
of experienced teachers. Individual conferences 
and seminars with the College supervisor and 
supervising teacher are required. Job placement 



assistance is provided. Offered spring semester. 
Fall semester with permission only. Three Course 
Units 
Ms. Gratto 

Individualized Study Prerequisite: Appro\a.\ of 
department and directing faculty member. 
Staff 

Applied Music and Performing Organizations 

The department offers instruction in voice, 
piano, organ, guitar, and standard band and 
orchestral instruments. The repertoire is 
adapted to the student's ability. One-quarter 
course credit is given for one half-hour private 
lesson per week per semester for minors and 
non-majors. One-half course credit is given for a 
one-hoiu^ private lesson per week per semester 
for music majors. Some piano and voice 
instruction may be in group classes. 

Students majoring in music who are candidates 
for the Bachelor of Arts degree are entitled to 
eight quarter-courses of private instruction, and 
those who are candidates for the degree of 
Bachelor of Science in Music Education are 
entitled to 12 quarter-courses of private 
instruction at no additional cost beyond the 
comprehensive fee. Public performance is 
required of those majoring in this area of 
concentration. 

The department also sponsors various music 
organizations, including the College Choir, 
Concert Choir, Band, and Orchestra, as well as a 
variety of small ensembles. All college students 
are eligible to audition for any of these groups, 
either at the beginning of the school year or at 
other times by appointment. 

121 Voice Private instruction in singing 
technique, with emphasis on breath support, 
resonance, tone quality, diction and 
interpretation. Study includes song literature in 
various styles and languages. Repeated spring 
semester. 

1/4 Course 

Mr. Natter, Mr. Fahnestock 

1 22 Voice Class Group instruction in singing 
technique, with emphasis on breath support, 
resonance, tone quality, diction and 
interpretation. Study includes song literature in 
various styles and languages. Repeated spring 
semester 

1/4 Course 
Mr Natter 



► 



1 23 Piano Private instrviction in the development 
< )f the necessary techniques for facility in reading 
and interpreting a musical score accurately at 
the keyboard. Literature includes representative 
compositions of various st)'les and periods. 

1/4 Course 
Mr. Matsinko 

124 Class Piano Emphasis on sight-reading, 
ensemble pla)ing, and harmonizing melodies 
with various t)pes of accompaniment, as well as 
playing some standard piano literature. 

1/4 Course 
Mr. Matsinko 

125 Organ Private instruction designed to 
include literature of various periods, sight- 
reading, hymn-playing, chant and anthem 
accompaniment. Prerequisites: satisfactory 
performance of all major and minor scales (two 
octaves) and a Bach Invention. 

1/4 Course 
Ms. Freund 

1 27 Band Instrument Instruction Private 
instruction emphasizing fundamentals and 
repertoire for the performance of woodwind, 
brass, and percussion instruments. 

1/4 Course 

Ms. Boiuers, Mr Hamm, Ms. Hartung, Mr Peddell, 

Mr Ryon 

128 Guitar Private instruction emphasizing skills 
of technique, interpretation, reading, and 
fretboard knowledge. Classical and other styles 
are offered according to needs of students. 

1/4 Course 
Mr. Hontz 

129 String Instrument Instruction Private 
instruction, emphasizing both fimdamentals of 
string playing and repertory. 

1/4 Course 

Mr. Botterbusch, Ms. Zeshonsky 

1 30A Band "Bullet" Marching Band performs 
a corps st)'le show at home football games. 
Symphonic Band performs a wide variety of 
wind literature, including reorchestrated 
inasterpieces and contemporary works. Symphonic 
Band and Wind Ensemble present three campus 
concerts. Symphonic Band prerequisites: 
Membership in "Bullet" Marching Band and/or 
permission of tlie conductor 
Mr. Peddell 

I BOB College Choir Premiere choral ensemble, 
which performs sacred and secular choral 
literature from all periods of music histoiy 
Performances on campus and in the region, 



with an annual spring concert tour. Prerequisite: 
audition and permission of instructor. May be 
taken and repeated for one course credit, luith a 
maximum of one course unit toward graduation. 
Mr Natter 

i30C Concert Choir Performs sacred and secular 
choral music written for large choirs. Rehearsals 
Monday evenings from 7:30-9:30; one to two 
major concerts per semester. Faculty, staff, 
and commimity members are welcome to 
participate. Prerequisite: simple audition and 
permission of instructors. May be taken and 
repeated for one course credit, with a maximum of one 
course unit toward graduation. 
Mr Natter, Ms. Gralto 

1300 Orchestra Study and performance of 
orchestral music of all areas. Membership is 
open to all students of qualifying abilit)'. Wednesday 
evening rehearsal 7:00-9:00: Monday evening 
rehearsal (strings only) 6:30-7:30. May be taken 
for 1/4 course credit, with a maximum of 1 course 
unit torvard graduation. 
Mr. Brown 

I32A Instrumental Chamber Ensembles Perform 
a wide variety of music representing all 
historical periods. Emphasis is on "one-to-a-part" 
playing. Ensemble choices may include brass 
quintet, percussion ensemble, flute ensemble, 
woodwind quintet, saxophone quartet, and 
other combinations available on student 
demand. Prerequisite: membership in College 
Band and permission of instructor. 
Ms. Gratto, Mr Jones, Mr Peddell, Staff 

I32B jazz Ensemble Ensemble of 17-20 
musicians dedicated to preserving and 
advancing America's indigenous musical art 
form. All styles of jazz are studied from big 
band swing through contemporary fusion. 
Campus community and fesival performances, 
including an annual concert with a nationally 
recognized soloist. European tour every four 
years. Prerequisite: by audition and open to 
members of the College Band. 
Mr. Jones 

i32C Camerata Advanced ensemble of 12-16 
singers performing music written for small 
ensembles, from madrigals to vocal jazz. 
Ensemble performs in major choral concerts 
and in other campus or community perform- 
ances. One hour-long rehearsal weekly. 
Prerequisite: concurrent membership in College 
Choir or Concert Choir, and permission of 
instructor. No credit. 
Mr Natter 



I32D Women's Choir Performs music for 
women's voices from various periods and styles. 
Ensemble performs in major choral concerts 
each semester and in other campus or 
community performances. One hour-long 
rehearsal weekly. Prerequisite: conciurent 
membership in College Choir or Concert Choir, 
and permission of instructor. No credit. 
Mi. Gralto 

I32E World Music Ensemble Performs vocal 
music from various world cultiu'es, including 
those within the United States. Ensemble 
performs in major choral concerts and in other 
campus or community performances. One hour- 
long rehearsal weekly. Prerequisite: concurrent 
membership in College Choir or Concert Choir, 
and permission of instructor. 
No credit. 
Ms. Gratto 

1 50 Woodwind instrument Class histruction 
in the technique of teaching and pla)dng 
woodwind instruments, using the clarinet as the 
basic instrument and including the recorder. 

1/2 Course 
Mr Peddell 

152 Brass Instrument Class Instruction in 
the technique of teaching and pla)ing bra.ss 
instruments. Trumpet or cornet is used as the 
basic brass instrument. 
1/2 Course 
Mr. Peddell 

154-155 Stringed Instrument Class histruction 
and practice in the techniques of teaching 
and playing stringed instruments and the 
organization of a string section. Violin is used 
as the basic string instrument. 
Two 1/4 Courses 
Mr. Botterbusch 

1 56 Percussion Methods and Teaching Strategies 

Development of technical skills and an 
imderstanding of the fundamentals of each of 
the percussion instruments. Music education 
students explore cmrent methodologies and 
teaching philosophies related to wind, string, 
and percussion instruments. Prerequisite: Music 
150, 152, or 154. 
1/2 Course 
Mr. Peddell, Staff 

456 Senior Recital Solo presentation of 
representative literature of various stylistic periods 
of the student's major applied area, with emphasis 
on historical performance pracdce. Prerequisite: 
permission of instructor and music faculty. 
Staff 



NEUROSCIENCE 



Peter Fong, Stepheyi Siviy, and Mark Wessinger, 
Coordinators 

Overview ^"' 

Neuroscience is an interdisciplinary study of the 
relationship between the brain, the mind, and 
behaxior. Students have the opportunity to gain 
expertise in the various aspects of neuroscience 
while pursing a major course of study. The 
interdisciplinar)' nature of the field is reflected 
in the courses that comprise the minor; these 
include offerings in biology, chemistry, 
philosophy, physics, and psychology. Students 
interested in pursuing a career in neuroscience 
or a related field should be well prepared for 
graduate school upon the completion of this 
minor and their major. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The neuroscience minor consists of three core 
courses and three elecdves. The three core 
requirements provide an introduction to 
behavioral and cognitive neuroscience and an 
exploration of animal behavior and evolution. 
Students may only use one of the core courses 
to also satisfy a major requirement. The electives 
may be selected from a variety of coiuses, 
allowing students to focus their studies on a 
particular aspect of neuroscience. Students 
should take Psycholog)' 101 to help satisfy the 
Liberal Arts Core requirement in the social 
sciences and Biolog}' 101 or 111 and Biolog)* 1 1 2 
to satisfy the Liberal Arts Core requirement in 
the natural sciences. Students intending to go 
to graduate school in a field of neuroscience 
are strongly encouraged to complete an inde- 
pendent empirical research project with a 
neuroscience emphasis in their major discipline. 
Courses taken within a student's major 
discipline or which otherwise satisfy a major 
requirement may not be used as electives toward 
the neuroscience minor. 

Students are encouraged to meet with one of 
the coordinators for advising and to declare 
the minor early in their college career. Careful 
planning is required because the courses in the 
minor have prerequisites. It is recommended 
that students complete the core courses by the 
end of the sophomore year. 

Core Courses 

(One course may also count toward the major.) 

Bio 225 Animal Behavior 

Psych 236 Introduction to Brain and Behavior 

Psych 238 Cognition and Brain 






Electives 

(Select three courses from the list below. 

Courses may not also count toward the major.) 

Bio 2 1 1 Genetics 

Bio 212 Cell Biology 

Bio 227 Invertebrate Zoolog) 

Bio 334 Biochemistiy 

Bio 340 Comparative Animal Physiolog)' 

Bio 351 Molecular Genetics 

Chem 203 Organic Chemistry 

Chem 204 Organic Chemistry 

Chem 334 Biochemistry 

Phil 22 1 Philosophy of Mind 

Phys 240 Electronics 

Psych 215 Human Cognition 

Psych 216 Sensation and Perception 

Psych 237 Psychopharmacology 

Psych 336 Behavioral Neuroscience 

Psych 338 Experimental Cognitive 
Neuroscience 

PHILOSOPHY 

Professors DeNicola, Portmess (Chairperson), 

and Walters 
Assistant Professors Gimbel, Hansen, 

and Ramanathapillai 
Adjunct Professors Butin, Carrick, Hammann, 

and Rickert 

Overview 

The study of philosophy is intended to promote 
inquii")' into perennial philosophical questions 
such as the nature of justice, happiness, 
knowledge, and freedom; to produce awareness 
of the answers that have been proposed to these 
questions; to teach the tools for the analysis 
of the assumptions and values that underlie 
different intellectual disciplines; and to promote 
the application of philosophical analysis to issues 
of public policy, law, and morality. The study of 
philosophy encourages the student to develop 
the ability to analyze problems, understand 
central issues, and develop alternative sokuions. 
It challenges the student to reflect upon 
problems involving values, to examine problems 
in an interdisciplinary way, to examine 
alternative world views and forms of knowledge, 
and to develop an awareness of intellectual 
histor)' and diverse philosophical traditions. 
Classes encourage discussion and writing. The 
study of philosophy is an integral part of an 
education in the liberal arts tradition. 

A major in philosophy is excellent preparation 
for graduate school or for professional schools 
in almost any field. It will also prove valuable in 
any profession that demands clear thinking and 



the ability to understand the points of view of 
other people. Individually, philosophy courses 
are useful supplements to course work in other 
areas. The department is interested in assisting 
and encoiuaging students to design special 
majors in which philosophy is an integral part. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Philosophy 101, 103, 105, 107, and 211 have 
no prerequisites. Any 100-level course is 
prerequisite for a 200- or 300-level course, 
though the instructor may grant permission to 
enroll on an individual basis to equivalently 
prepared students. 

A philosophy minor consists of any six courses 
in the department, only two of which may be 
100-level courses. A philosophy major consists of 
nine courses in philosophy, including 211; at 
least two out of 205, 206, 207, and 208; 400 
(Senior Seminar) and 466 (Senior Thesis). No 
more than two 100-level courses may be coimted 
toward the major, and the major must include 
at least one 300-level course. 

Distribution/Liberal Arts Requirements 

All philosophy coiuses except 103 and 211 fulfill 
the liberal arts core humanities requirement. 
Philosophy 21 1 fulfills the liberal arts quantitative 
reasoning requirement. All other courses count 
toward the liberal arts humanities requirement. 

101 Introduction to Philosophy Study of selected 
philosophical texLs, which deal with such 
themes as knowledge, happiness, justice, death, 
and the nature of reality. Goal is to develop an 
ability to read about, reflect on, and comment 
on philosophical issues. 
Staff 

103 Critical Thinking Informal logic course 
designed to help students reflect on and 
enhance their ability to think analytically and 
creatively. Discussions and exercises focus on 
techniques characteristic of informal logic 
(classification of arguments, analysis and 
evaluation of arguments, identifying informal 
fallacies, etc.), as well as strategies for intuitive 
and creative thinking. 
Mr. Gimbel 

105 Contemporary Moral Issues Study of moral 
problems and larger philosophical questions 
they raise about such i.ssues as the defensible use 
of violence, limits of freedom, extent of our 
obligadons to others and to nature, rightful 
state authority, and the nature of duties and 
obligadons. Selected readings focus on moral 
disputes as they arise in law and medicine, in 
international affairs, and in private moral 



reflection. Particular attention is given to ethical 
theories and to worldviews that shape positions 
on moral issties and guide moral decision-making. 
Staff 

107 Environmental Ethics Exploration of ethical 
issues that arise regarding what responsibilities 
human beings have to the natural world. Specific 
issues such as population, land use, wilderness 
preservation, biodiversity, and oiu" treatment 

of animals are examined in light of larger 
philosophical questions regarding nature and 
human purpose, obligations to fiature generations, 
the aesthetic and religious value of nature, and 
the possibility of an environmental ethic. 
Mr. Carrick 

1 08 Philosophy and Food Study of texts focusing 
on philosophical issues involving the produc- 
tion, distribution, and personal use of food. 
Specific topics examined include public polic\ 
and food production/distribution, diet as 
ethical choice, poverty and hunger, the 
existential/metaphysical status of breaking 
bread, food and consumerism, the aesthetics 
of diet, and the religious/cultural significance 
of eating with another. 

Mr. Walters 

205 Ancient Philosophy Study of philosophers 
and philosophies of ancient Greece and Rome. 
Emphasis is on the Pre-Socratics, Plato, 
Aristotle, Stoicism, and Skepticism. 

Ms. Hansen 

206 Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy Study 
of leading thinkers in the western philosophical 
tradition, from the fifth to the fifteenth century. 
Special emphasis is on such figures as 
Augustine, Bonaventure, Anselm, Thomas 
Aquinas, and Pico della Mirandola. 

Mr. Walters 

207 Early Modern Philosophy Study of such 
major figures as Descartes, Leibniz, Spinoza, 
Locke, Berkeley, and Hume in seventeenth- 
and eighteenth- centun.' European philosophy. 
Mr. Ghnbel 

208 Kant and Nineteenth-Century Philosophy 

Study of the philosophy of Immanuel Kiint and 
selected nineteenth-centui'y European 
philosophers such as Hegel and Nietzsche. 
Ms. Hansen 

21 1 Logic Introduction to formal logic and a 
study of the formal uses of language, with 
particular reference to the nature of inference 
from premises to conclusion; rules for deductive 



inference; construction of formal proofs in 
sentential and predicate logic; and the nature of 
language. 
Mr Gimbel 

2 1 9 Philosophy of Peace and Nonviolence An 

exploration of philosophical issues concerning 
peace and nonviolence. Although we t)'pically 
think of peace as just the absence of warfare, 
the word more richly suggests a complex of 
attitudes, behaviors, public policies, and 
ontology that stresses nonviolence, recon- 
ciliation, and justice. Peace and nonviolence 
are examined in relation to five intersecting 
spheres: war and armed conflict (including 
terrorism), interpersonal relationships, 
economic distribution, attitudes to the natural 
environment, and spirituality'. 
Mr Walters 

22 1 Philosophy of Mind An exploration of the 
nature of mind and leading theories of the 
relationship between mind and brain, such as 
dualism, behaviorism, and mind/brain identity. 
In light of contemporary developments in 
neuroscience and cognitive science, topics 
include conscious-ness and subjectivity, the 
language of thought and other accounts of 
mental content, the problem of other minds, 
mental causation, and physical versus 
psychological accounts of personal identit)'. 
Ms. Portmess 

Til Philosophical Perspectives on Justice Study 
of meanings and significance of justice for 
individuals and societies. Course examines 
principles and questions regarding distributive 
and retributive justice raised in central texts of 
the western philosophical tradition and uses 
them to analyze students" own views and engage 
contemporary challenges for individual, local, 
and global justice. 
Ms. Rickert 

223 Philosophy and Gandhi .\n exploration 
of the philosophical, religious, and strategic 
aspects of Gandhi's theory of nonviolence and 
its relevance to international politics and 
personal life. Course examines Gandhi's 
philosophy of conflict as well as his moral and 
political thought. Emphasis will be given to 
philosophical issues raised by his theory of non- 
violence and to such themes as oppression, state 
power, and colonialism. 

Mr RamanathapiUai 

224 Philosophy and Human Rights Study of 
practical and theoretical issues of human rights 
and the philosophical questions they raise. Are 



human rights appHcable to all cultures? Are 
women's rights human rights? Can economic 
rights override political rights? Are some rights 
more important than others? How should we 
understand charges of cultural relativism against 
the universal applicability of human rights? 
Course explores methods of terror such as 
killing, torture, disappearance, sexual assault, 
and forceful recruitment by oppressive 
governments and war zone combatants. 
Mr. Ramanathapillai 

237 Philosophy of Religion Study of 
philosophical efforts to luiderstand and justify 
religious beliefs. Course examines writings of 
philosophers who have answered such questions 
as: Wliat is religion? What is the importance or 
significance of specifically religious experiences? 
What account can we give of the meaning of 
religious claims? How can we mediate between 
apparently conflicting religious beliefs? 
Mr. Hammann 

230 Ethical Theory Study of major figures and 
schools in the Western ethical u^adition. Attention 
is paid to selections from representative 
philosophers, from Plato through Rawls. 
Specific issues examined include the nature of 
rights and responsibilities, virtue, and moral 
obligation. 
Mr. Ghnbel 

235 Philosophical Ideas in Literature A study of 
the relationship of philosophy to literature and 
the philosophical questions which arise from 
reflection on selected literary and philosophical 
works. Readings explore themes of narrative 
masquerade, human identity, and the search for 
meaning and debate questions of textual 
interpretation and the reader-text relationship. 
Ms. Hansen 

240 World Philosophy Study of selected writings 
from the world's philosophical traditions. Such 
themes as self and world, knowledge and its 
limits, the meaning and purpose of life, the 
nature of realit) and ideals of moral perfection 
are explored in diverse philosophical traditions. 
Ms. Portmess 

243 American Philosophy Study of selected topics 
in colonial, early republic, nineteenth- and 
twentieth-century U.S. philosophy. Topics 
include deism, transcendentalism, pragmatism 
and historicism. Important secondary movements 
such as puritanism and evolutionism may also 
be considered. 
Mr. Walters 



314 Philosophical Revolutions in Mathematics 

Study of philosophical foundations of mathe- 
matics starting with the concept of number 
and culminating with Godel's groundbreaking 
incompleteness result. Specific topics include 
the historical developments and mathematical 
and philosophical ramifications of zero, 
rational, irrational, imaginary, and transfinite 
numbers as well as an examination of the 
completeness of arithmetic. Cross-listed as 
Mathematics 314. 
Mr. Gimbel and Mr. Egge 

33 1 Emotion A philosophical exploration of 
the nature and role of emotion in human Hfe. 
Course examines emotionality as a human 
capacit), emotional response as an experience, 
and specific emotion types, such as anger or 
fear. Topics include the traditional opposifion 
between reason and passion, between the 
cognitive and the emotive; the relation of 
emotion to morality; the possibility of 
"educating the emotions"; and philosophical 
issues related to particular emotions such as 
envy, jealousy, and embarrassment. 
Mr DeNicola 

333 Philosophy of Science Suidy of what 
philosophy has to say about science and what 
science has to say about philosophy. Course 
examines such questions as: WTiat is the 
relationship between science and truth? Does 
truth extend beyond science? Is the purpose 
of a sciendfic theor)' merely to predict, or to 
explain? Do we live in a determined world or 
a chaotic one? What are the philosophical 
implications of such theories as quantum 
mechanics, evolution, and relativity? 

Mr. Gimbel 

334 Philosophy of Art Survey of important 
problems and issues in the history of philosophical 
aesthetics, inlcuding the nature and funcdon of 
art, the social role of art, and the relationship of 
aesthetics to other branches of philosophy. 

Ms. Hansen 

335 Philosophy of Film The study of film as an 
arufact that both illuminates philosophical 
problems and poses new questions for 
philosophers about the nature of the self and 
community. The course examines how humans 
experience time and organize events and 
information through viewing film as a model 
of consciousness. Students also study film to 
idenufy how culture shapes both our identity 
and our perception of the "Other." 

Ms. Hansen 



338 Philosophy of Law Study of enduring themes 
of legal philosophy, such as the nature of law, 
law and morality, liberty, responsibility, and 
justice, as well as such specific issues as civil 
disobedience, freedom of expression, privacy, 
compensation, and punishment. Emphasis is 
placed on differing philosophical perspectives 
that underlie disagreements about the law and 
on ethical questions that arise from the practice 
of law. 
Ms. Porhness 

34 1 Contemporary Continental Philosophy Study 
of contemporan European and European- 
influenced philosophy. Course readings may 
include works by Heidegger, Derrida, Foucault, 
the French Nietzscheans (Bataille, Blanchot, 
Klossowski, Haar, Deleuze), French feminists 
(Kristeva, Irigaray, Cixous) , and critical theorists 
(Adomo, Horkheimer). Course explores the 
interreladons between philosophy and 
disciplines — such as literature, psychoanalysis, 
polidcal Uieory, and cultural cridcism — and die 
ways in which contemporary continental 
philosophers both take up and alter the historical 
tradidons of philosophy. 
Ms. Hansen 

400 Senior Seminar Discussion of important 
texts bv twentieth-century philosophers who 
represent major movements in analytic and 
continental philosophy. Recent seminars have 
focused on Wittgenstein, Heidegger, Foucault, 
and Rort)', as well as themes such as violence 
and its alternatives, philosophical theories of 
emotion, and the role of philosophy in the 
postmodern era. 
Mr. WnUnrs 

466 Senior Thesis Individualized study project 
involving the research of a topic and 
preparation of a major paper. Normally done 
duiing fall or spring semester of the senior year. 
Prerequisite: major or minor in philosophy. 
Staff 

PHYSICS 

Professors Marschall (Chairperson) and Pella 
Associate Professors Aldinger and Good 
Assistant Professors Stephenson and Crawford 
Laboratory Instructors Cooper and Clarke 

Overview 

The physics curricuhun introduces students to 
concepts and techniques basic to our present 
imderstanding of the physical imiverse. Diverse 
courses emphasize theories and principles that 
give a broad, unifying description of nature and 



develop the analytical reasoning needed for 
their use. Probing the interrelationships 
between matter and energy, students and facultv 
explore such fields as astronomy, 
electromagnetism, optics, elementarv' parucles, 
relativity, quantum mechanics, and atomic and 
nuclear physics. Laboratoiy training stresses the 
design of experiments, the techniques of precise 
measurement, the interpretation of data, and 
written and oral communication. In advanced 
courses, students apply their skills through 
independent studies and research with faculty, 
in contrast to programs at larger instituUons. 
Our physics faculty is dedicated to teaching, 
while remaining actively engaged in research. 
Mentoring relationships between faculty and 
students are the norm. 

The physics major is flexible. The possibilit)' 
of a double major is limited only by interests, 
dedication, and imagination. Gettysburg 
College physics majors have succeeded in 
diverse careers, including government, law, and 
management, as well as engineering, particle 
physics, and molecular biology. Our majors who 
choose graduate study have been well prepared 
for study in a wide range of fields, including 
astronomy; astrophysics; biophysics; business; 
geophysics; environmental, electrical, nuclear, 
and ocean engineering physics; and 
physiological psychology'. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The department offers both a Bachelor of 
Science and Bachelor of Arts degree for the 
major. 

B.A. requirements: A minimum of nine physics 
courses is required for the major. This includes 
the following six core courses: Physics 111, 112, 
211, 255, 310, 325, and three additional courses 
at the 200-level or higher, at least one of which 
must be from: Physics 312, 319, 330, and 341. 
In addidon, majors are required to complete 
mathematics courses through Mathemadcs 212 
or its equivalent. This diverse, flexible major is 
well suited for a variety of post graduation 
careers, including secondarv' school physics 
teaching, industrial research, and graduate 
school in such fields as engineering, computer 
science, law, and medicine. 

First-year students who are considering a major 
should enroll in Physics 111, 112, and 
Mathemadcs 111 and 112 if possible. Those 
planning on attending graduate school in 
physics should plan to take the addiuonal 
courses listed under the B.S. requirement below. 



Those considering graduate work in astronomy, 
engineering, or related fields are encouraged to 
augment their physics major with additional 
cotuses in mathematics, computer science, and 
chemistiy Students are not permitted to take 
more than twelve courses in the department 
wthout permission of the department, unless 
the thirteenth course is Physics 462 (Independent 
Study) . 

B.S. requirejnents: hi addition to the six core 
courses mentioned above, the B.S. degree 
requires Physics 462, at least three courses from 
Physics 312, 319, 330, 341, and any two courses 
at the 200-level or above. Candidates for the B.S. 
degree must also complete Mathematics 363. 

Minor requirements: A minor in physics consists of 
Physics 111, 112, 211, 255, and two additional 
courses in physics at the 200-level or above. The 
minor represents an appropriate complement 
to a variety of majors, including mathematics 
and computer science. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

The Liberal Aits Core requirement in the 
natural sciences may be satisfied by any course 
listed under physics or astronomy. 

Special Facilities 

In addition to well-equipped teaching 
laboratories in atomic and nuclear physics, 
electronics, and optics, the facilities of the 
department include a planetarium, an 
obsenaton', an accelerator research lab, and a 
plasma research lab. The observatory features 
a 16" Cassegrain telescope with a computer- 
controlled drive, a UVB photometer, and a 
research-grade CCD camera. The accelerator 
research lab houses a model PN-250 Van de 
Graaf HVEC proton accelerator. The plasma 
research lab is home to the Pickets Charged 
Plasma Device in which plasma discharges are 
produced and studied via laser spectroscopy 
diagnostics. Support facilities in Masters Hall 
include a machine shop, electronics shop, and 
a computer-equipped student work area. 

Engineering 

The department administers the Dual-Degree 
Engineering Program with Columbia University, 
Washington University in St. Louis, and 
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Students 
selecting this program graduate from Gettysburg 
College with a major in physics upon successful 
completion of an engineering degree at 
Columbia University, Washington University in 
St. Louis, or RPI. 



More details regarding the physics and the Dual- 
Degree Engineering Program are described in 
the Handbook for Students prepared by the 
physics department. Majors and prospective 
majors should request a copy from the physics 
department office or check the department's 
Web page. 

Prerequisites are meant only as guides. Any course is 
open to students who have pei mission of the 
department. 

ASTRONOMY 

101 Solar System Astronomy Overview of 
behavior and properties of planets, satellites, 
and minor members of the solar system. 
Subjects include basic phenomena of the visible 
sky, gravitation and orbital mechanics, results of 
telescopic and space research, and theories of 
the origin and evolution of the solar system. 
Course satisfies science distribution requirement 
for nonscience majors. Three classes and a 
laboratoiy 

Mr. Marschall 

102 Stellar Astronomy Overview of current 
knowledge about the universe beyond the solar 
system from a physical and evolutionary 
standpoint. Subjects include observational 
properties of stars, methods of obsenation 
and analysis of light, nature of stellar systems 
and interstellar material, principles of stellar 
structure and evolution, and overall structure 
and development of the physical universe. 
Course satisfies laboratoiy science distribution 
requirement for nonscience majors. Three 
classes and a laboratoiy 

Mr Marschall 

208 Topics in Astronomy A detailed invesdgation 
of a topic of current interest in astronomy. 
The course sets forth a major subdiscipline 
of astronomy at a level beyond that of the 
introductoiT astronomy sequence, presuming 
some knowledge of the scale and structure 
of astronomical objects, the vocabulary of 
astronomy, and the fundamentals of physics. 
Staff 

PHYSICS 

101 The Evolving Universe Overview of the 
fundamental principles of classical physics 
(including gravitafion and electromagnetism), 
the theor)' of relativity, and quantum physics. 
Course includes a discussion of the four 
fundamental forces of nature; nuclear and 
atomic physics; elementaiy particles; grand 
unified theories; and cosmology, including the 



origin and fate of the universe. Does not count 
toward the majoi". Three class hours. 

Mr. Aldinger 

102 Contemporary Physics Designed for 
nonscience majors. Course concentrates on 
the relationship between physical principles, 
modern technology, and the world in which we 
live. Topics include heat and thermodynamics, 
lasers and other optical instruments, electricity 
and circuits, medical diagnostics, and radiation 
effects. Not appropriate for students taking 
Math 112. Three class hours and three 
laboratory hours. No prerequisite. 
Staff 

103-104 Elementary Physics i and II General 
coverage of the fields of classical and modern 
physics. Course is structured for students in 
biology, environmental science, the health 
professions, etc. While particularly useful for 
biology majors, the two-course sequence serves 
any student as an introduction to a wide range 
of topics in physics. Prerequisite: Facility in 
algebra and geometry. Three class hours and 
three laboratory hours. 
Staff 

107 Physics of Music An introduction to the 
physical basis of music and sound production. 
Topics include the mechanical and sonic 
characteristics of common musical instruments, 
room acoustics, human perception of soimd, 
and the mechanics of the human ear. Special 
emphasis is placed on how fundamental 
concepts from math and physics (vibrations 
and waves, logarithmic measurement scales, 
the Fourier Series, frequency spectra) explain 
many of the aspects of how music is produced 
and perceived. 
Mr. Crauford 

\ 1 1 Introductory Modern Physics I An 

introduction to conservation laws and modern 
physics: the conservation of momentiun, energy 
and angular momentum as fimdamental laws, 
vectors and the concept of velocity, super- 
position and the interference of waves, physical 
optics, introductory principles of quantum 
physics, and applications in atomic and nuclear 
physics. Four class hours and three laboratory 
hours. 
Mr Pella 

1 12 Introductory Modern Physics II An 

introduction to classical and relativistic 
mechanics: Newton's laws of motion, the work- 
energy principle, celestial mechanics, and the 



special theory of relativity, including four-vector 
notation. Differential and integral calculus is 
introduced and used. Prerequisites: Physics 111 
and Math 111, which may be taken concur- 
rently, or permission of instructor. Four class 
hours and three laboratory hoius. 
Ms. Stephenson 

2 1 1 Intermediate Physics An introduction to 
classical electromagnetic theory and 
applications: electrostatic fields, currents, 
magnetic fields, magnetic induction, and 
Maxwell's equations. Other topics include 
waves, light as a propagating electromagnetic 
disturbance, and optics. Prerequisites: Physics 112 
and Mathematics 112, which may be taken 
concurrendy, or permission of instructor. 
Three class hours and six laborator)' hours. 
Mr. Crauford 

240 Electronics Principles of electronic devices 
and circuits using integrated circuits, both 
analog and digital, including amplifiers, 
oscillators, and logic circuits. Prerequisite: Physics 
211. Three class hours and six laboratory hours. 
Mr. Craiuford 

255 Mathematical Techniques for Physicists 

Intermediate treatment of mathematical 
methods used in physics. Topics include elements 
of vector calculus, complex variables, ordinan' 
and partial differential equations, solution of 
Laplace's equation, special functions, 
determinants, and matrices. Prerequisites: Physics 
211 and Mathemadcs 112. Three class hours. 
Mr. Aldinger 

310 Atomic and Nuclear Physics Introduction to 
quantum meclianics. Potential wells, barriers, 
one electron atoms, and multielectron atoms 
are studied. Other topics include nuclear 
models, decay, and nuclear reactions. Three 
class hours and three laboratory hours. 
Prerequisite: Physics 255. 
Mr Pella 

3 1 2 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics 

Temperature, heat, first and second laws of 
thermodynamics, and introductory statistical 
mechanics of physical systems based on the 
piinciple of maximum entropy. Topics include 
the ideal gas, Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein 
"gases," electrons in metals, blackbody radiation, 
low temperature physics, and elements of 
transport theory. Prerequisite: Physics 211. 
Three class hours. 
Ms. Stephenson 



319 Classical Mechanics Intermediate-level 
course in mechanics for iipperclass physics 
majors. Topics include chaos, nonlinear 
dynamics, central forces, oscillations, and 
the formalisms of Lagrange and Hamilton. 
Prerequisites: Physics 211, Physics 255, and 
Mathematics 211. Three class hours. 
Staff 

325 Advanced Physics Laboratory Laboratory 
course with experiments drawn from various 
areas of physics, such as optics, electromagnetism, 
atomic physics, and nuclear physics, with particular 
emphasis on contemporary methods. Error 
analysis, experimental techniques, and written 
and oral communication are stressed. Prerequisite: 
Physics 310. 
Staff 

330 Electricity and Magnetism Intermediate 
comse in electromagnetism, including vector 
fields and vector calculus, electrostatic field 
theory, dielectrics, magnetic phenomena, fields 
in matter. Maxwell's equations, Laplace's 
equation and boundary value problems, and 
electromagnetic waves. Prerequisites: Physics 21 1 
and Physics 255. Three class hours. 
Mr. Good 

341 Quantum Mechanics Introduction to the 
Schrodinger and Heisenberg formulations 
of quantum mechanics. Topics include 
free particles, harmonic oscillator, angular 
momentum, hydrogen atom, matrix mechanics, 
spin wave functions, helium atom, and 
perturbation theor)'. Prerequisites: Physics 255 
and 310 and Mathematics 363, or permission 
of instructor. Three class hours. 
Staff 

352 Optics and Laser Physics Intermediate 
treatment of physical optics and laser physics. 
Topics include electromagnetic theoiy of light, 
interference, diffraction, coherence, 
holography, Fourier optics, fundamentals of 
laser operations, laser spectroscopy, and fiber 
optics. Three class hours and six laboratory 
hours. Prerequisites: Physics 211 and Mathematics 
21 1 or permission of instructor. 
Mr Good 

381 Special Topics in Physics Topics in physics 
not covered in the usual curriculum. Topics vary 
from year to year and may include relativity; 
astrophysics; advanced topics in modern optics, 
solid state physics and electromagnetism; 
fimdamental particles and nuclear structure; the 
physics of plasmas and various mathematical 
topics in physics (topology, special functions, 



fractals). Prerequisites: Upper division standing 
and approval by instructor. Three class hours. 

452 Tutorials: Special Topics Designed to cover 
physics or physics-related topics not otherwise 
available in the curriculimi. Open to upperclass 
physics majors who arrange with a staff member 
for supervision. Possible areas of study include 
advanced electronics, medical physics, astrophysics, 
acoustics, nuclear physics, and plasma physics. 
Prerequisite: Approval by department. 
Staff 

462 Independent Study in Physics and Astronomy 

Experimental or theoretical investigation of a 
research-level problem selected by a student in 
consultation with a faculty member. Students 
should arrange for supervision by the end of 
the junior year. Results of the investigation are 
reported in a departmental colloquium and 
in a written thesis. Prerequisite: Approval by 
department. 
Staff 

474 Internship Research participation during 
the stunmer at a recognized research laboratoiy 
such as Aigonne National Labs, Department 
of Energ)' Laboratories, or NIST Individual 
students are responsible for obtaining 
acceptance to these programs. In most cases 
students will be required to describe their 
participation in a departmental colloquium. 
Prerequisite: Completion of sophomore year and 
departmental approval. 
Mr Pella 

POLITICAL SCIENCE 

Professors Matt (Chairperson) and Warshaw 
Associate Professors Borock, Dawes, Gaenslen, 

Hartzell, lannello, and D. Tannenbaum 
Assistant Professor Bohrei- 

Overview 

The department aims at providing an 
imderstanding of the study of politics, emphasizing 
the methods and approaches of political science 
and the workings of political systems in various 
domestic, foreign, and international settings. 

The program provides balance between the 
needs of specialists who intend to pursue 
graduate or professional training and those who 
do not. Courses offered in the department help 
prepare the student for careers in politics, 
federal, state, and local government, public and 
private interest groups, business, journalism, 
law, and teaching. 



Requirements and Recommendations 

Major requirements: A minimum of eleven courses 
in political science. Majors are required to take 
four introductory courses: Political Science 101, 
102, 103, and 104. These courses are designed to 
introduce students to the discipline and to the 
types of issues that are important to political 
scientists. The 100-level courses may be taken in 
any order, and should be completed by the end of 
the sophomore year. All students must take 
Political Science 215 (Political Science Research 
Methods) as sophomores or first-semester juniors. 
Among the six courses needed to complete the 
major, students must take three courses in three 
different subfields at the 200 level, and two 
courses within two of those subfields at the 
300-400 level. The remaining requirement may 
be satisfied with any upper level course. 

Students are encouraged to take internships 
for academic course credit, but they are graded 
S/U and do not count toward the major 
requirements. Polifical science courses taken off 
campus will satisfy 200-level requirements only. 
Students are allowed to cotmt a maximum of two 
of those courses for major and minor credits 
toward graduation. 

Minor requirements: Successful completion of any 
two 100-level courses and any four upper-level 
courses that normally count toward the major, 
pro\ided they do not all fall into the same subfield. 

Departmental honors in political science are 
awarded to graduadng majors who have achieved 
an average of 3.5 in political science courses and 
who have successfully completed a significant 
research project in the senior year. Students 
wishing to qualify for honors are responsible for 
choosing a facult}' member to direct the project. 
A second faculty member v\all act as a reader of 
the completed work. Those who achieve honors 
are expected to present their work in a public 
forum. 

Students interested in political science are urged 
to take basic courses in histon and economics 
during their first two years. In the junior and 
senior years, majors are urged to participate in 
departmental seminars, individualized study, and 
internships. 



Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Any of the following courses may be counted 
towards the Liberal Arts Core requirement in 
the social sciences: 101, 102, 103, and 104. The 
following courses may be counted toward the 
Liberal Arts Core requirement in non-Western 
culture: 270, 271, 362, and 363. 

Special Programs 

Qualified students may participate in off-campus 
programs, such as the Washington Semester, 
The United Nations Semester, and Study Abroad. 

INTRODUCTORY COURSES 

101 American Government Examination of 
the institutional structure and policy-making 
process of national government as reflections 
of assumptions of liberal democracy and the 
American social and economic systems. In 
addition to the legislative, executive, and judicial 
branches of government, political parties, 
interest groups, and elections are considered. 
Mr. Dawes, Ms. lannello, Mr. Mott, Ms. Warshaw 

1 02 Introduction to Political Thought Analysis of 
political philosophies relafing to fundamental 
problems of polidcal association, past and 
present. Course examines concepts of power, 
authority, freedom, equality, social justice, and 
order, as expressed in works of major political 
philosophers. 

Mr Tannenbaum 

103 Introduction to International Relations 

Examination of the behavior of states and non- 
state actors in the international system. Topics 
include systems analysis, nationalism, power, 
foreign policy, international institutions, 
interdependence and the world economy, conflict 
and cooperation, global environmental and 
ecological issues. 
Mr Borock, Ms. Hartzell 

104 Introduction to Comparative Politics 

Introducdon to structures and processes of 
political insdtutions in major tvpes of polidcal 
systems, including parliamentary systems, 
coimtries of the former Soviet Bloc system, and 
systems in developing countries. 
Mr Bohrer, Mr Gaenslen 

METHODOLOGY 

215 Political Science Research Methods 

Introduction to cjuanutadve research methods 
and their application to the study of polidcs. 
Topics include empiricism, survey research and 
polling, electoral behavior, and public opinion. 



Special attention is given to research design, 
data collection, data processing, and statistical 
analysis. Prerequisites: Completion of three of the 
following: Political Science 101, 102, 103, and 
104, or permission of instructor. 
Mr. Bohm; Mr. Dawes 

AMERICAN GOVERNMENT 
220 Urban Politics Study of the changing 
patterns in American urban life. Particular 
attention is given to the governing of urban 
.\merica in the past, present, and future, and 
the structure of power that has affected urban 
policy decisions. Prerequisite: Political Science 
101 or permission of instructor. 
Staff 

223 U.S. Congress Study of the United States 
Congress, focusing on theories of 
representation, nomination and electoral 
processes, internal organization of Congress, 
influences on Congressional policy-making, 
and Congressional interaction with other 
participants in the policy process. Prerequisites: 
Political Science 101 or permission of instructor 
Ms. Wa7sliaiv 

224 The American Presidency Study of the 
presidency in the American political system, 
including presidential selection, presidential 
leadership and decision-making, the president's 
advisors, and the role of the presidency in the 
policy-making process. Prerequisites: Political 
Science 101 or permission of instructor. 

Ms. Warshaiv 

225 American Constitutional Law Study of the 
judicial process in the U.S., with particular focus 
on the Supreme Court and its historical role in 
nation-building, establishing principles of 
federalism and the separation of powers, and 
determining the scope of personal and property 
rights. Prerequisites: PoXiticdl Science 101 or 
permission of instructor. 

Mr Mott 

322 Civil Rights and Liberties Study of selected 
problems involving interpretations of the Bill of 
Rights. Attention will be given to both the 
evolution and current standing of issues treated 
by the Supreme Court. Prerequisites: Political 
Science 101 and 225, or permission of instructor. 
Mr. Molt 



33 1 Political Parties in American Politics 

Examination of political parties, their role in 
democracy, and the nature of the party system 
in relation to other social and political processes. 
Aspects of voting behavior and campaign 
techniques are considered. Prerequisites: Political 
Science 101 and 215, or permission of instructor 
Mr. Dawes 

INTERNATIONAL POLITICS 

242 United States Foreign Policy Examination of 
the soiuces, goals and patterns of foreign policy. 
Attention is given to the processes by which 
policy is formulated and implemented and to 
the evaluation of the effectiveness of policy. 
Topics include decision making, foreign economic 
policy, deterrence, instruments of foreign policy, 
regionalism, multilatei^alism, and the development 
of post-Cold War objectives. Prerequisite: Political 
Science 103 or permission of instructor. 
Mr Borock 

25 i Political Economy of Advanced Industrial 
Societies Course explores scope and implications 
of interdependence among advanced industrial 
societies in the global system, as well as political 
determinants of international economic 
developments. Alternative theoretical perspectives 
on international political economy are examined, 
as well as the nature of the structure and 
management of the international economic 
system that was created by the industrialized 
countries after World War II. Prerequisite: Political 
Science 103 or permission of instructor. 
Ms. Hartzell 

252 North-South Dialogue Course investigates 
the political economy of North-South relations. 
Examining the distribution of wealth between 
the developed and developing countries of the 
world, course focuses on political and economic 
factors that have made global inequality a 
central characteristic of the relationship 
between the North and South. Important issues 
of the contemporary period such as North- 
South trade, the debt crisis, foreign aid, and 
famine are investigated and the developmental 
prospects for the South are assessed. Course 
may, in some of the years it is offered, include a 
two-week service learning trip to a developing 
country. Prerequisite: Political Science 103 or 
permission of instructor. 
Ms. Hartzell 



340 Models and Policy Analysis Examination 
of national/ regional policy options and 
consequences, using a global computer model 
to develop scenarios that focus on present or 
future international issues. Scenario topics 
include global warming, North-South disparities, 
environmental and ecological issues, economic 
development and trade, arms racing, and 
nuclear proliferation. Frfrecjuisile: ]unior or 
seniors status, or permission of instructor. 
Mr. Borock 

344 U.S. National Security Policy Examination 
of the domestic and foreign policies developed 
by the U.S. to defend itself and its interests. 
Attention is given to the structure within which 
policy is formulated and implemented and the 
transition to post-Cold War defense objectives 
and strategies. Topics include decision making, 
defense spending, military intei"vention and 
peacekeeping, regionalism, terrorism, nuclear 
proliferation, and war fighting strategies. 
Prerequisite: Political Science 10.^ or permission 
of instructor. Political Science 242 is 
recommended. 
Mr. Borock 

346 Approaches to International Relations 

Examination of the study of international 
relations from the perspective of the realist/ 
neorealist and liberal/neoliberal theoretical 
traditions. Attention is also given to the 
theories' impact on policy making. Topics 
include power, war, peace, integration, 
international organization and law. Prerequisite: 
Political Science 103 or permission of instructor. 
Mr Borock 

COMPARATIVE POLITICS 
260 West European Politics Study of the 
government and politics of France, Germany, 
and Great Britain. Analysis of the development 
of their political institutions, social and cultural 
factors affecting their political systems, 
alignment of political forces, and structures and 
processes of decision making. Prerequisite: 
Political Science 104 or permission of instructor. 
Mr Bohrer 

270 Government and Politics in China 

Introduction to the domestic politics of China, 
particularly since 1949. Topics include the 
historical legacy, ideology, political institutions, 
elite-mass relations, policy process, 
developmental strategies, and efforts at reform. 
Prerequisite: Political Science 104 or permission 
of instructor. 
Mr. Gaenslen 



27 1 Government and Politics in Japan 

hitroduction to post-World War II Japanese 
politics, involving comparison with political 
patterns elsewhere in the industrialized world. 
Topics include the historical legacy, political 
structures and processes, elite-mass relations, 
and the nature of the connection between 
business and government. Prerequisite: Political 
Science 104 or permission of instructor. 
Mr Gaenslen 

275 Latin American Politics Introduction to 
Latin American politics. Focus is on political 
issues surrounding economic development in 
the Latin American context: political 
preconditions, policy choices of Latin American 
regimes and leaders, and political consequences 
of development in general, and of those policy 
choices in particular. Course also compares the 
political systems and development trajectories of 
Latin American countries to other countries in 
the world. Prerequisite: Political Science 104 or 
permission of instructor. 
Ms. Hartzell 

362 Peasants, Politics, and Rebellion Peasants as 
political actors, with a focus on rural ecology 
and economy, peasant mentality and culture, 
and theories of rebellion and revolution. 
Prerequisite: Political Science 1 04 or permission 
of instructor. 

Mr. Gaenslen 

363 The Politics of Developing Areas 

Introduction to the study of political 
development and imderdevelopment, including 
approaches to Third World politics, nature of 
traditional politics, disruptions caused by 
colonialism and imperialism, reformation of 
domestic politics, and contemporary political 
processes and problems. Prerequisite: Political 
Science 104 or permission of instructor. 
Mr. Gaenslen 

POLITICAL THEORY 

280 Modern Political Ideologies Study of the 
philosophical content and the role of political 
ideologies in the modern world, with emphasis 
on liberalism, conservatism, socialism, 
feminism, anarchism, Marxism, communism, 
and fascism. Concept of ideology, historical 
development, and intersection and overlap of 
ideologies are also considered, as is the 
influence of political philosophy on ideologies 
and of ideologies on political behavior. 
Prerequisite: Political Science 102 or permission 
of instructor. 
Mr. Tannenbaum 



38 1 American Political Thought Study of the 
development of political thought in America 
from the colonial period to the present. Course 
examines individual writers and movements, 
and considers the relationship of the ideas 
examined both to current issues and politics 
and to the broader tradition of polidcal 
philosophy. Prerequisite: Political Science 102 or 
permission of instructor 

Mr. Tnnnenhaum 

382 Feminist Theory in American Politics Course 
examines the role of feminist political thought 
in American politics. Topics include various 
strains of feminist theory, including liberal, 
Marxist, radical, and anarchist theories, with 
particular emphasis on kinds of feminist 
political participation that emerge from liberal 
and anarchist political ideals. Course also 
provides a context in which key concepts such 
as politics and power may be reconceptualized 
from an American feminist point of view. 
Prerequisite: Political Science 102 or permission 
of instructor. 

Ms. lanneUo 

200, 300 Topics in Political Science Exploration 
of an announced topic chosen each year or 
ever)' other year by the department. Among the 
Special Topics currendy offered are the following: 

200 The Holocaust and Modern Political Thought 

Study of the ideas of modern political thinkers 
from Machiavelli to Marx, Camus, and Wiesel, 
which provide insight into human behavior 
during the Holocaust — the systematic 
destruction of six million European Jews, and 
other targeted populations, by the Nazi German 
regime and their collaborators during the 1930s 
and 1940s. Prerequisites: Political Science 102 or 
permission of instructor. 
Mr. Tannenbaum 

30 1 Electoral Politics: Parties, Procedures, 
Finances, and Strategies Course focuses on 
contemporai7 campaign and election events 
and personalities as well as recent American 
political party history and issues, candidate 
nomination procedures, party financing, 
campaign strategies, use of media, and voting 
behavior Prerequisites: VoWiic^X Science 101 or 
permission of instructor. 
Mr. Mott 



308 State Politics and Policy Comparative 
analysis of politics in the fifty states. An empirical 
analysis of the operation and functions of state 
political systems. Prerequisite: Political Science 
101 and 215 or permission of instrvictor. 
Mr Dailies 

400 Seminars Advanced study of domesdc, 
foreign, or world politics, or political theory. A 
common core of reading and written reports by 
each student is provided. Topics differ each 
year, but several seminars are offered routinely 
and are listed below. 

40 1 Executive Policy Making Study of the 
constraints in the presidential policy-making 
process. Included is an examination of the 
bureaucrauc, constituent, and congressional 
impact on the development of policy opdons 
in execudve decision making. Students are 
responsible for a major term paper, which 
involves considerable independent research. 
Prerequisite: Political Science 101 and 224 or 
permission of instructor. 

Ms. Warshaw 

402 American Voting Behavior and Electoral 
Politics Survey of research on political 
participation and vote choice in the U.S. Also 
considered are various functions elections serve 
in a democracy, as well as the relative merits of 
aggregate and indi\idual level approaches to 
the study of the politics of the mass electorate. 
Emphasizes contemporary American politics, 
but also includes analysis of historical and 
comparative aspects of vodng behavior Prerequisite: 
Polidcal Science 101 or permission of instructor. 
Mr Dawes 

405 Executive-Legislative Relations Examinadon 
of the complex institiuional and political 
relationship between the Executive and 
Legislative branches of the Federal government. 
Prerequisite: Polidcal Science 101 and 224. 

Ms. Warshaw 

406 Politics of Poverty Consideration of the 
definitions of poverty and the location of the 
problem within the federal political system. 
Attendon is given to competing ideologies/ 
theories of the development of povert)- in urban 
areas and corresponding proposals/solutions 
offered by each perspective. Prerequisite: Polidcal 
Science 101 or permission of instructor. 

Ms. lannello 



409 Comparative Political Economy Introduction 
to the workings oi domestic economic systems 
and to some of thie main analytical frameworks 
that political economy uses to examine these 
systems. Comparative focus on issues of political 
economy is two-fold: Use is made of comparative 
methods as well as of different theoretical 
approaches to understanding domestic political 
economies. To that end, course focuses on 
relationship between political systems, regime 
t)'pes, ideolog)', and economic systems and the 
effects these have on certain public policy 
outcomes. Prerequisites: Political Science 103, 
with Political Science 251 or 252 recommended, 
or permission of the instructor. 
Ms. Hartzell 

412 Women and the Political Economy of 
Development Examination of the central role 
that women in developing coiuitries perform 
in the development process, as well as of the 
impact that development has on women. 
Analysis of the role that women play in household 
production, in the care of their families and 
their participation in both the formal and 
informal economies. Perspectives ranging from 
economists' efforts to accurately measure women's 
contributions to development, to political 
scientists' focus on the political power of 
women, to feminist critiques of mainstream 
development theories are employed. Course 
includes a service learning component. 
Prerequisites: Political Science 103 or permission 
of instructor. 
Ms. Harttzell 

414 Europe in Transition Focus on the profound 
political, social, and economic changes in the 
post-World War II era in West European politics. 
Topics include the crisis of the welfare state, 
immigration and the rise of parties of the far- 
right, the enlargement and enhancement of the 
European Union, the integration of East- 
Central Europe after the Cold War, and the 
devolution of power from national to sub- 
national bodies. Prerequisite: Political Science 104 
or permission of instructor. Political Science 260 
recommended. 
Mr. Bohrer 



Individualized Study Intensive research on an 
approved topic presented in oral or written 
reports, under the supervision of a faculty 
member. 
Stajf 

internship Minimum six weeks of on-site 
participation in administration with a public or 
private organization under the supervision of a 
faculty member. Available fall or spring semesters 
or the summer. 
.Staff 

Honors Opportunit)' for highly qualified 
students to participate in a program of original 
research under the supervision of a faculty 
member. Each student completes a thesis and 
presents her or his research in a public forum. 
Staff 

PSYCHOLOGY 

Professors Arterberry, Bonistein, D 'Agostino, Pittman, 

and Biggs 
Associate Professors Cain, Fincher-Kiefer, and Siviy 
Assistant Professors Goubet, McCall, and Wessinger 
Adjunct Professor Stangor 
Adjunct Assistant Professor Sauve 

Overview 

The department emphasizes an empirical 
approach to psychology in all of its course 
offerings. The objective of the department is to 
promote knowledge of the causes of beha\dor 
and mental processes with emphasis on the 
formation of a scientific attitude and appre- 
ciation of the complexit)' of human personalit)'. 
This objective is approached by providing a 
representative array of courses in psycholog)', 
including advanced laboratories, independent 
reading and independent research, selected 
opportunities for field work, seminars, and 
special topics. Direct experience with the 
major methods, instruments, and theoretical 
frameworks of the discipline is emphasized 
throughoiU. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Psychology 101 is a prerequisite for all other 
courses in the department. Requirements 
for a major include Psychology' 101, 205 (or 
Mathematics 205), 305, 341, two advanced 
psychology laboratory courses, one from each of 
the following two groups: (a) 314, 321, 327, 328 
and (b) 315, 316, 317, 336, 338; three additional 
courses in psycholog)', and two laboratoiy courses 



within the same department in the Division of 
Natural Sciences. Most psychology laboratory 
courses have a 200-level course as a prerequisite. 
Majors must earn a grade of C or better in both 
Psychology 205 (or Mathematics 205) and 305. 
(Psychology 205 or Mathematics 205 may not be 
repeated for the major. Psychology 305 may be repeated 
nnce.) It is recommended that students complete 
i'sychology 305 by the end of the sophomore 
yean Students may not take two advanced 
psycholog) laboratory courses in the same 
semester Majors are strongly encouraged to 
take Computer Science 104. 

An individualized study, as well as experience 
in the use of the computer and/or training in 
computer science, are highly recommended 
for those planning to go on to graduate work. 
Students should consult with their adviser for 
specific information on the prerequisites for 
work at the graduate level in the specialized 
areas of psychology. 

Honors Research Program 

This program provides outstanding students 
with an intensive research experience. Invitations 
for participation may be extended to students 
who have a GPA of 3.5 in Psychology 101, 205 
(or Mathematics 205), and 305. These courses 
should be completed by the end of the 
sophomore year 

Student.s in this program take two advanced 
laboratory courses in the junior year (priority 
will be given at registration), and enroll in 
Psychology 464 (Honors Research) in their 
senior year (an honors thesis may be substituted 
for Psychology 464; see Honors Thesis course 
description). Results of these honors research 
projects are presented at the Spring 
Undergraduate Research Colloquium. Students 
are also expected to attend departmental 
colloquia and other departmental events. 

Requirements for Departmental Honors 

Departmental Honors are awarded to graduating 
majors who, in the combined judgement of the 
staff, have demonstrated academic excellence in 
course work in the major, and who have completed 
the individualized empirical research project, 
honors research, or an honors thesis. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Psycholog)' 101 and all 200-level courses 
(except Psychology 205 or Mathematics 205) 
may be used to fulfill the Liberal Arts Core 



requirement in social sciences. Psychology 205 
or Mathematics 205, open only to psycholog) 
majors, may be used to sadsfy the quantitadve 
reasoning requirement. 

Neuroscience Minor 

Neuroscience is an interdisciplinary study of the 
relationship between the brain, the mind, and 
behavior Students majoring in psychology 
may want to consider pursuing a minor in 
neuroscience. In addition to preparing students 
for graduate study specifically in neuroscience, 
the minor affords students the proper tools for 
graduate study in other areas of psychology as 
well as medical school. 

1 1 General Psychology Introduction to basic 
scientific logic, facts, theories, and principles 
of psychology, including the study of human 
motivation, learning, emotion, perception, 
thought, intelligence, and personalit)'. Offered 
each semester 
Staff 

205 Introduction to Statistics Introduction to 
descriptive and inferendal stadsdcal methods. 
Laboratory work involves the use of a computer 
software package that allows for the application 
of statistical procedures. Credit may not be 
granted for this course and Mathematics 107, 
Mathemaucs 205, Biology 260, or Economics 
241. Offered each semester. Prerequisite: High 
school algebra. Elementary education minors 
should enroll in Mathemafics 205. Required 
of all majors; open only to declared majors. 
Three class hours and three laboratory hours. 
Ms. Arterberry, Ms. Cain, Mr Siviy 

214 Social Psychology Review of current psycho- 
logical theory and research in social psychology. 
Topics include attitude and behavior change, 
conformit)', attracdon, interpersonal percepdon, 
and psychological aspects of social interaction. 
Prerequisite: Psychology 1 01. 

Ms. Riggs, Mr Pittman, Mr Stangor 

2 1 5 Human Cognition Introducdon to cognitive 
psycholog)'. Topics covered include perception, 
attention, memor)', learning, forgetting, language 
comprehension, reasoning, and problem solving. 
Theories are presented concerning cognitive 
processes, and empirical evidence is considered 
that might challenge or support these theories. 
Prerequisiti': Psychology lOI. 

Ms. Fincher-Kiefer 



2 1 6 Sensation and Perception Explores 
phenomena ot sensation and perception from 
the perspective of experimental psychology. 
Emphasis is on understanding the mechanisms 
and processes that underlie our experiences of 
the material world. Small discussion groups 
[ explore special topics and areas of current 

research. Prerequisile: Psycho\og^' 101 or Biology 
101 or 111. 
Mr. McCall 

11 1 Basic Dynamics of Personality Introduction 
to major approaches to personality, including 
psychodynamic, behavioral, humanistic, and 
trait models. General issues and problems that 
arise in the study of personality are considered, 
and the importance of empirical evidence is 
emphasized. Prerequisite: Vsyc\\o\o^ 101. 
Mr Bomstein 

225 Developmental Psychology: Infancy and 
Childhood Psychological development of the 
individual, from conception up to adolescence. 
I Theory, mediodology, and research are presented 
in the areas of perception, learning, cognition, 
language, social, emotional, and moral 
development. Prerequisite: P%yc\\o\o^' 101. 
Ms. Arterberry, Ms. Cain, Ms. Goubet 

236 Introduction to Brain and Behavior 

Introduction to the anatomical, physiological, 
and biochemical bases of human behavior. 
Topics include sleep and dreams, development, 
learning and memoiy motivation and emotions, 
language and other higher functions, and 
psychopathology. Emphasis is on developing 
an ability to conceptualize psychological 
phenomena in biological terms. Prerequisite: 
Psychology 101. 
Mr Siviy 

237 Psychopharmacology Examination of 
how psychoactive compounds affect the 
brain, behavior, and cognition. The major 
neurochemical systems of the brain and how 
psychoactive compounds affect these systems 
are discussed at length. Topics include both 
recreational and psychotherapeutic agent.s. 
Methods used in psychopharmacology research 
are emphasized throughout the course. 
Prerequisite: Vsyc\\o\o^' 101. 

Mr. Siviy 



238 Cognition and Brain An exploration of the 
rapidly de\eloping sub-discipline of cognitive 
neuroscience. Emphasis is on exploring 
cognition using a multidisciplinary approach, 
drawing from cognitive psychology, biology, 
neurology, and neuroscience. Some specific 
areas covered include the neural basis of vision, 
audition, attention, memory, language, and 
consciousness. The overall unifying theme is 
to explore the neural substrates responsible 
for mediating various cognitive functions, i.e., 
how the brain enables the mind. Prerequisite: 
Psychology 101 or Biology 101 or 111. 
Mr Wessinger 

305 Experimental Methods Introduction to 
scientific method and experimental design. 
Emphasis is on the logical development of 
new ideas, kinds and sources of error in 
experimentation, methods of control, design 
and analysis of experiments, and scientific 
communication. Prerequisite: Psychology 205 
or Mathematics 205. Three class hours and 
three laboratory hours. 
Mr. D 'Agostino, Ms. Fincher-Kiefer, 
Mr. Pittman, Ms. Riggs 

314 Experimental Social Psychology Study of 
specific content areas in social psychology. 
Current theories and empirical data are used 
to illustrate experimental designs and relevant 
methodological considerations. Laboratory 
work includes design, execution, and analysis 
of two original experiments. Prerequisites: 
Psychology 214 and 305. Three class hours and 
the equivalent of three laboratory hours. 

Mr Pittman, Ms. Riggs 

3 1 5 Thinking and Cognition In-depth examination 
oi the cognitive processes involved in memory, 
language comprehension, problem solving, and 
reasoning. Current research and existing theories 
are surveyed. Research is conducted in one area 
of investigation. Prerequisites: Psychology 215 and 
305. Three class hours and three laboratoiy hours. 
Ms. Fincher-Kiefer 

316 Perception Investigation of current topics in 
perception, with particular emphasis on high- 
level vision. Examples include object and face 
recognition, depth perception, visually guided 
reaching, and locomotion. These and odier 
phenomena are analyzed, asking: What problems 
do human perceivers solve? How are these 
problems solved? How do perceptual abilides 



develop? Prerequisites: Psychology 216 and 305. 
Three class hours and the equivalent of tliree 
laboratoiy hours. 
Ms. Arterherry. Mr. McCall 

317 Memory and Social Cognition Introduction 
to human memory and social cognition. Focus 
is on the cognitive structures and processes 
involved in social judgment. Errors and biases in 
human judgment are also examined. Prerequisite: 
Psychology 305. Three class hours and three 
laborator)' hours. 
Mr. D 'Agostino 

32 1 Assessment of Personality, Psychopathology, 
and Intelligence Introduction to methodological 
and conceptual issues involved in the 
construction and use of personality tests and 
meiisures of psychopathology. Survey of literature 
on test development and validation is followed 
by in-depth study of selected topics in 
personality, psychopatholog)', and intelligence. 
Each student also designs, conducts, analyzes, 
and writes up an experiment evaluating some 
aspect of a personality test or measure. 
Prerequisites: Psychology 221 and 305. Three class 
hours and equivalent of three laboratory hoius. 
Mr Bornstein 

326 Abnormal Psychology Introduction to 
psychopatholog) and abnormal behavior, with 
particular attention to conceptvial, mediodological, 
and ethical issues involved in the study of 
abnormal psychology. Models of psychopatholog)' 
and psychodiagnosis are discussed, with an 
emphasis on the empirical evidence for different 
models. Prerequisite: Psychology 221. 

Mr Bom stein 

327 Experimental Cognitive Development 

Intensive study of one or more areas of 
cognitive development. Emphasis is on the 
unique characteristics of research with children. 
Laboratory work is conducted in a preschool or 
day care center. Design, execution, and analysis 
of a research project is required. Prerequisites: 
Psycholog)' 225 and 305. Three class hoins and 
three laboratory hours. 
Ms. Arterherry, Mr. McCall 

328 Laboratory in Social Development Intensive 
study of one or more areas of social and 
personality development, utilizing observational 
and experimental methods. Emphasis is on the 
imiqtie characteristics of research with children. 
Laboratory work is conducted in a preschool or 
day care center and includes the design, execution, 



and analysis of a research project. Prerequisites: 
Psycholog)' 225 and 305. Three class hours and 
three laboratory hours. 

Ms. Cain 

336 Behavioral Neuroscience Advanced discussion 
of topics included in Psychology 236, as well as 
an in-depth treatment of brain development 
and the neiuochemical basis of behavior. 
Prerequisites: Psycholog)' 236 or 237 and Psycholog)' 
305 or permission of the instructor. Three class 
hours and three laboratorv' hours. 
Mr Siviy 

338 Experimental Cognitive Neuroscience 

In-depth examination of the neiuobiological 
substrates involved in perceptual and cognitive 
processing. Empirical data are used to illustrate 
conception, design, and analysis of contemporary 
cognitive neuroscience topics. Emphasis is 
placed on a multidisciplinar)' approach to illus- 
trate the importance of converging techniques 
when exploring cognitive neuroscience topics 
with particular focus on both behavioral and 
fimctional MRI data. Lab work includes the concep- 
tion, design, execution, analysis, and write-up of 
experiments. Prerequisites: Psychology 238 and 305, 
or pennission of instructor. Three class hours and 
tlie equivalent of three laboratoiy hours. 
Mr. We.ssinger 

341 History of Experimental Psychology Review 
of the historical development of scientific 
psychology. Emphases are on early foundations 
of major conceptual issues and on the role of 
the reference experiment in setdng the course 
of modern psychological research. Prerequisite: 
Psychology 305. 
Ms. Cain, Mr McCall 

400 Seminar Opportunit)' to work on a selected 
topic in a small group under the guidance of a 
faculty member. Not offered every year. Topic 
for a given semester is announced in advance. 
Enrollment by permission of instructor. May 
be repeated. 

450 Individualized Study Tutorial opportunit)' 
to do intensive and critical reading and to write 
a term paper on a topic of special interest. 
Student is expected to become thoroughly 
familiar with reference books, microfilms, and 
scientific journals available for library research 
in the field of psychology. Prerequisite: 
Permission of instructor. May be repeated. 
Staff 



460 Individualized Empirical Research Design 
and execution of an empirical study involving 
the collection and analysis of data in relation to 
some psychological problem under tlie supervision 
of a faculty member. Students are required to 
present an acceptable research proposal no 
later than four weeks following the beginning 
of the semester or to withdraw from the course. 
Research culminates in a paper. Prerequisite: 
Permission of instructor. May be repeated. 
Staff 

464 Honors Research Students in the Honors 
Research Program take this course in their 
senior year. Course has two components: (a) a 
research project, similar to that described imder 
Indi\idualized Empirical Research, in which 
each student designs and executes an empirical 
study under the super\ision of a staff member; 
and (b) an honors seminar in which honors 
students present and discuss their research 
projects. Students may elect to do their research 
project in either the fall or spring semester. 
Seminar meets both semesters, and all students 
participate in all seminar meetings. One course 
credit usually is given in the spring semester. 
Prerequisites: Participation in the Honors Research 
Program and completion of two advanced 
laboratory courses. 
Staff 

466 Honors Thesis Designed to meet needs of 
the clearly superior student. During the senior 
year each participant engages in an original 
program of research under the direction of a 
thesis committee. In addition to completing 
a formal thesis, each student presents and 
discusses his or her research before the entire 
staff. Successful completion of the program 
entitles the student to receive credit for two 
courses to be applied towards a psychology major. 
Prerequisite: By in\itation of the department only. 

473 Internship A minimum of 160 hours of on- 
ihe-job experience on a mental health, hiunan 
resource, or research position. Students must be 
sponsored by a faculty- member, and receive 
approval by the internship coordinator. Available 
during the fall or spring semesters or during the 
summer. Course does not count toward minimum 
requirements in a major or minor; graded S/U. 
May not be repeated. 



RELIGION 



Associate Professor C. Myers (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professor Sommer 
Instructors Altieri and Steinfek 
Visiting Assistant Professor Stem 

Overview 

Essential to an understanding of the past and 
the present is a study of the varied religious 
experiences and traditions of humankind. 
The department offers courses in sacred texts, 
historical traditions, and religious thought and 
institutions, all of which investigate the complex 
phenomenon of religion. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

A major consists of ten courses. Two may be 
taken outside the department; two must be at 
the 200-level; one must be a 300- or a second 
400-level course. A major must also take at least 
one of the following: Religion 460, 470, or 474. 
The department encourages qualified students 
to consider internships and/or overseas study, 
including the junior year abroad. 

A minor consists of six courses. One of the six 
may be outside the department, but not in a 
student's major; at least one must be at the 200- 
level and at least one must be at the 300- or 400- 
level. 

Any of the following courses, outside the 
department may be counted toward either a 
major or minor. Other courses may be possible 
with the permission of the department. 

Classics 230 Classical Mythology 

Greek 204 New Testament Greek 

Hist 3 1 1 Medieval Europe 

Hist 3 1 3 Renaissance and Reformation 

IDS 211 Perspectives on Death and Dying 

IDS 229 South Asia: Contemporary Issues 

in Historical Perspective 
IDS 239 Suney of South Asian Literature 
IDS 267 Theatre and Religion 
Latin 306 St. Augustine 
Phil 105 Contemporary- Moral Issues 
Phil 205 .Ancient Philosophy 
Phil 237 Philosophy of Religion 
Soc 205 Sociology of Religion 

The department's rationale for numbering 
courses is as follows: 

100-leuel courses tend to be topical and thematic. 

200-lmel courses are siuAeys that usually take a 
historical approach. Neither 100 nor 200 courses 
have a prerequisite. 



jQO-level courses are more narrowly focused or 
specialized, often examining in greater detail an 
issue or area treated more generally in other 
courses. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

All religion courses can be counted toward 
satisfying the three-course humanities 
requirement in the Liberal Arts Core. The 
following religon courses meet the Liberal Arts 
Core requirement in non-Western culture: 226, 
241, 244, 248, 249, 251, 252, 254, 256, 270, 271, 
340, 352, 355. 

1 1 Introduction to Religion InU oduction to basic 
elements entailed in the study of religion such as 
sacred space, sacred time, ritual, pilgiimage, 
cosmology, ritual, scripture, and the afterlife. 
Course explores case studies from various cultural 
Uadidons diroughout the world. 
Staff 

105 The Bible and Modern Moral Issues 

Investigation of the relevance of the Bible for 
life in the twenty-first century. Some issues 
studied from a biblical perspective include sex 
roles and sexual relations, economic inequities, 
and legal injustices. Ainong topics to be covered 
are marriage and divorce, homosexuality, 
women's rights, poverty, war, and peace. Three 
class hours. No prerequisites. Open to first-year 
students and sophomores only. 
Mr. C. Myers 

1 17 Topics in Biblical Studies Intensive study of a 
religious topic, problem, writer, or theme in the 
field of biblical studies. Offered at the discretion 
of department. 

Staff 

127 Topics in History of Religions Intensive study 
of a religious topic, problem, writer, or theme in 
the field of the history of religions. Offered at 
discretion of department. 

Staff 

129 Introduction to Judaism Overview of ancient 
and contemporary Jewish belief and practice 
through an examination of sacred texts, theology, 
and history. Special attention is given to Jewish 
theology, holidays, and life-cycle. 
Mr. Stem 

137 Topics in Religious Thought Intensive study 
of a religious topic, problem, writer, or theme 
in the field of religious thought. Offered at 
discredon of department. 
Staff 



141 Religion and Culture in the U.S. Study of how 
"religion" and "culture" intersect, using methods 
and insights from the academic study of religion, 
anthropology, folklc^re studies, and history. 
Ms. Altieri 

144 Ritual Thinking: Ritual Doing Examination of 

such questions as how religious ritual differs 
from everyday rouUne or how the academic 
study of religion makes such a distinction — and 
why? Course pursues such questions by means of 
Western and non-Western case studies, seeing 
that ritual is always connected to particular 
communities of belief — communities with their 
own histories, traditions, and contexts; with 
their own understandings of space, time, and 
qualities of being in the world. 
Ms. Altieii 

204 History, Literature, and Religion of the 
Hebrew Scriptures Study of the histor}', 
literatiue, and religion of the Hebrews from the 
time of Abraham to aboiu 500 B.C.E. History 
and cultiue of Israel are related to those of 
surrounding nations, with special emphasis on 
the relevancy of archeological data. 

Mr. Stem 

205 History, Literature, and Religion of the New 
Testament liuroduction to wridngs of the New 
Testament as they originated in their Greco- 
Roman milieu. Emphasis is on the distincdve 
purposes and main content of each wridng. Use 
of source, form, and redaction criticism as tools 
for the academic study of the New Testament is 
demonstrated. 

Mr. C. Myers 

225 Religion in the Civil Rights Movement 

Exploration of religion's fiuiction during the 
Civil Rights Movement. Course examines the 
historical context that gave birth to the Civil 
Rights Movement and assesses the Church's 
vacillation and religion's ability to bring 
constructive, humane change. Considerable 
attention is given to the efforts of African 
American Christian women, Martin LiUher King 
Jr., and Malcolm X. Intersection of Christianity, 
Judaism, Islam, Black Nationalism, agnosticism, 
and atheism is also discussed. 
Staff 

226 Rethinking Native American Spirituality 

Investigation of Native American spiritual 
concepts and practices. Course explores ways 
Indian spirituality is lived, understood, and 
expressed by particular Indian communities and 



individuals. Potential topics include Indian 
boarding schools, Euro-American colonized and 
romanticized Indians, New Age Indians, 
"spiritual" knowledge and transmission, 
NAGPRA, Religious Freedom Act; the Peyote 
Church, Native American Church, expressions 
of Indian Spirituahty in public places. Fieldtrips 
to Carlisle Indian School and to contemporan' 
and historical Indian exhibits. 
Ms. Altini 

237 Twentieth-Century Jewish Thought An 

exploration of how twentieth-centiuy Jewish 
thinkers critically address many of the religious, 
spiritual, existential, social, and ethical issues 
that face contemporary. Western society. Their 
insights are used to help us imderstand the 
world in which we live. Discussion is an 
important part of this course. 
Mr. Stem 

238 The Holocaust and Jewish Thought 

Exploration of Jewish religious, literary, ethical, 
and philosophical responses to the Holocaust. 
Course investigates how the Holocaust threatens 
traditional understandings of Judaism and 
monotheism, social ethics, spirituality, and 
communit)'. The writings of Elie Wiesel, 
Primo Levi, Emmanual Levinas, Raul Hilberg, 
Hannah Aiendt, Emil Fackenheim, Deborah 
Lipstadt, Jean Amery, Gertha Klein, aitd others 
are studied. 
Mr. Stem 

24 1 Religions of South Asia Survey of the 
religions of Soiuh .Asia — Hinduism, Buddhism, 
Jainism, Sikhism, and Islam. These traditions 
are considered in their original forms and in 
their growth and development over the centuries. 
Course is historically based, but attention is also 
given to the modern period. Course materials 
include translations of original texts and films. 
Ms. Stein fels 

244 Introduction to Buddhism Introduction to 
the beliefs and practices of the Buddhist 
tradition, from their origins in ancient India to 
their modern interpretations in the writings of 
the Beat generation in twentieth-century 
i\merica. Course sin-seys the development of 
Buddhism in South Asia and East Asia, with 
attention given to both primary texts and 
historical studies. 
Ms. Sommer 



248 Religions of China General introduction 
to major religious traditions of China through 
textual, historical, and social studies of 
Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. 
Attention is also given to an assessment of 
their contemporar)' viability. 

Ms. Sommer 

249 The Religions of Japan Special emphasis on 
understanding the religious thinking of the 
Japanese, ancient and modern, through textual, 
historical, and cultural study of religious 
traditions: Shinto and folk beliefs. Buddhism, 
Confucianism, and Taoism. 

Ms. Somtner 

251 Looking for the Tao Introduction to the 
major texts of classical Chinese thought. Course 
surveys the works, in English translation, of the 
most important thinkers of the Confucian, 
Taoist, Legalist, and Mohist schools of the fifth 
to the third centinies B.C.E and explores their 
significance for social, educational, and 
environmental concerns in modern East Asia. 
Ms. Sommer 

252 Women in Buddhism Histoiical survey of 
writings about women, both human and divine, 
in Buddhism in South and East Asia. Course 
considers the religious beliefs and practices of 
women in their positions as nuns, abbesses, 
lawomen, and social activists. Also explores the 
attributes of goddesses, demonesses, and other 
conceptualizations of the divine female in Asian 
religions. 

Ms. Sommer 

254 Confucianism Survey of the religious and 
philosophical traditions of Confucianism in East 
Asia from ancient to modern times. Course 
explores such notions as ritual, education, human 
nature, self<ultivation, and quiet sitting. Attention 
is also given to women's learning and women's 
education in ancient and later imperial times. 
Ms. Sommer 

256 Introduction to African Religion Exploration 
of the histcjry and practice of .\fiican religion, 
from its origin in ancient Africa to manifestadons 
in Africa and the Americas. Examines the Twa, 
Ethiopia, Kemet, Moors, Dogon, Ifa, Voudun, 
Candomble, religious belief and practice during 
enslavement, Moorish Science Temple, Islam 
among African Americans, Mrican American 
Christianity, and Alrican Centered Spiritualitv. 
Philosophical content, myths, rituals, consequential 




|3ersonalities and movements, societal place, 
and music are considered. No prerequisite. 
Staff 

263 Investigations in Bio-Medical Ethics 

Examination of ls.ey medical concepts such as 
life, death, duty, autonomy, advocacy, illness, 
and respect for persons. How might science 
and religion help answer questions surroimd- 
ing these concepts? How might they offer 
conflicting responses? How might we negotiate 
their differences? 
Ms. Allien 

270 Introduction to Islam Survey of the origins 
and development of Islamic beliefs and 
practices from inception to the present. Course 
examines the growth and development of the 
cultural, political, legal, theological, and 
mystical aspects of Islam from the early to the 
modern periods. Course readings emphasize 
primary source material. 

Ms. Steinfels 

271 Sufism:The Mystic Path in Islam Survey of 
the mystical tradition in Islam known as Sufism, 
from its origins in medieval Iraq to its role in 
contemporary Islamic societies. Course focuses 
on how the Sufi pursuit of unity with, or 
annihilation in, God relates to the core 
monotheistic beliefs of Islam. Sufi theories 
and practices are studied through primary 
source materials, and special attention is paid 
to issues of orthodoxy, heresy, and anti-social 
behavior in the history of Sufism. 

Ms. Steinfels 

3 1 1 Jesus in the First Three Gospels Examination 
of tlie Jesus u-adition, as interpreted in the Gospels 
of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, using techniques 
of source, form, redaction, and literaiy criticism. 
Special attention is given to the distinctive 
perspective of each Gospel. Prerequisite: Religion 
205 or permission of instructor. Not offered 
every year. 

Mr C. Myers 

312 The Gospel of John Exploration of the 
thought and content of the Fourth Gospel. 
Effort is made to determine the background 
purposes for writing, and the commimity 
addressed by John's Gospel. The question of its 
relationship to the Synoptic Gospels and the 
Epistles of John is included. Prerequisite: Religion 
205 or permission of instructor. Not offered 
every year. 

Mr C. Myers 



3 14 The Apostle Paul Study of the life, letters, 
and legacy of the earlv Christian, Paul, through 
a careful consideration of primary and selected 
secondary sources. Particular attention is given 
to imderstanding the Pauline literature in its 
historical context. Ancient and modern 
interpretations of Paul's life and work are also 
treated. Prerequisite: Religion 205 or permission 
of instructor. Not offered every year. 
Mr C. Myers 

324 Martin and Malcolm Exploration of religion 
in the lives of Martin Luther King Jr. and 
Malcolm X. Course examines religious and 
social forces that influenced their early 
development and life commitments, and 
considers how their theologies influenced each 
other and impacted our countiy and globe. 
Course materials include pivotal speeches, 
interviews, books, and live film footage. 
Mr Gray 

340 Cosmology of the Body Exploration of the 
religious, symbolic, and magical dimensions 
of cross-cultural concepts of the human body. 
Course surveys religious attitudes toward 
such topics as resurrection, reincarnation, 
mutilation, cannibalism, fasting, and body 
decoration. Not offered ever)' year. 
Ms. Sommer 

343 Mythology and Religion Mythology and 
religion have always been companions. Course 
aims at understanding this friendship. Students 
familiarize themselves with certain mythological 
artifacts, as well as current "surrogate myths." 
Primar)' focus is an appreciation of the process 
of "mythmaking," which is approached from 
several critical viewpoints. Not offered every year 
Staff 

352 The Tao of Traditional Chinese Medicine 

Introduction to the philosophical and religious 
aspects of traditional Chinese healing practices. 
Course surveys such topics as the composition 
of the human body and its relationship with 
the larger cosmos, the diagnosis of ailments 
caused by material and spiritual pathogens, the 
medical and ritual treatment of conditions, and 
preventative practices such as meditation and 
exercise. Emphasis is on pre-modern traditions, 
but some attention is given to their modern 
applications. Prerequisite: one course in Chinese 
religions or philosophy (for example. Religions 
of China, Looking for the Tao, or 
Confucianism) or permission of the instructor. 
Ms. Sommer 



355 Muhammad and the Qur'an Examination 
of tiie foundations of Islam in the life of the 
Prophet Muhammad and in the text of the 
Qur'an. Course examines the content and style 
of the Qur'an and of the traditional biography 
of Muhammad. Focus is on the roles of the 
Qur'an and Muhammad's life as the sources 
for Islamic law and practice as well as objects 
of veneration. Special attention is paid to the 
historical problems raised by the study of early 
Islam, particularly with regard to the dating of 
the Qur'an and Muhammad's career. 
Ms. Stein/els 

460 Individualized Study for Majors and Minors 

Senior Project must be approved by department. 
Staff 

470 Individualized Study and Internships 

Staff 

474 Summer Internships 

Staff 

IDS 2 1 1 Perspectives on Death and Dying For 

course description, see Interdisciplinary Studies. 
Mr. C. Myers 

SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY 

Professms Emmons, Heisler, and Hinrichs 
Associate Professors Betances, Gill (Chairperson), 

Hendon, and Potuchek 
Assistant Professors Amster, Samuel, and Peterson 
Adjunct Associate Professor- Rosenberg 
Adjunct Assistant Professor Birch 

Overview 

Studies in the department investigate social 
organization, social action, and the role of 
culture in shaping human behavior. The courses 
explore a variet) of approaches that reflect the 
diversity' of perspectives used by sociologists and 
anthropologists. Some perspectives start with 
indi\iduals in interaction with each other and 
focus on how they develop meaningful social 
relationships, groups, and institutions. Others 
focus on how indi\iduals are molded by 
institutions, groups, and cultural beliefs, while 
yet others examine the functional or conflictual 
relationships among classes and subcultures. 
By emphasizing the systematic and comparative 
study of social institutions and cultures, the 
faculty gviide students in analyzing social 
realities, dealing wth contemporary issues, and 
understanding social change. The department 
is committed to experiential education, field 
projects, and internships. 



The goals of the department's program are to 
contribute to the liberal arts education at 
Gettysburg College, to acquaint students with 
sociological and anthropological perspectives, 
and to help them meet their academic and 
career needs. The program prepares majors for 
graduate studies and careers in fields such as 
sociology, urban planning, public policy, social 
work, health care, communications, education, 
criminology, law, cultural anthropology, and 
archaeology. 

The department has a chapter of Alpha Kappa 
Delta, the Sociological Honor Society. Majors 
are eligible for the Harry C. and Catherine 
Noffsinger Hartzell Award and the Holly 
Gabiiel Award. Students who successfully 
complete a senior project and thesis are eligible 
for honors. Several majors serve as student 
representatives to department faculty meetings 
to provide a voice for students. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Major requirements: The department offers a 
major in sociology and a combined major in 
anthropology-sociology. Students who major in 
sociology take a minimum of ten full-credit 
courses. Majors must take Sociology 101, 302, 
and 306 and earn a grade of C- or better in these 
courses. They must also take the capstone 
.seminar (Sociology 400), one of die inequality 
courses (Sociology 202, 209, or 217); one of the 
seminars in sociological theory (Sociology 310, 
311, 312, or 313); and a second 300-level 
deparUTient course in methods (either Sociology 
303 or 323). The remaining three courses are 
electives chosen from among the sociology 
course offerings (excluding the Sociology 470 
courses and normally excluding the Sociology 
450 courses), and may include one anthropology 
course. None of the courses required for the 
major may be taken S/U. 

Students who select the combined major in 
anthropology-sociology take a minimum often 
full-credit coiuses, with at least four courses in 
each discipline. Anthropology-sociology majors 
must take Anthropology 103 and 105, and 
Sociology 101 and 302, and earn a grade of C- 
or better in each of these courses. They must also 
take a capstone seminar (Anthropology 400 or 
Sociology 400); a second 300-leveI department 
course in methods (either Sociology 303, 
Sociology 323, or Anthropology 323); and a 
theory course (Anthropology 308 or Sociology 
306) and earn C- or better. Students also take 
three electives in anthropology and sociology 
course offerings (excluding the Anthropology or 



^^k 



Sociology 470 courses and normally excluding 
I lie 450 courses). None of the courses required 
lor the major may be taken S/U. 

Minor requirements: Students with a major in 
sociology may minor in anthropology, but 
students with the combined major in 
anthropology-sociolog)- may not minor in the 
department. The sociology' minor requires six 
courses: Sociology 101, 302, and .306; and three 
clectives from the sociology course offerings 
( normally excluding the Sociology 450 and 470 
courses). Six courses are required for the 
anthropology minor: Anthropology 103 and 
105; either Anthropology 308 or 400; and three 
clectives from the Anthropology course 
offerings (one of which may be an 
Vnthropolog)' 450 course). 

Prerequisites 

Sociolog) 101 is a prerequisite for most other 
sociologv' courses (except as noted in coinse 
descriptions). The Sociology 302 methods 
course is a prerequisite for other 300-level 
courses in methods (e.g., Sociology 303 or 323). 
The Sociology 306 theory course is a 
jjrerequisite for other 300-level courses in 
theory (Sociology 310, 311, 312, or 313). Both 
Sociology 302 and 306 are prerequisites for 
Sociology 400. 

Most upper-level anthropology coiuses require 
cither the Anthropology 103 or 105 introducton' 
courses (except as noted in course descrip- 
tions). The Sociology' 302 methods course is a 
prerequisite for the Anthropology 323 methods 
( ourse. For majors, Anthropology 308 is strongly 
recommended before the Anthropology 400 
seminar. 

Individualized Study 

In response to varying needs, interests, and 
expertise of indi\idixal students and faculty 
members, the department provides means for 
students to pursue independent research and 
studies through indixddual tutorials, fieldwork 
applications or direct experiences, internships, 
and other opportunities to expand specialized 
interests. To receive credit for these projects, 
students confer with a particular faculty 
member in the department and register for 
Anthropology 450s or 470s or Sociology 450s or 
470s. Students who want to be considered for 
the department's Honors may register for either 
Anthropology 460 or Sociology 460 after being 



approved by the department. These students 
should consult with a department faculty 
member in their junior year. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

All full-credit sociology courses fulfill the 
College's Liberal Arts Core requirement in 
social sciences, except 300-level methods 
courses (Sociology 302, 303, and 323). Sociology 
303 satisfies the requirement in quantitative 
reasoning. All full-credit anthropology coiuses 
may be used to fulfill the College's Liberal Arts 
Core requirement in social sciences, except 
Anthropology 323. The following Anthropology 
courses fulfill the requirement in non-Western 
cultures: Anthropolog)' 103, 220, 228, 232, 234, 
235, 236, 237, and 301. 

ANTHROPOLOGY 

103 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology 

Comparative study of social practices and 
cultural systems in various societies, using a 
series of case studies and topics dealing mainly 
with non-Western cultures or Western attempts 
to understand them. Course gives an overview 
of the history of cultural anthropology, major 
questions and theoretical debates, fieldwork 
and research methods, and the relevance of 
anthropolog)' to the modern world. No 
prerequisite. 
Mr. A?7isteK Mr Peterson 

105 World Prehistory and Human Evolution 

Introduction to physical anthropology and 
archaeology, the two subdisciplines of 
anthropology that foctis on the question of 
human biological and cultural change through 
time. Course examines how anthropologists 
intei-pret himian genetic variation, the behavior 
of nonhuman primates, the evolution of fossils 
hominids, and major developments in technology 
and material culture. No prerequisite. 
Ms. Hendon 

220 World Cultures Study of cultural patterns 
and social practices aroimd the world, viewing 
them through the distinctive lens of cultural 
anthropolog)'. Course looks at issues of culture 
contact, sociocultural change, and globalization 
of culture. 
Mr. Amster 

228 Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Gender and 
Sex Roles Examination of the social roles of 
women and men, the dynamics of sexual 
identity, and the ideologies of gender in various 
societies. Course explores broad theoretical 
issues (such as biological vs. cultui-al determinants; 



gender stratification and inequality; the effects 
of social, cultural, and economic variables), as 
well as a range of specific societal studies. 
Prerequisite: Anthropolog)' 103. 
Mr. Anuster, Ms. Hendon 

232 Precolumbian Civilizations of Mesoamerica 

Introduction to the organi/ation and 
development of Native Americ an civilizations in 
Mexico and Central America. Evidence from 
archaeological and ethnographic research, 
Nadve texts and art, and Spanish Colonial 
writings is tised to study religious beliefs, 
sociopolitical organization, economic 
reladonships, and intellectual achievements of 
such groups as the Olmec, Maya, and Aztecs. 
Period prior to the sixteenth-century Spanish 
conquest is emphasized, but modern indigenous 
cultures are also studied. Prerequisite: 
Anthropology 103, 105, or consent of instructor. 
Ms. Hendon 

234 Principles of Archaeology Study of the 
practice of archaeology — the combination of 
methods and theoretical concepts that together 
result in archaeological interpretations of past 
human behavior and societ)'. Using a case study 
approach, students are introdticed to the nature 
of archaeological interpretation. Prerequisite: 
Anthropolog)' 103, 105, or consent of instructor. 
Ms. Hendon 

235 Early Civilizations in Cross-Cultural 
Perspective Study of the origins and 
development of the earliest urban societies. 
Compares and contrasts examples from 
different parts of the world, including China, 
Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica, Egypt, and South 
Asia. Using archaeological data, written texts, 
art, and other sources, the course studies the 
causes and consequences of the shift to more 
centralized polidcal systems and more 
specialized economic organizadon. Course takes 
both cross-cultural and historical perspecUves. 
Integral to the course is a discussion of how 
civilizadon and the state have been defined. 
Prerequisite: Anl\\ro\io\o^ 103, 105, or consent 
of instructor. 

Ms. Hendon 

236 Precolumbian Civilizations of South America 

Introduction to the organization and devel- 
opment of Native American civilizations in 
South America. Evidence from archaeological 
and ethnographic research. Native texts and 
art, and Spanish Colonial writings is used to 
study religious beliefs, sociopolitical organi- 
zadon, economic reladonships, and intellec- 



tual achievements of such groups as the 
Inka, Moche, and Chavin. Period prior to 
the sixteenth<entury Spanish conqtiest is 
emphasized, but modern indigenous cultures 
are also studied. Prerequisite: Anthropolog)' 103, 
105, or consent of instructor. 
Ms. Hendon 

238 The Anthropology of Contemporary Cultural 
Issues Exploration of how anthropologists 
analyze current issues in international affairs 
and industrialized societies, including the 
United States. Case studies illustrate 
anthropological perspectives on topics such as 
nadonalist movements and international 
development, immigradon and muldculturalism, 
urban gangs and suburban consumers, 
changing gender roles and reproduction 
practices, modern myths and rituals. Course also 
discusses challenges of conducting fieldwork in 
diversified societies and ethical dilemmas arising 
in politically sensitive settings. Prerequisite: 
Sociology 101 or Anthropology 103. 
Mr Amster 

250-270 Topics in Anthropology Exploration of 
a particular topic, ( hosen by a factilty member. 

274 Practicum in Archaeological Analysis 

Practical learning experience in archaeological 
data analysis and research. Working with staff of 
the Gettysburg National Military Park, students 
carry out labwork, including artifact processing 
and classificadon, data entry, and research. 
Exact mix of activities varies from semester to 
semester. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor and 
previous course work in archaeology, history, or 
Civil War era studies. One-half credit course; 
may be repeated with consent of instructor. 
(Same as OWES 274.) 
Ms. Hendon 

301 Social Life of Things Cross-cultural 
exploration of how members of various 
sociedes, past and present, invest objects with 
symbolic meanings as they produce, utilize, and 
exchange them in everyday life. Drawing 
primarily on non-Western case studies, the 
course integrates perspecdves from studies of 
material culture in fields such as economic 
anthropology, archaeology, and the 
anthropology of art. These resources illuminate 
the many ways that things acquire a kind of 
metaphorical life in association \vith the lives of 
people who use them. Prerequisite: Ainhropo\o^' 
103 or 105, plus another Anthropology' coiuse. 
Ms. Hendon 



308 History of Anthropological Theory Analysis of 
the rise of anthropology' and development of its 
major theoretical models. Course traces the 
precursors of anthropolog)', the emergence of 
the field of "anthropology" and its subdisciplines 
in the nineteenth century, the elaboration of 
the cultme concept and fieldwork methods in 
the twentieth, and recent trends in post-colonial 
anthropology. Pr^re^umte.' Anthropology 103 or 
105. Sociology 302 is strongly recommended. 
Offered every other year. 
Mr. Amster, Ms. Hendon 

323 Field Methods in Social Research Seminar on 
how sociologists and anthropologists conduct 
ethnographic fieldwork. Topics include how 
theory informs research, ethical issues, and 
developing descriptive fieldnotes. Students 
carry out original research projects, using field 
methods such as participant observation and 
qualitative interviewing, and learn how to 
gather data, analyze results, and write up 
ethnographic reports. Prerequisite: C- or better 
in Sociology 302. (Same as Sociology 323.) 
Mr. Peterson 

400 Anthropology Seminar Intensive culminating 
research experience for anthropology-sociology 
majors. Seminar is designed aroimd particular 
topics or debates, which provide unifying themes 
for students' research projects. Course guides 
students as they consolidate their understanding 
of the anthropological perspective. Preiequisite: 
Anthropologv' 103, 105, and 308, or consent of 
instructor. Not offered every year. 
Mr. Amster 

450s, 470s Individualized Study Independent 
study in fields of special interest outside the 
scope of regular course offerings. Prerequisite: 
Consent of facultv' sponsor. 

460 Research Course Individual investigation 
of a research topic in anthropolog)' under the 
guidance of a faculty member. Topic must be 
approved by department. Project culminates in 
written and oral presentations of a formal 
paper to the faculty. Required for departmental 
honors. Students must submit a proposal a 
minimum of two weeks before the end of the 
semester preceding the proposed study. 
Prerequisite: Consent of department. Open to 
juniors and seniors only. 
Staff 



SOCIOLOGY 

101 Introduction to Sociology Study of basic 
strvictures and dynamics of human societies, 
focusing on the development of principles and 
concepts used in sociological analysis and 
research. Topics include culture, socialization, 
social institutions, stratification, and social change. 
No prerequisite. 

202 Wealth, Power, and Prestige Examination of 
distribution of valued resources and associated 
social ranking and rating systems. Topics include 
social classes, social mobility, economic and 
political power, and informal prestige and fame. 
Prerequisite: Sociology 101. 

Mr. Emmons, Ms. Heisler 

203 Population Examination of the components 
of population composition (ferdlity, mortalit)', 
and migration) to understand how they interact 
to produce particular populadon structures and 
populaUon growth rates. Course emphasizes 
the studv of relationships between social and 
demographic variables, and the consequences 
of different population structures and popu- 
lation growth rates for societies as a whole and 
for various social groups. Special attention is 
given to the relafionship between population 
dynamics and social change in the United 
States. 

Ms. Birch 

204 Sociology of Mass Media and Popular Culture 

Analysis of broadcast and print media institutions. 
Perspectives include the "producdon of 
culture," cultural content analysis, socialization 
effects, and media coverage. Various popular 
culture genres, both mass and folk, are 
included, with special emphasis on music 
and film. Prerequisite: Sociologv' 101. 
Mr Emmons 

205 Sociology of Religion An exploration 
of the nature and organizadon of religion 
from a variety of sociological perspecdves. 
Topics include secularizadon, civil religion, 
comparative religion (with an emphasis on 
China), church-sect differences, reladonships 
with other insdtudon, social inequalit)', social 
change, and new religious movements. 

Mr Emmons 

206 Sociology of the Family Analysis of the 
family as a social institudon. Course takes a 
comparative and sociohistorical approach to 
the study of American families, with a partictilar 



focus on the interaction between family and 
economy. Topics include intrafamily relations, 
work-family links, and family policy. Prerequisite: 
Sociology 101. 
Ms. Poluchek 

207 Criminology Introduction to the sociological 
study of crime. Course begins with a discussion 
of criminal law and the extent of crime, then 
continues with a comprehensive examination 
of police, courts, and corrections. Theories of 
crime causation, criminal behavior systems, and 
victimology are also examined. Prerequisite: 
Sociology 101. 
Mr. Hinrichs 

209 Race and Ethnic Relations Study of the 
diverse manifestations of race and ethnicity 
around the world, with pardcular focus on 
the American experience. Topics include 
immigradon and assimilation, prejudice and 
discriminadon, and the construction and 
reconstruction of ethnic and racial boundaries 
and identities. Prerequisite: Sociology 101. 
Ms. Heislei; Mr. Samuel 

2 i 2 Deviance, Diversity, and Difference 

Examination of the concept of deviance and 
exploration of various sociological theories and 
perspectives for viewing deviant phenomena. 
In-depth analysis of alcohol and drug use, 
variaUons in sexual behavior, pornography, 
violence, child abuse, and homelessness. 
Prerequisite: Soc\o\o^ 101. 
Mr. Hinrichs 

217 Gender Inequality Examination of patterns 
of gender stratification in American social 
structures. Course centers on how class, race, 
and gender influence the experiences of women 
and men in families and occupations. Topics 
include images of women in the media, 
construction of gender, and movements for 
change. Preiequisile: ?>oc'\o\o^ 101. 
Ms. Gill 

23 1 Self and Society Study of the self, 
socialization, social roles, social relationships, 
commiuiication, and group behavior. Emphases 
include group dynamics and differences in 
perception based on class, race, and gender. 
Prerequisite: Sociology 101. 
Mi. Rosenberg 



233 Science, Knowledge and the New Age 

Exploration of science as a social institution. 
History and ideology of science as an objective 
method are examined, drawing from Merton, 
Kuhn and others. "Antiscience" and "New 
Science" perspectives include postmodernist, 
feminist, and New Age views. UFO studies and 
other paranormal topics receive special 
attention as alternative knowledge systems. 
Prerequisite: Soc\o\o^ 101 or Anthropology 103 
or consent of instructor. 
Mr. Emmons 

239 Health, Medicine, and Society Analysis of 
social factors that influence health and illness 
and of health care as a social institution. Topics 
include the cultural construction of health and 
illness, the sick role, the effects of social 
inequality on health and illness, health 
occupations and professions, and the social 
organization of health care systems in various 
societies. Prerequisite: Sociology' 101. 

Ms. Potuchek 

240 Gays, Lesbians, and Society Examination of 
the development of gay, lesbian, and bisexual 
life styles and the supporting social movement 
in societal context. Topics include the history 
of the gay rights movement in America and the 
historical events, cross-culturally, that have 
shaped gay identity; theories of sexuality; the 
coming oiU process; homosexuality cross- 
culturally; religion and homosexuality; 
homophobia and intolerance; the structure of 
the gay community; gays and the military; the 
impact of AIDS, constitudonal and legal issues; 
current radical movements; and gays as parents. 
Prerequisite: Sociology 101. 

Mr. Hinrichs 

241 Globalization Examinadon of the changing 
reladonship among nadon, culture, poliucs, 
and economics in a global context. Using com- 
parative case studies from around die world, this 
course examines a variety of quesdons about 
contemporary social change. Prerequisite: 
Sociology 101. 

Mr Samuel 

262 Social Development of Latin America 

Formation of Latin .\merican nation-states, 
focusing on interplay between internal 
processes and external influences. Students 
examine Latin American struggles to overcome 
the region's colonial heritage throtxgh political, 
economic, and social integradon. No 
prerequisite. 
Mr Betances 



267 Society and Politics in Latin America: A Case 
Study of the Dominican Republic Siud\ (^t the 
sociopolitical evolution of the nineteenth- and 
twentieth-centuiy Dominican Republic. Course 
examines the tension between dictatorship and 
democracy, changing socioeconomic patterns of 
Dominican life, and influence of the U.S. in the 
development of the modern Dominican state 
and society. Same as LAS 267. No prerequisite. 
Mr. Betnnces 

302 Research Methods Introduction to the logic 
of social science research. Goal is to develop 
student's ability to reNiew and evaluate critically 
social research findings and to prepare for 
planning and carrying out research. A variety of 
qualitative and quantitative designs is examined, 
including survey, experiment, participant 
obser\'ation, and ethnographic inteniews. Issues 
such as sampling, measiuement, causality, 

and validit)' are considered. Prerequisite: 

Sociology 101. 

Staff 

303 Data Analysis and Statistics Study of 
elementai7 quantitative data analysis, including 
logic, application, and interpretation of 
statistical techniques. Students carry out 
original quantitative research projects using 
SPSS. Includes laboratory. Prerequisite: C- or 
better in Sociology' 302 or consent of instructor. 
Ms. Gill, Ms. Rose7iberg 

306 Introduction to Sociological Theory 

Exploration of the nature of sociological theoiy 
and major theoretical orientations (paradigms). 
Course examines the origins and creation of 
these paradigms in the nineteenth and early 
twentieth centiu-v — the period of "classical 
sociologv" and their development, elaboration, 
and application in contemporary sociology. 
Ms. Heisler. Mr Smmiel 

310 Seminars in Sociological Theory Examination 
of a topic in sociolog)' from a number of 
theoretical perspectives. Emphasis is on gaining 
an in-depth knowledge of the topic, while also 
learning how theoretical perspectives shape 
research and analysis. Prerequisite: Sociology' 306 
or consent of instructor for nonmajors. 

3 1 1 Theories of Community Study of 
communities from a sociological perspective, 
with major emphasis on urban areas. Theoretical 
perspectives of Weber, Simmel, Spengler, Paik, 



Wutli, Redfield, Dtmcan, and others are examined 
and used to understand the historical development 
of cities, the ecology of cities, the development 
of suburbs, urbanism as a way of life, city planning, 
metiopolitan dynamics, and contemporary' 
urban problems. Prerequisite: Sociology 306 or 
consent of instructor for nonmajors. 
Mr. Hinrirhs 

312 Theories of Social Change Applications of 
theories of social change to contemporary 
trends and changing norms, values, and 
expectations. Emphasis is on a critical 
examination of recent changes in the economy 
and political structure of U.S. society and on the 
assessment of the efforts by social movements to 
direct social change. Prerequisite: Sociology' 306 
or consent of instructor for nonmajors. 

Ms. CM 

3 1 3 Theories of Politics and Society Analysis of 
the role of power in social and political 
institutions. Course examines the bases, 
distribution, and exercise of poyver in 
organizations, communities, and nations, as well 
as organized attempts to change existing power 
relationships. Theoretical perspectives include 
Marxism, Weberian theory, elitism and 
pluralism, resource mobilization, and new social 
movements theory. Prerequisite: Sociology 306 or 
consent of instructor for nonmajors. 

Ms. Heisler 

323 Field Methods in Social Research Seminar on 
hoyv sociologists and anthropologists conduct 
ethnographic fieldwork. Topics include how 
theory informs research, ethical issues, and 
developing descriptive fieldnotes. Students 
cany out original research projects, using field 
methods such as participant observation and 
qualitative inter\'iey\'ing, and learn how to 
gather data, analyze results, and write up 
ethnographic reports. Prerequisite: C- or better 
in Sociology 302. (Same as Anthropology 323.) 
Mr. Peterson 

33 1 Reinventing Latin American Societies Study 
of the changing role of the state in tyventieth- 
century Latin America. Course explores why 
Latin American states shifted from promoting 
national development to preparing the region 
for globalization. Issues of social movements, 
political control, citizenship, and neoliberalism 
are examined in the context of widespread 
economic, social, and political structuring of 



Latin American societies. Prerequisite: LAS 140 or 
any other course with a focus on Latin America. 
(SameasL\S33L) 
Mr. Belances 

400 Sociology Seminar hitensive cuhninating 
experience for sociology majors. Under the 
direction of a faculty member, students work to 
integrate their major and their understanding 
of the sociological perspective. Prerequisites: 
Sociology 302 and either Sociology 306 or 
Anthropolog)' 308. The second 300-leveI 
course in theory and methods is strongly 
recommended. 
Staff 

450s, 470s Individualized Study hidependent 
study in fields of special interest, including 
internships, outside the scope of regular course 
offerings. Consent of faculty sponsor. 
Staff 

460 Research Course hidividual investigation of 
a research topic in sociology in the student's 
special area of interest under the guidance of a 
faculty member. Topic must be approved by 
department. Project culminates in written and 
oral presentations of a formal paper to the 
departmental faculty. Required for departmental 
honors. Students must submit a proposal to the 
department a minimum of two weeks before the 
end of the semester preceding the proposed study. 
Prerequisite: Consent of department. Open to 
juniors and seniors only. 
Staff 

SPANISH 

Professors Thompson and Burgess 

Associate Professors Cushing-Daniels, Olinger, Rolon, 

Vinuela (Chairperson), and Yager 
Assistant Professors Ramos and Valiela 
Instnictors Aragon, Caramel, Salazar, and Somrrurs 
Lecturer Moore 
Adjunct Lecturer Elorriaga 
Teaching Assistant de Miguel 

Overview 

The ability to speak and imderstand a language 
other than one's own, and to have insight into 
the artistic and cultural heritage of other 
peoples of the world, is considered an integral 
part of a liberal arts educadon. The department. 



through a strong core of basic courses, gives 
students facility in the use of spoken and written 
Spanish and some knowledge of its literatvne 
and cultmal hisloiy The oral-aural method of 
modern language teaching is stressed in the 
classroom. 

Advanced-level courses in literature and 
civilization are designed to give students an 
understanding and appreciation of the literature 
and cultures of the Hispanic peoples. Students 
are encomaged to study in a Spanish-speaking 
country, and opportunities are offered through 
study abroad programs with approved colleges 
and through cooperadve agreements with the 
Instituto Universitario de Sevilla in Seville, 
Spain; the Foreign Student Study Center at 
the University of Guadalajara in Guadalajara, 
Mexico; the Universal Language histitute in 
Cuernavaca, Mexico; and in Argentina (Buenos 
Aires or Mendoza) . 

Courses in the department provide soimd 
preparation for graduate study, teaching, or 
careers in government, business, or social work. 
The department works cooperatively with the 
education department in the preparation of 
Spanish teachers. Since the largest minority 
group in the United States is Spanish speaking, 
the department feels that a knowledge of 
Spanish and an understanding of the Hispanic 
cultures is of increasing importance. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Requirements for a major in Spanish include 
eleven courses above the 300-level, at least five 
of which must be taken at Gettysbing College. 
Course requirements are Spanish 301 (except 
for students who demonstrate an exceptional 
command of the Spanish language and pedtion 
the department to be exempted from this 
requirement); Spanish 302, 303, or 309; Spanish 
345 and three other courses at the 340-level; two 
courses at or above the 350-level; Spanish 400. 

Other courses for the major are elective and 
may include one of the following classes, which 
are taught in English: Anthropology 232, 
Anthropolog)' 237, Aiuhropology 250, First-Year 
Seminarl29, Political Science 275, Economics 
214, any Latin American studies class. 

Spanish majors must spend one semester 
studying abroad in a program approved by the 
department. (Students with extensive previous 
experience living or studying abroad may 
petition the department to be exempted from 



this requirement.) Students in the teaching 
certification program must complete Spanish 
330 and 331. Requirements for a minor in 
Spanish include six courses above the 202-level, 
and must include Spanish 301 (except for 
students who demonstrate an exceptional 
command of the Spanish language and petition 
the department to be exempted from this 
requirement). Students may include Spanish 
202 for the minor if they have begun language 
study at the elementary or intermediate-level at 
Gettysburg College. No courses taken S/U may 
be included. Minors who have completed a 
semester of study abroad and five cotirses at the 
300 level and Spanish majors may elect to be 
interviewed by an ACTFL-certified evaluator 
and receive a letter attesting to their oral 
command of Spanish. 

The Spanish Department also offers a combined 
major with Latin American studies. Course 
requirements for the Spanish component of 
the major are Spanish 301, 343, and 344; three 
courses from the following: Spanish 303, 309, 
351, 353, 354, 355, 376, or 379; and one 
capstone course which can be from Latin 
.\merican studies or Spanish. Students must 
spend one semester studying abroad in a 
program approved by the department. Students 
must have two advisors — one from Latin 
American studies and one from the Spanish 
Department. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Prior to their first registration at the College, 
all students receive preregistration materials 
that give detailed instructions on language 
placement and fulfillment of the Liberal Arts 
Core requirement in foreign language. 

Achievement equivalent to 202 may be 
demonstrated by an advanced placement 
examinadon or a departmental placement 
examination given during the summer prior 
to students' first year at the College. 

The Liberal Arts Core requirement in foreign 
language may be satisfied by successful 
compledon of Spanish 202 or 204. (Students 
may not repeat a coiuse in the sequence from 
101 or 103 through 202 or 204 after they have 
passed a subsequent, higher niunbered course.) 
All Spanish literature and civilization courses 
satisfy the Liberal Arts Core requirement in the 
humanities; Spanish 303 and 331 satisfy the 
requirement in the social sciences . 



Intermediate Program Abroad 

Students may complete the distribution 
requirement in foreign languages (third and/or 
fomth semesters) by studying for a semester in 
Seville, Spain, or in Cuernavaca, Mexico (in 
alternate years: fall 2004 in Spain, fall 2003 in 
Mexico). Students must have a C average overall 
and in the major. The intermediate program 
includes a two-credit course in Spanish language 
at the appropriate level and a two-credit course 
that integrates the study of Spanish or Mexican 
literature and civilization. A professor from the 
department leads students on an initial 
orientation toiu" of Spain or Mexico and teaches 
the literature/civilization class. Students live 
with families. 

203-204 Courses in Spanisli Language for 
Intermediate-Level Students in Seville, Spain, or 
Cuernavaca, Mexico Practice in oral and written 
expression, grammar review, readings, and 
discussions of Hispanic culture, with an emphasis 
on present-day language usage and contemporaiT 
Hispanic societ)'. Offered ever)' fall, alternating 
between Spain (2004) and Mexico (2003). For 
intermediate students studying in Cuernavaca, 
Mexico, or in Seville, Spain. Prerequisite: Spanish 
104 or equivalent; concurrent enrollment in 
Spanish 253-254. One credit each. 
Staff 

253-254 Courses in Spanish Civilization and 
Literature for Intermediate-Level Students in 
Seville, Spain or Cuernavaca, Mexico Integrated 
approach to the study of Hispanic literature and 
civilization. Courses provide an overview of the 
evolution of Hispanic culture and examine the 
origins of the most representative values of 
Hispanic culture in art, literature, and 
contemporary life. Students visit museums and 
historical sites and attend artistic events. Offered 
even' fall, alternating between Spain (2004) 
and Mexico (2003). For intermediate students 
studying in Cuernavaca, Mexico, or in Seville, 
Spain. Prerequisite: Spanish 104 or equivalent; 
concurrent enrollinent in Spanish 203-204. One 
credit each. 
Staff 

Study Abroad 

Advanced students who have completed Spanish 
301 may study at the Instituto Universitario de 
Sevilla in Seville, Spain; at the Foreign Student 
Study Center at the University of Guadalajara in 
Guadalajara, Mexico; or in the COPA programs 
in Aigentina (Buenos Aires or Mendoza), all of 
which offer a wide variety of courses in Spanish, 



including literature, histor); sociolog)', political 
science, management, and more. Students must 
have a C average overall and in the major. See 

Study Abroad, Gettysburg in Spain {Advanced 
Program; and Gettysburg in Guadalajara, Mexico. 

101-102 Elementary Spanish Elements of 
understanding, speaking, reading, and writing 
Spanish. Enrollment limited to those who have 
never previously studied Spanish. Students 
cannot receive credit for both 101 and 103; 102 
and 104. 
Staff 

103-104 Fundamental Spanish Fundamentals of 
understanding, speaking, reading, and writing 
Spanish. Use of language laboratory is required. 
Enrollment is limited to those who have previously 
studied Spanish and who are enrolled according 
to achievement on the Departmental Placement 
Examination. Students cannot receive credit for 
both 101 and 103; 102 and 104. 
Staff 

201-202 Intermediate Spanish Practice in oral 
and written expression, gi"ammar review, readings, 
and discussions of writing in Spanish. Prerequisite: 
Spanish 102 or 104 or consent of department. 
Staff 

245 Spanish Conversation Conversation course 
beyond the intermediate level, with emphasis 
on everyday, applied usage of the language for 
nonliterarv' purposes. Prerequisite: Grade of C 
or better in Spanish 202, or consent of the 
deparUTient. Enrollment limited to twelve students. 
Counts toward the minor, biU not the major. 
Offered annually. Students whose native 
language is Spanish may not elect this course. 
Staff 

301 Spanish Composition and Conversation 

Exercises in directed and free composition; 
group discussion and presentation of individual 
oral work; review of grammar and syntax at an 
advanced level. Prerequisite: Grade of C or better 
in Spanish 202, or consent of department. 
Grade of C or better is required to advance to 
higher levels of Spanish (except 305). 
Staff 

302 Cultural Images I: Arts and Humanities 

Advanced composition and conversation course 
focusing on cultural topics in the Hispanic 
world related to arts and the himianides. Uses 
readings, videos, music, and speakers. Preiequisite: 
Grade C or better in Spanish 301, or consent of 
department. Offered annually. 
Staff 



303 Cultural Images II: Social Sciences Advanced 
composition and conversation course focusing 
on cultural topics in the Hispanic world related 
to the social sciences Uses readings, videos, 
music, and speakers. Prerequisite: Grade C or 
better in Spanish 301, or consent of 
department. Offered annually. 
Staff 

305 Service Learning Project in the Hispanic 
Community Students work with a Hispanic 
family for 22 hours throughout the semester to 
help the family learn English, satisfy its needs, 
and generally acculturate to American society. 
Students meet with the instructor once a week. 
Students learn basic English-as-a-second- 
language teaching techniques, read about 
the immigrant and migrant experience, and 
expeiience the Hispanic cultures and language 
first-hand. One-half unit of credit. May be 
repeated once. Graded S/U. Does not count 
toward the major or minor. 
Staff 

309 Current Events in the Hispanic World 

Advanced composition and conversation course 
based on current events in the Hispanic world, 
using articles from Hispanic periodicals and 
Spanish language news programs. Prerequisite: 
Grade C or better in Spanish 301, or consent of 
department. Offered annually. 
Staff 

330 Spanish Phonology Introduction to Spanish 
phonetic and phonemic theory and analysis, 
applied to improve pronunciation skills. Study 
of variation in pronunciation in Spain and Latin 
.-Xmerica. Three lecuire hours and one laboraton. 
Prerequisite: Spanish 302, 303, or 309 or approval of 
deparunent. Offered 2002-03. Offered in 
alternate years. 

Staff 

33 1 Introduction to Spanish Linguistics 

Introduction to linguistic theories, methods, 
and problems as applied to Spanish. Attention is 
also given to tvpical areas of investigation, such 
as Spanish dialectolog)', sociolinguistics, and 
bilingualism. Prerequisite: Spanish 302, 303, or 
309 or approval of department. Offered in 
alternate years. 
Staff 

341 Survey of Spanish Literature I Introduction 
to representative Spanish texts from the Middle 
Ages through the seventeenth century and to 
the cultural and historical contexts in which 




ihese works were written. Prerequisite: Grade C or 
better in Spanish 301, or consent of department. 
Offered annually. 
Staff 

342 Survey of Spanish Literature II Introduction 
lo representative Spanish texts from the 

1 nlightenment to the post-Civil War period and 
to the cultural and historical contexts in which 
these works were written. Prerequisite: Grade C or 
better in Spanish 301, or consent of department. 
Offered annually. 
^taff 

343 Survey of Latin American Literature I 

Introduction to representative Spanish- 
American texts from the fifteenth through the 
nineteenth century and to the cultural and 
historical contexts in which these works were 
written. Prerequisite: Grade C or better in Spanish 
301, or consent of department. Offered annually. 
Staff 

344 Survey of Latin American Literature II 

Introduction to representative Spanish- 
American texts from the twentieth century and 
to the cultural and historical contexts in which 
these works were written. Prerequisite: Grade C or 
better in Spanish 301, or consent of department. 
Offered annually. 

345 Introduction to Literary Analysis 

Introduction to basic critical approaches to 
the reading of prose fiction, poetry, and drama. 
Through the careful study of works in each 
genre, students acquire a knowledge of analytical 
skills and critical terminology in Spanish. Offered 
annually. Prerequisite: Grade of C or better in 
Spanish 341, 342, 343, or 344, or consent of 
department. 
Staff 

351 Lyric Poetry Study of Spanish lyric poetry 
through the ages. Course concentrates on the 
interrelationship of form, content, and idea, 
noting major influences on the poetry of each 
period. Appreciation is considered a major goal, 
and nmch poeti^y is read orally and discussed. 
Alternate years. Prerequisite: Spanish 345 or 
consent of department. Offered in alternate 
years. 
Staff 

353 introduction to Hispanic Cinema Study of 
Hispanic cinema from its inception, Hith emphasis 
on films made since the advent of revisionary 
cinema around 1960. Course examines the 



development and renovation of cinematography, 
the relationship between cinema and other 
forms of artistic expression, and the historic 
development of Hispanic cinema. Prerequisite: 
Spanish 345 or consent of department. 
Offered in alternate years. 
Staff 

354 Nineteenth-Century Literature in Spain and 
Latin America Study of nineteenth-centurv 
literature in Spain and Latin America, 
according to the cultural movements and 
transformations of this century. Readings 
include narratives, essays and poetry. Facilitates 
strategies for the interpretation of literature 
grounded on gender conflicts, creation of 
political contexts, and social change. Prerequisite: 
Spanish 345 or consent of department. Offered 
in alternate years. 

Staff 

355 Hispanic Theater Study of the drama of 
Spain and Spanish America through the ages. 
Focus varies from semester to semester, based on 
such aspects as literary period, common theme, 
historical development, and dramatic theory. 
Prerequisite: Spanish 345 or consent of department. 
Offered in alternate years. 

Staff 

363 Literature of the Golden Age Representative 
texts selected from different genres of sixteenth- 
and seventeenth-century Spanish literature. 
Readings and discussions focus on topics 
such as honor, gender relations, social class, 
religion, and notions of nationality and empire. 
Prerequisite: Spanish 345 or consent of department. 
Offered in alternate vears. 
Staff 

367 Generation of '98 and Pre-Civil War 
Literature Studies in the essay, poetry, prose 
fiction, and drama of the major writers of the 
late-nineteenth and early- twentieth centuries 
in Spain. Prerequisite: Spanish 345 or consent of 
department. Offered in alternate years. 

368 Post-Civil War Literature of Spain 

Study of major literary trends and works in 
Spain, beginning with the resurgence of Spanish 
literature in the 1940s and continuing to the 
present day. Prerequisite: Spanish 345 or consent 
of department. Offered in alternate years. 
Staff 



369 Cervantes Study of the masterpiece, Don 

Qiiijotf de la Mancha, as well as some Novelas 
ejemplares and entrmwses or one-act plays. Prwequisite: 
Spanish 345 or consent of department. 
Offered in alternate years. 

376 Latin American Contemporary Prose 

Emphasis on the novel of the "boom" in Latin 
America. Major writers such as Gabriel Garcia- 
Marquez, Carlos Fuentes, Julio Cortazar, Elena 
Poniatowska, Juan Rulfo, and Jorge Luis Borges 
are read. Prerequisite: Spanish 345 or consent of 
department. Offered in alternate years. 
Staff 

yri "Colonialism" and Latin America Study of the 
textual productions resulting from the initial 
centuries of conquest and colonization of Latin 
America. Readings and discussions include the 
study of European preconceptions and the 
impact they had on representation of Latin 
American "origins" in literature. Goals include 
the analysis of the varied disciusive responses 
to the process of colonization and how they 
pervade our current understanding of Latin 
America. Prerequisite: Spanish 345 or consent 
of department. Offered in alternate years. 
Staff 

400 Senior Seminar Directed and specialized 
studies in Spanish and Latin American literatures 
from the medieval period to the present. Course 
is taken by seniors during the final semester in 
order to complete their undergraduate work 
in Hispanic literatures. Prerequisite: Limited to 
seniors, except with permission of department. 
Offered every spring. 
Staff 

PORTUGUESE 

101-102 Elementary Portuguese Elements of 
understanding, speaking, reading, and wridng 
Portuguese. Course includes oral and written 
work, graded elementary reading, and use of 
audio-visual cultural materials and correlative 
drill in the language laboratory. 
Staff 

201-202 Intermediate Portuguese Practice in 

oral and written expression, granmiar review, 
readings, and discussions of Portuguese writing. 
Prerequisite: Portuguese 102 or equivalent. 
Staff 



THEATRE ARTS 



Professor and Artut-in-Residence Emeritus Schmidt 
Associate Professor Hanson (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professors Muschamp and Russell 
Adjunct Assistant Professor and Artist-in-Residence 

L. Street-Liebetrau 
Adjunct Assistant Professors Kellinger and Atwood 
Adjunct Instructor Professor f. Liebetrau 
Adjunct Instructor Ijind 

Overview 

Courses in the theatre arts department are 
designed to train students to conceive of the 
theatrical event as a unit, joining its literaiy and 
historical values with means of expression in 
production and demonstrating the relationship 
of acting, directing, and design with the efforts 
of both past and present playwrights. This is 
accomplished through the students' work in the 
theatre program's productions, which include 
mainstage offerings in Kline Theatre, as well as 
studio presentations in Stevens Theatre and 
otherstage works-in-progress. The study of 
theatre arts prepares students for careers in the 
theatre, arts administration, teaching, and 
business. 

A well-balanced program for a major in theatre 
arts should include: (1) knowledge of the histon 
of the theatre from earliest cultures to the 
present; (2) training in and application 
of the various performance areas of theatre; 
(3) knowledge of the characteristics and 
development of the literar)' genre known as 
drama; and (4) the development of a play 
from the inidal script to actual performance. 

The theatre program also offers a minor in the 
field. 

Major Requirements and Recommendations 

Requirements for a major in theatre arts consist 
of eleven courses. Students must elect the 
specified number of courses from each of the 
following core categories: 

L History and Drama (6 courses): 

A. Three theatre courses: Theatre Aits 105, 

203, and 214 

B. Two from the following: Theatre .\rts 

204, 328, or 329 

B. One from the following: English 226, 
365, or 366 
IL Studio (3 courses): One course from 




^^ 



each of the following gioups: 

A. (Design) 115, 116, 215, 255, 311, 355, 
or 381 

B. (Acting and Dance) 120, 163, 220, 222, 
307, 320, or 377 

C. (Directing) 212, 282, or 382 
Upper-level theatre arts studio courses may be 
designated as appropriate based on a student's 
prior experience. 

III. Major Electives (2 courses): Two additional 
theatre arts courses from the curriculum, 
including IDS 267, IDS 268, or FYS theatre- 
related courses (e.g., FYS 185 or FYS 190). 
One may be from the following: Classics 
264, Classics 266, English 303, French 332, 
French 342, German 335; IDS 241, Spanish 
353, or Spanish 355. 

Minor Requirements and Recommendations 

Requirements for a minor in theatre arts 
consist of six courses. Students must take the 
following core courses: 

I. History and Drama (3 courses): 
A. Three from the following courses: 
Theatre Arts 105, 203 or 204, and 214 
II. Performance Studio (2 courses): 

A. One from the following: Theatre Arts 
120, 163, 212, 307, or 377 

B. One from the following: Theatre Arts 
115, 116, 215, 311, or 381 

III. Minor Electives (1 course): 

One additional theatre arts course chosen 
by the student, including IDS 267 or 268 or 
an FYS theatre-related course (e.g., FYS 185 
or FYS 190). Note that the minor may 
include no more than two 100-level 

courses. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

All courses in Theatre Arts, except 214, 
328, and 329, fulfill the Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in the arts. Theatre Arts 214, 
328, and 329 fulfill the Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in the humanities. 

105 Introduction to Theatre Arts Overview 
I )f theatre, including historical background, 
literary works, technical aspects, and 
performance techniques. The theatre of todav 
is studied in relation to its predecessors and 
in terms of its modem forms in cinema and 
television. Students read texLs and analyze 
methods used in bringing those works into 
|)roduction. Field trips offer opportunities 
to critique performances. Open to first- and 
second-year students only. 
Mr. Hanson, Mr. Muschamp, Ms. Russell 



1 1 5 Theatre Production Course provides an 
extensive investigation of historical and 
contemporary trends and practices essential 
for theatre production. Students gain an 
imderstanding of theatre procedures and 
acquire a grasp of equipment necessary for the 
execution of scenery, properties, sound, and 
stage lighting. Course is a combination of 
lecture and laborator)' work and requires 
backstage participation in college productions. 
Mr. Hanson 

120 Fundamentals of Acting Study of the theon 
and technique of the art of acting; voice 
technique for the stage; the use of pantomime, 
including the study of gesture and movement. 
Emphasis is placed on the discipline and 
control of the body and the voice to best serve 
the actor. Improvisation is employed. In 
addition, students are expected to perform in 
scenes for class analysis. 
Mr. Muschamp, Ms. Russell 

163 Introduction to Dance Over\iew of the 
histor)' and development of modern dance, 
with emphasis on the such pioneers as Duncan, 
Denis-Shawn, Humphrey, Weidman, Hawkins, 
and Cunningham. Course develops an 
appreciation of dance as an art form. Emphasis 
is placed on the discipline and control of the 
body to best serve the dancer. 
Ms. Kellinger 

203, 204 History of the Theatre Survey of the 
theatre from the Greeks to the present. 
Emphasis is placed on the relevance of theatre 
design, production techniques, and acting 
styles to the plays of their periods. First 
semester covers Greek, Roman, Medieval, 
Elizabethan, Asian, and Italian Renaissance; 
second semester is devoted to French 
Neoclassical, the Restoration, and the 
eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth 
centuries. 
Ms. Russell 

212 Fundamentals of Directing Study of the 
theory and technique of the art of the director. 
Course explores how a play is selected, play 
analysis, tryouts and casting, and the purpose 
and technique of blocking, movement, and 
stage business. Particular attention is given to 
the preparation of the director's production 
promptbook and other written analysis. 
Students are required to direct scenes in class 
and a short play as part of the Laboratory 
Theatre Series. 
Mr. Muschamp 



214 Survey of Dramatic Literature Oveniew of 
dramatic littratiire Ironi llie Greeks to the present. 
Play structure is analyzed, and comparisons made 
between methods of executing plot, development 
of character, and theme. Includes plays from the 
Greek and Roman periods, medieval, Elizabethan, 
and seventeenth through twentieth centuries. 
Emphasis is placed on written analysis. 
Ms. Russell 

1 1 S Fundamentals of Stage Design Basic 
theories and technique of design for the stage. 
The theory behind the design, and the 
interrelationship of scene design, lighting, 
costumes, and properties. How stage design 
interprets themes and moods of a play is 
studied, as well as identification of period and 
place. Cotirse follows a lecture-discussion format 
and involves extensive studio work. Students 
analyze, create, and execute basic designs for 
the Laboratory Theatre Series, in association 
with students in Theatre Aits 212. 
Air. Hanson 

220 Advanced Acting Further study in the 
theory and techniques of the art of the actor, 
the analysis and interpretation of acting roles, 
and the building of characterization. Roles, 
both comic and tragic, from Contemporary 
Restoration, Elizabethan, Commedia dellWite, 
and Greek theatre are analyzed and performed. 
Prerequisite: Theatre Arts 120 and/or permission 
of the instructor. 
Mr. Musrhnmp 

111 Readers' Theatre, Tlie Oral Interpretation 
of Literature Analytical and structural study 
of recognized prose, poetry, and dramatic 
selections that will facilitate individual rehearsal 
and performance of the literature. Readings 
incorporate the Readers Theatre format, with 
emphasis placed on developing an appreciation 
for the literary work as a complete aesthetic 
unit. Students are challenged to recognize their 
potential for speaking and reading before an 
audience. Class employs an ensemble approach 
and presents several public performances during 
the semester. 
Mr. Hanson 

250 Cinematic Arts: History and Methods Viewing 
and discusssion of historically and culturally 
relevent films from around the world during the 
period of 1896 (film's inception) to World War II. 
In lab, students apply filmic techniques of 
lighting, camera placement, and setting to 
construct mise-en-scene. 
Staff 



25 1 Cinematic Arts: History and Methods Viewing 
and discusssion of historically and culturallv 
relevent films from around the world dining the 
period of post-World War II to the present. In 
lab, students apply filmic techniques of lighting, 
camera placement, and setting to construct mise- 
en-scene. 

Staff 

252 Studies in Film Aesthetics Study of historically 
significant films, film theory, and criticism 
intended to develop an appreciation for film as 
an art form. Students keep a journal of critical 
responses to films, write short critical papers, 
and become familiar with writing about films. 
Mr. Muschamp 

255 Advanced Stage Design Examination of 
historical and contemporary theories of scene, 
lighting, and costume design. Students consider 
design as the visual manifestation of a 
playwright's concepts. In addition to designing 
both a play for proscenium, arena, thrust, and 
profile stages and a period play for a period 
other than its own, students complete advanced 
designs in scene, lighting, and costumes, and 
create designs for the Laboratory Theatre Series 
in association with students in Theatre Arts 282. 
Prerequisite: Theatre Arts 215. 
Mr. Hanson 

IDS 267 Theatre and Religion Investigation of the 
theatre's role in various Western and non-Westeni 
religions. (For full description, see IDS 267.) 
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. 
Mr Hanson 

IDS 268 The Arts, Environment, and Religions of 
Indonesia (See listing inider Interdisciplinary 
Studies. Students live with families in Bali. 
Offered annually, mid-May to mid-June.) 
Mr. Hanson 

282 Advanced Directing Further studies in the 
theory and technique in the art of the director. 
Students engage in directional analyses of plays 
representing different periods. Particular 
attention will be given to contemporan' 
methods of presentation, with special emphasis 
on arena and thrust staging. In addition to 
directing scenes in class, students direct two 
scenes and a one-act play for public presentation, 
the latter as part of the Laborator) Theatre 
Series. Prerequisites: Theatre AvXs 212 and/or 
permission of insti"uctor. 
Mr. Muschamp 



k 



307 Theatre Arts Practicum: Acting During a 
si'ven-week program, students rehearse and 
perform in two mainstage productions for 
( hildren and families as part of the Gettysburg 
I heatre Festival (founded 1963). Students work 
alongside professional actors, administrators, 
and designers of the Festival and under 
professional direction. Commedia dell'Arte and 
( )ther improxisational techniques are employed 
in the creation of each presentation. A study of 
I he works represented on the mainstage, as well 
as discussion sessions and workshops with 
professional actors and directors are included in 
c lass work. 
Siaff 

31 1 Theatre Arts Practicum: Technical During 
1 seven-week period, students participate in 
I he varied technical aspects of mounting two 
mainstage productions for children and families 
as part of the Gettysbiug Theatre Festival 
(founded 1963). Hands-on experience is gained 
from the construction, painting and placement 
of sets, hanging and running of stage lights, and 
the construction and gathering of properties 
and costumes. A study of the technical and 
design aspects along with the cultural and 
aesthetic heritage of the works produced is 
integral to the course. 
Staif 

320 Problems in Acting Course for students 
who have demonstrated the skill and talent to 
undertake further studies in acting. Culminates 
in an independent study project. Prerequisite: 
Theatre Arts 120 and 220 and/or permission of 
instructor. 
Staff 

328, 329 Twentieth-Century Drama Study of 
major dramatists from Ibsen to the present 
and of dramatic movements such as realisin, 
naturalism, expressionism, as well as Theatre 
of the Absurd. First semester includes Ibsen, 
Strindberg, Chekhov, Shaw, Pirandello, Odels, 
O'Neill, and others; second semester begins 
after World War II, and includes Williams, Miller, 
Hellman, Hansberry, Pinter, Beckett, lonesco. 
Genet, and others. 
Ms. Russell 

355 Problems in Stage Design Course for 
students who have demonstrated the skill and 
talent to undertake further studies in design. 
Culminates in an independent study project. 
Prerequisites: Theatre Arts 215 and 2.55. 
Mr Hanson 



yil Theatre Arts Practicum: Acting (Advanced) 

For students who have demonstrated that their 
skills in performing before the public (both 
young and old) might be further developed. 
Students continue work begun in Theatre Arts 
307; they are expected to produce mature and 
advanced work and undertake a broader range 
of roles and more complex ones. Prerequisite: 
Theatre Arts 307. 

38 1 Theatre Arts Practicum: Technical (Advanced) 

For students who have demonstrated that their 
skills in the technical aspects of theatre might 
be further developed. Students continue work 
begun in Theatre Arts 311 and are expected to 
undertake more advanced assignments in set 
construction, stage lighting, costumes, and 
properties. Prerequisite: Theatre Arts 311. 
Staff 

382 Problems in Directing Course for students 
who have demonstrated the skill and talent to 
imdertake further studies in directing. 
Culminate in an independent study project. 
Prerequisites: Theatre Arts 212 and 282. 

Staff 

Individualized Study Production of a major 
work, tutorial, or internship under supervision 
of a faculty member. Student must submit a 
written pioposal to the department well in 
advance of registration. Prerequisites: Approval of 
department and directing faculty member. 

SPEECH 

1 1 Public Address Study of the basic principles 
of public address. Emphasis is placed on 
developing both a theoretical and practical 
understanding of oral communication through 
lecture and reading assignments, as well as 
through practice in preparing, organizing, 
delivering, and criticizing speeches in class. 
Mr Muschamp 

201 Advanced Public Address Analysis of public 
address as an art form and as an important 
cixdlizing force in Western societ)'. Students have 
the opportunity to apply concepts and strategies 
they have learned in Speech 101. Prerequisite: 
Speech 101. 
Staff 



VISUAL ARTS 



Professor Paulson 

Associate Professors Agard and Treuelyan 

Assistant Professors Small, Sun, and 

Wanvick (Chairperson) 
Adjunct Assistant Professors Dorrill and Ito 
Adjunct Instmctors Blair, Rumos, and Winship 
Slide Librarian Magitra 

Overview 

Thf \isual arts department has the following 
major objectives: (1) to educate visual 
sensibilities, beyond routine responses, toward 
an awareness of our visual environment, as well 
as to the cognition of works of art as the living 
past; (2) to study the historical cultural 
significance and aesthetic structure of 
architecture, painting, and sculpture, and the 
endining dialogue between continuity and 
change; (3) to teach the history of art and the 
practice of art as separate biu interrelated 
disciplines; (4) to provide the interested major 
with a curriculum which gives a foundation for 
graduate or professional study that can lead to a 
career in high school or college teaching, to 
work as a graphic or industrial designer, or to a 
profession as a painter, sculptor, print maker, or 
photographer. 

The department offers a flexible program of 
study in interrelated studio and art history 
courses, with potential majors in two areas, art 
histon' and studio art. The department encourages 
students from disciplines other than art to select 
from both tvpes of courses. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Students interested in a major or minor in art 
histoid or studio art should contact the visual 
arts department for a current check sheet. To 
complete a major in Art History students are 
required to complete the following courses: 

1 ) V.^H 1 11 , 1 12. 120, and 400, plus a minimum 
of five additional courses in art histoiy These 
courses must include at least one course in 
either the ancient or medieval fields, one in 
either the Renaissance or Baroque fields, one in 
either the nineteenth century or modern fields, 
and one in a non-Western field. Courses are 
selected in consultation with the adviser in 
order to meet projected needs and to construct 
a coherent program. 



2) Two basic studio courses to foster an 
understanding of visual structure and studio 
processes. 

Students intending to major in Ait History 
should take Art 1 1 1, 1 12, and 120 in the first 
year of college. 

To complete a major in Studio Art students are 
required to take the following courses: 

1) VAS141, 145, and 146. 

2) At least one course each in painting, print 
making, and sculpture. 

3) Additional courses in at least two of the 
three disciplines listed in #2. photography, 
or ceramics. 

4) Three courses in art theory and history: 
VAH 120, 318, and an art history elective. 

5) Participation in the senior studio seminar 
and senior exhibition in the spring semester of 
the senior year. 

Students intending to major in Studio Art are 
advised to take VAS 141, 145, 146 and VAH 120 
in their first three semesters of college. VAH 318 
is to be completed before taking the Senior 
Studio Seminar. 

To complete a minor in Art History students are 
required to take the following courses. 

1) VAH 120. 

2) Three art history and/or theory of art 
courses. 

3) One 100-level studio course. 

4) One 20()-level studio course. 

To complete a minor in Studio Art students are 
required to take the following courses. 

1) Four studio courses. 

2) VAH 120 and one art history elective. 

Students minoring in either Art Histoiy or 
Studio Art should note that no more than two 
1 00-level courses are acceptable to fulfill the 
College's requirements for a minor. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Any course in the areas of history, theory, or 
studio art may be counted toward the Liberal 
Arts Core requirement in the arts. VAH 227, 
228, 247, and 248 fulfill the Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in non-Western culture. 



> 



Special Facilities 

A collection of approximately 45,000 color 
slides supports the teaching of art history and 
studio classes. The department also has video 
equipment and a growing libraiy of tapes to 
support other teaching activities. We are also 
equipped with powerful computers and 
appropriate software for computer assisted 
design, as well as CD-ROM capacity, with a 
library of disks for student use. Regular trips to 
the museums of Washington, D.C., Baltimore, 
and Philadelphia, as well as 
art exhibits at the College, make possible the 
necessary contact with original works of art. 

The department has presses for relief, surface, 
and intaglio print making. For sculpture, it has 
both gas and electric welding equipment; air 
power tools for working in wood, stone, and 
plastic; three kilns for ceramic arts; a small 
foundrv' for bronze casting; and heavy lifting 
beams and hoists. 

The l,660-sq.-foot Schmucker Hall Art Gallerv' 
presents as many as nine different exhibitions 
each year. Included in the gallery calendar are 
works by professional artists, a faculty show, a 
student show, the senior art major show, and 
traveling exhibits, as well as selections from 
public and private collections. 

HISTORY AND THEORY OF ART 

III, 112 ideas and Events Behind the Arts 

IntroductoiT study of the visual arts from 
prehistoric times to the nineteenth centuiy 
Course examines reasons for changes in the 
content, form, and fimction of two- 
dimensional and three-dimensional art. 
Exercises in visual analysis of individual works 
develop critical methods. Fulfills distribution 
requirement in the arts. Prerequisite: First-year 
or sophomore status or permission of 
instructor. 
Ms. Small 

1 1 5 World Art Survey A general survey of world 
art from the Neolithic period to modern times. 
Course primarily covers painting, sculpture, 
and architecture from Eiuopean and Asian 
cultural traditions. Within each period the arts 
are not only analyzed visually and stylistically, 
but also examined in their cultural, social, and 
pcjlitical contexts. Course cannot be used 
toward the art history major. 
Ms. Sun 



120 Theory of the Visual Arts Course gives a basic 
approach to visual experience by examining 
factors that relate to the making of art, functions 
of art, and viewer relationships with art, including 
methods of analysis, hi addition to class lectures 
and discussions, hands-on sessions assist students 
in understanding the processes of making visual 
imageiy. Fulfills distribution requirement in the 
arts. Prerequisite: First-year or sophomore status or 
permission of instructor 
Ms. Small 

1 3 1 Introduction to Asian Art A survey of the arts 
of Asia from the Neolithic period to modern 
times. Topics discussed include ancient 
civilization, Asian religion and art, and traditional 
China and Japan. Course primarily covers 
painting, sculpture, and architecture from several 
regions: hidia, China, Japan, and Soiuheast Asia. 
Course approaches the works of art as important 
in their own contexts and for what they reveal 
about their parent cultures. 
Ms. Sun 

201 Arts of Ancient Greece and Rome Introduction 
to the painting, sculpture, and architectiue of 
the classical world, focusing on cultural and 
intellectual differences between the people of 
these two civilizations as reflected in the arts of 
both. Fulfills distribution requirement in the arts. 
Prerequisite: First-year or sophomore status or 
permission of instructor. 

Ms. Trevelyan 

202 Medieval Art Sui-vey of the arts of the Middle 
Ages and their development from the Roman 
catacomb through the high Gothic cathedral. 
Analysis of art as a reflection of changing political 
and social conditions in Europe, with particular 
emphasis on liturgical arts in the Middle Ages. 
Fulfills distribution requirement in the arts. 
Recommended prior course: Art 111 or 201. 
Staff 

205 Arts of Northern Europe: A.D.I 350-1 575 

Analvsis of artistic developments in Northern 
Europe from late Gothic times through the 
turbulent period of the Reformation. Works 
of Jan Van Eyck, Claus Sluter, Hieronymous 
Bosch, Hans Holbein, Albrecht Durer, and others 
are explored to discover ways in which social, 
political, and intellectual developments are 
mirrored in the art of that period. Fulfills 
distribution requirement in the arts. Prerequisite: 
Any 100-leveI art historv' course, VAH 201, or 
permission of instructor. Alternate years. 
Staff 



206 European Painting 1700-1900 Introduction 
to eighteenth-centiin painit-is in Italy. France, 
and England and their relationship to the 
Enlightenment. Major emphasis on the evolution 
of painting in France during the nineteenth 
century in reladon to the changing social, 
political, and philosophical climate. Alternate 
years. Fulfills disuibution requirement in the 
arts. Prerequisite: An) 100-level art history course, 
VAH 201, or permission of instructor. 
Ms. Small 

210 Twentieth-Century European Painting Study of 
the schools and critical writings surrounding the 
major figures. Such movements as Ai"t Nouveau, 
Nabis, Fauvism. Cubism, Futinism, German 
Expressionism, De Stijl, Dada, and Surrealism are 
examined. Fulfills distribution requirement in the 
arts. Recommended prior courses: Art 111, 112, 
or 120. 
Ms. Smnll 

1 1 5 German Art from Middle Ages to Today 

(See description for Fall Semester in Cologne, 
Germany under Department of German.) 

217 History of Modern Architecture Examination 
of the evolutionary forms of the built environ- 
ment, beginning with the ascendancy of the 
machine aesthetic just prior to World War I 
and continuing through the "post-modernist" 
theories of the 1970-80s and the works of Graves, 
Gehiy, and Isozaki in the 1990s. Prerequisite: VAH 
111, VAH 1 1 2, or permission 
of instructor. 

221 Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Painting 
in the United States Survey of American painting 
from the Colonial Period to 1900, studied in 
relationship to developments in Europe, and with 
emphasis on the response of art to the changing 
social and technological environment in America. 
Alternate years. Fulfills distribution requirement 
in the arts. 
Ms. Smnll 

227 Art of the First Nations of North America: 
Eastern Woodlands and Plains Survey of the arts 
created by the original inhabitants of North 
America living in the Eastern Woodlands and 
Plains regions, with a focus on the cultural and 
religious traditions that formed the basis for much 
of the art. Emphasis is on developing an 
understanding of and appreciadon for the 
fundamental differences between the arts and 



cultures of Native North American peoples and 
those of modern Western cultures, as well as 
aspects of similarity. Fulfills distribution 
requirement in the arts and non-Western culture. 
Ms. Trevelyan 

228 Art of the First Nations of North America: 
The Far North and West Survey of the arts 
created by the original inhabitants of North 
America living in the Far North and the West, 
with a focus on the cultural and religious 
traditions that formed the basis for much of the 
art. Emphasis will be on developing an 
understanding of and appreciation for the 
fundamental differences between the arts and 
cultures of native North American peoples and 
those of modern Western cultures, as well as 
aspects of similarity. Fulfills the distribution 
requirements in the arts and non-Western culture. 
Ms. Treiielyan 

234 Arts of China An introduction to a world of 
visual and intellectual richness of Chinese art. 
Course provides a base for understanding how 
the Chinese have viewed themselves and the 
world throtigh time and how this has been 
expressed in the visual arts. Various art forms 
are discussed chronologically. Within each 
period the arts are not only analyzed visually 
and stylistically, but also examined in their 
cultural, social, and political contexts. 
A'/5. Sim 

303 Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture in the 
Italian Renaissance Survey of the visual arts 
during the centuries that, in many ways, mark 
the boundary between the ancient and modern 
worlds. Course approaches the arts 
of the period from tliis perepective. Many artists 
and monuments included are traditionally 
acknowledged to be among the finest in 
the histor)' of art, including the works of 
Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and 
Titian. Secondaiy focus is to question and 
explore reasons why the art of this period is 
so acclaimed. Fulfills distribution requirement 
in the arts. Prerequisite: V\H 111, VAH 112, VAH 
201, or permission of instructor. 
Staff 

307 Mannerist and Baroque Periods in European 

Art Study of painting, sculpture, and architecture 
in Europe, from the first decades after the 
Reformation through their transformation 
under the impact of the Counter Reformation. 



N 



Artistic developments in Italy are discussed, as 
well as allied approaches in northern Europe 
and Spain. Works of some of the world's best 
known artists are examined, including Bernini, 
(laravaggio, Rubens, Rembrandt, Venneer, 
El Greco, Velasquez, and Poiissin. Fulfills 
distribution requirement in the arts. 
Prerequisite: Art 201 or any 100-level art history 
course or permission of instructor. Alternate 
vears. 
Staff 

318 Art After 1945 Critical examinadon of the 
art forms and issues that identify the current 
post-modern phase of twentieth-century art. 
Past and current usages of the terms "modern" 
and "avant-garde" are explored in the context 
of contemporar)' modes of visual expression, 
art criticism, communications technology, and 
cultural pluralism. Prerequisite: Any two courses 
in art history or theory or permission of the 
instructor. 

322 Painting in the United States Since 1 900 

Survey of twentieth-century painting. Course 
concentrates on two basic themes: the 
changing social role of painting as Ainerica's 
needs and self-image change, and the on-going 
eclectic process in which American painters 
extend and deepen their familiarity' with world 
art. Fulfills distribution requirement in the 
art.s. 
A/,v. Small 

400 Seminar Advanced study of specific art 
history issues and problems, with particular 
focus on the revisionist art history of the last 
twenty to thirty years. Students revisit the 
content and theoredcal approaches of 
previous courses in the context of the "new art 
histor)'," as seen from the art historical 
dialogue. The theoretical literature of Feminist 
art histor\' pro\ides the framework for this re- 
examination. Approach varies according to the 
specific topic, but common denominators 
include a close examination and analysis of art 
objects and thorough investigation of their 
historical and social context. Students develop 
skills in advanced verbal and visual research, 
written and oral projects, and critiques 
Prerequisites: Minimum of three art history 
courses, at least one of which is a 300-level 
course, or permission of instructors. 
Ms. Trevelynn, Ms. Small 



STUDIO ART 

Purpose of all studio courses is to sharpen the 
sense of sight; coordinate mind, hand, and eye; 
develop an ability to organize visual material; and 
to integrate the intuitive and rational into creative 
activit)'. Lectures accompany basic studio courses 
when necessary to relate theor)' and practice. The 
Lora Qually Hicks memorial fund, established by 
family and friends in honor of Lora Qually Hicks 
'71, provides funds for the purchase of works 
created by Gettysburg College students. 

14! Introduction to Drawing Drawing from 
models and controlled studio problems. Intended 
to promote coordination of the hand and the eye 
to achieve a degree of technical mastery over a 
variety of drawing tools. Emphasis is placed on 
line quality, techniques of shading, negative- 
posidve relationships, figure-ground relationships, 
form, structure, and an awareness of the total 
field. Offered fall semester only. Prerequisite: First- 
year students and sophomores only. 
Mr Agard, Mr. Warzcifli 

145 Basic Design (two dimensional) Introductory 
course to help students develop a capacity to 
think and work both conceptually and 
perceptually. Course provides a basic discipline 
with which to organize a variety of materials into 
structural and expressive form. Prerequisite: First- 
year students and sophomores only. 

Mr Agard 

146 Basic Design (three dimensional) An 

introductory course extending the basic 
disciplines of 141 into the third dimension. 
Projects introduce materials such as clay, plaster, 
wood, and metal. Intent is to assist students in 
organizing three dimensional forms. Prerequisite: 
First-year students and sophomores only. 
Mr. Paulson 

251 Introduction to Painting Development of a 
series of paintings according to a thematic image. 
Assigned problems are designed to introduce a 
variety of conceptual, procedural, and 
experimental possibilities. Prerequisite: VAS 141 or 
145. Recommended course: VAH 322. 

Mr Agard, Mr Winship 

252 Intermediate Painting Development of unique 
and experimental techniques, procedures, images, 
presentations, and textural applicadons. Series of 
paintings is developed. Alternative concepts and 
methodolog)' are discussed. Students are referred 



to works by artists who have related aesthetic 

interests. Prnequisile: 

VAS251. 

Mr. Aganl 

255 Introduction to Printmaking Creative process 
as conditioned and disciplined by intaglio 
techniques. Discussion ol past and contemporan.' 
methods, and the study of original prints. 
Prerequisite: VAS 141 or 145. 

Mr. PnuLson 

256 Intermediate Printmaking Intioductory 
course in experimental work, with a primary 
concentradon on lithography, seriography, 
and cameo techniques. Prerequisite: VAS 255. 
Recommended course: VAS 145. 

Mr Paulson 

261 Introduction to Sculpture Introduction to 
fundamentals of three-dimensional forms and 
modes of expression involving creadve problems 
in the organization of space, mass, volume, line, 
and color Correlated lectures and demonstrations 
are used to acquaint students wth those aspects 
of sculptural history and theoi^ relevant to 
studio projects. Course is intended for both 
general students, and art majors. Prerequisite: 
VAS 141 or 146. Recommended course: VAS 335. 
Mr Paulson 

262 Intermediate Sculpture Program of studio 
projects (arranged b) instructor and student) 
concerned with developing an individual 
approach to three-dimensional form, with 
concentradon in direcdy fabricating techniques 
involving a series of experiments in spatial 
organization. Prerequisite: VAS 261. 

Mr. Paulson 

263 Introduction to Ceramics hitroduction to 
earth (clay), the most basic of materials as a 
medium for personal three-dimensional 
expression. Material is approached in an 
intellectual and poetic sculptural application 
lather than a utilitarian one. 

Mr Sham 

265 Introduction to Photography Introductory 
course with a toncennation on camera usage, 
design theon', and darkroom techniques in the 
black-and-white creative process. Additional 
emphasis on origins, evolution, and relationship 
of the photographic image to contemporary 
materials and methods. Prerequisite: VAS 141 
or 145. 
Mr Blair 



267 Special Topics in Studio Focus on materials, 
techniques, and conipf)siti(jnal parameters not 
systematically covered in the regular cvirriculum. 
Topics are chosen by individual studio faculty 
members, are variable, and mav include cast 
metal sculpture, welded sculpture, calligraphy, 
computer graphics, color photography, 
figurative drawing, watercolour painting, 
assemblages, installations and earthworks. Not 
offered every year. 
Staff 

34 1 Advanced Drawing Emphasis on individual 
concepts as developed in a series of interrelated 
drawing problems, materials, and techniques. 
Prerequisite: VAS 141. Offered spring semester 
only. 
Mr Agard 

351 Advanced Painting Emphasis on advanced 
painting concepts and the development of 
individual student concerns in a series. Ptrrequisites: 
VAS 251 and 252. Offered odd years only. 
Mr Agard 

355 Advanced Printmaking Experimental 
printmaking concentrating on personal 
development of one method and exploration. 
Prerequisites: VAS 255 and 256. 
Mr. Paulson 

361 Advanced Sculpture Exploration of 
individual three-dimensional concerns, with 
concentration in one media and technique. 
Prereqiusiles:VAS 261 and 262. 
Mr. Paulson 

401 Senior Portfolio Creation of a cohesive, 
individualized body of work for inclusion in the 
Senior Show, accompanied by portfolio 
presentation and faculty review. Emphasis is 
placed on extending unique student interests 
and strengths in an exploration of media, 
imageiy, and technique, which result in mature, 
high qualitv' aesthetic conclusions. Students 
|jarticipate in all aspects of offer- 
ing the public a provocative, thoughtful 
series of well-crafted work that is displayed 
professionally. Prerequisites: Senior art studio 
majors only. 
^taff 

Individualized Study 

Provides an opportunit) for the well-qualified 
student to execute supervised projects in the 
area of his or her special interest, whether 
studio or hislor)'. 
Staff 



WOMEN'S STUDIES 



Charlotte Arrnster and Temma Berg, Coordinators 
Professor Richardson Viti 
Distinguished Visiting Professor Aftab 
Associate Professors Gill, Potuchek, and Powers 

Overview 

Women's studies is an interdisciplinar)' 
academic program which draws on feminist 
theorv' and the new scholarship on women to 
examine and analyze the roles, perspectives, 
and contributions of women. Through the 
consideration of women's past history, present 
conditions, and future possibilities, students 
come to understand gender as a cultural 
experience. The women's studies curriculum 
emphasizes critical thinking, multiple 
perspectives, and the diversity of women's 
experiences. In women's studies courses, 
students learn a number of methods for 
examining and strategies for modif\ing the 
conditions that affect all of our lives. 

Women's studies stresses cross-cultural 
perspectives and analysis. Through an array 
of interdisciplinary courses and disciplinar)' 
courses that focus on gender within particular 
disciplines, women's studies integrates women 
and feminist scholarship into all levels of the 
curriculum. 

The Women's Studies Program is governed 
by the Women's Studies Program Advison' 
Council. The members of this advisor)' council 
are drawn from facult)', administrators, staff, 
and students. Twent)'-fotir faculty from sixteen 
departments and programs teach the core, 
cross-listed, and affiliated courses. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Major Requirements: Ten courses are required 
for the major in women's studies, and all 
majors are required to take the following 
cotuses: 

WS 120: hi troduction to Women's Studies 

WS 300: Feminist Theories 

WS 320: Practicum in Feminist Theor)' and 
Collective Action 

WS 400: Senior Seminar 

In addition, students must take at least one 
core or cross-listed cotuse above the 1 00 level 
that focuses in depth on the diversity of 
women's experiences or on the ways that 
gender intersects with other forms of 



inequalit)'. Of the remaining five courses, at 
least one must be a core or cross-listed course in 
the social sciences and at least one must be a 
core or cross-listed course in the arts or 
humanities. No more than tno affiliated courses 
may be counted toward the requirements for the 
major. 

Students choosing a major in women's studies 
must combine it with a minor (or a second 
major) in an arts, humanities, science, or social 
science discipline. 

Minor Requirements: Six courses are required. 
Minors are required to take Women's Studies 
120, Women's Studies 300, and Women's 
Studies 400. One additional course must be 
from the list of core or cross-listed courses. The 
remaining two courses may be drawn from any 
of the following: (I) core courses, (2) cross- 
listed courses, (3) affiliated courses, and (4) 
approved courses of indi\idualized study in 
women's studies. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Women Studies 213, 216, 217, 219, 220, 221, 
and 251 satisf)' the Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in humanities. Women's Studies 
222 and 226 satisfy' the Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in social science. Women Studies 
213, 219, and 226 safisfy the non-Western 
requirement. 

CORE COURSES 

120 Introduction to Women's Studies Study of 
perspectives, findings, and methodologies of 
new scholarship on women in various 
disciplines. Course introduces issues in feminist 
theory and examines the diversity' of women's 
experiences, structinal positions in societies, 
and collective efforts for change. Taught by an 
interdisciplinar)' team of instructors. 
Staff 

2 1 Special Topics in Women's Studies Study of 
a topic not nonnallv covered in depth in the 
regular ciuriculum of the Women's Studies 
Program. Offered irregularly. 
Staff 

2 1 3 Women in South Asia Exploration of the 
characterization and depiction of women in 
South Asia through the examination of both 
historical and contemporaiy sources, including 
mvth, written and oral traditions, social mores, 
and economic status. Course traces the status of 



women within the family and society as shaped 
by the dominant traditions of Hinduism, 
Buddhism, and Islam and examines how change 
was attempted in the nineteenth century after 
South Asian women and women from the West 
encoimtered one another. 

216 Images of Women in Literature Examination 
of various ways women liave been imagined in 
literature. Course looks at how and why images 
of women and men and of their relationships to 
one another change, and at how these images 
affect us. Emphasis is on developing the critical 
power to imagine ourselves differently. Cross- 
listed with Eng 216. 

Ms. Berg 

2 1 7 Famous French Femmes Fatales Women today 
are attempting to demystify the feminine 
condition, for, as the late Simone de Beauvoir 
observed, the "mythe de la femme" is a male 
invention. Literary images of women have been 

a major focus of this investigation, and this 

course examines some famous French women, 

from the Princess of Cleves to Emma Bovary, and 

scrutinizes them from the perspective of feminist 

criticism. 

Ms. Richardson Viti 

2 1 9 Contemporary Women Writers: Cross- 
Cultural Perspectives Examination of novels 
and short stories by women authors from diverse 
socio-cultural backgroimds in the U.S. and the 
developing world. Particular attention is given to 
ways in which these writers represent universal 
aspects of women's experience. Course examines 
works written from 1970 to present. 

Ms. Poiuers 

220 The Pleasures of Looking: Women in Film 

Course explores various images of women as 
constructed for the male and female spectator in 
both dominant and independent film. 
Traditional ways in which women have been 
represented in film are examined critically 
through the use of feminist theories. Course 
aims to examine how various feminist 
filmmakers challenge the traditional uses of the 
female voice in their own films. Films from other 
cultures than the U.S. are included. 
Ms. Armster 



22 1 Bridging the Borders: Latina and Latin 
American Women's Literature Study of selected 
works in English b)' Latin American women and 
Latina women from the U.S. Course explores 
both connective links and dividing lines of 
women's lives in the context of a common 
cultural heritage that has evolved into multiple 
variants as a result of geographical, historical, 
economic, ethnic, and racial factors. 

222 Women's Movements in the United States 

Study of women's activism and social movements 
organized primarily by women. Through the 
study of a broad range of women's activism, the 
course places the development of U.S. feminism 
in its larger socio-historical context. 
Staff 

lib Feminism in Global Perspective Study of 
women's activism to improve their lives around 
the world. Course analyzes similarities and 
differences in the issues women activists address 
in different parts of the world, the theories they 
develop to analyze those issues, and the forms 
their activism takes. Course also considers the 
possibilities for a global women's movement 
and provides theoretical tools for analyzing 
modern feminisms in their global context. 
Staff 

25 1 Women and Nazism Examinadon of the 
effects of Nazism on women, primarily (but not 
exclusively) in Germany beginning in the 1920s 
and extending to postwar times. Course focuses 
on women's perspectives as exhibited in 
historical and literary docimientation. Offered 
every other year. 
Ms. Armster 

300 Feminist Theories Exploration of various 
feminist theories about women — about their 
experiences, their representations, and their 
relative positions in diverse societies. 
Contemporary and earlier works are discussed 
in order to evaluate and synthesize multiple 
approaches to feminist issues. Prerequisite: 
Women's Studies 120. 
Staff 

320 Practicum in Feminist Theory and Collective 
Action Examination of the relationship between 
feminist theory and collective action to improve 
societal conditions for women. Course 
combines seminar meetings with student 
internships in community organizations. 



^^^ 



Readings from feminist theory of organizations, 
cf)llective action, and social policy are used as a 
basis for analysis of students' internship 
experiences. Prerequisites: V^omen's Studies 120 
and one other core or cross-listed women's 
studies course, or permission of instructor. 
Offered every tiiird semester. 
Staff 

400 Senior Seminar Examination of a topic 
from a variety of in-depth perspectives. 
Selected topic is broad enough to allow 
students to engage in projects of their own 
devising. Course serves as a bridge between 
the luidergraduate experience and the world 
beyond Gettysburg College as students learn 
to put their feminism into action. Prerequisites: 
Women's Studies 120, 300, and one additional 
core or cross-listed women's studies course. 
Staff 

Cross-Listed Courses 

(See appropriate departmental listings for 
descriptions of the following courses.) 

CWES 347 Women in Public: Gender and 

Cultural Transformation in the United 

States, 1840-1900 
Economics 252 Gender Issues in Economics 
English 334 Nineteenth-Centuiy English 

Women Writers 
English 349 Contemporary' African American 

Women Writers 
FYS 125 Witches of Salem 
FYS 172 From Madame Marie Curie to Agent 

Dana Scully: The Role of Gender in Science 

and Technology 
FYS 1 96 "You've Come a Long Way, Baby": 

Milestones in the Lives of American 

Women over the Past Century 
History 209 Women's Histoid Since 1500 
History 245 Gender and the American Civil 

War 
History 308 Women, Power, and Politics in 

Early Modern Europe 
LAS 22 1 Undressing Frontiers: Transitions 

and Desires in Latin American Literature 
LAS 222 Latina and Latin American Women's 

Literatiue 
Music 108 Women and Music 
Political Science 382 Feminist Theory in 

American Politics 



Political Science 412 Women and the Political 

Economy of Development 
Sociology 217 Gender Inequality 
VAH 400 Seminar in Art History: Women in 

Art 

Affiliated Courses 
Classics 121 Survey of Greek Civilization 
Classics 264 Ancient Tragedy 
Classics 266 Ancient Comedy 
English 333 Victorian Aesthetics 
FYS 193 Beauty, Body Image, and Identit)' in 

Cross-Cultural Perspective 
Political Science 406 Politics of Poverty 
Sociology 206 Sociology of Family 
Sociology 240 Gays, Lesbian, and Society 
Spanish 351 Lyric Poetry 
VAH 227 Arts of the First Nations of North 

America: East and Plains 
VAH 228 Arts of the First Nations of North 

America: North and West 



Annual Prizes and Awards 



Gettysburg College has a long tradition of recognizing students fm- outstanding scholarship 
and achievement. These awards, made possible by the generous gifts of alumni and friends, 
are presented at a Fall Honors Program in October or a Spring Honors Convocation in May. 
Grades earned in required courses in. exercise sciences are not considered in computations for prizes 
onr awards. Transfer students are eligible for prizes and awards. 



ENDOWED ANNUAL PRIZES AND AWARDS 

Betty Ai. Barnes Memorial Award in Biology: 
Established by Dr. & Mrs. Rodger W. Baier, to be 
awarded to a female senior with high academic 
ability preparing for a career in biology or 
medicine. 

Baum Mathematical Prize: Created by Dr. Charles 
Baum (1874), to be given to the student showing 
the greatest proficiency in mathematics through 
his or her sophomore year 

foh7i Edgar Baublitz Pi Lambda Sigma Aivards: 
Created by John Eberhardt Baublitz in honor 
of his father, John Edgar Baublitz '29, who was 
the first president of the Gamma Chapter of Pi 
Lambda Sigma. Awarded to a senior major in 
economics, a senior major in management, and 
a senior major in political science. 

Anna Marie Budde Award: Established by Anna 
Marie Budde, instructor and assistant professor 
of voice, 1953-1972, to be given to the 
outstanding sophomore voice student. 

Romeo M. Capozzi Athletic Training Room Award: 
Created by Rose Ann Capozzi in memory of her 
late husband, Romeo M. Capozzi, to be given to 
the student who has demonstrated the greatest 
degree of proficiency in athletic training room 
techniques. 

Oscar W. Carlson Memorial Aimrd: Created by the 
family of Oscar W. Carlson '21, to be given to a 
senior who demonstrates excellent academic 
achievement through his or her junior year in 
three or more courses in the Department of 
Religion, including two courses above the 100-level. 

fohn M. Colestock Student Leadership Award: 
Created by family and friends, to be given to the 
male senior whose optimism, enthusiasm, and 
strength of character have provided exceptional 
leadership in student affairs. 

Robert E. Curtis Award: Established by Margaret 
Curtis '52, George White, and the members of 
the Education Department, in honor of Robert 
E. Curtis, who served as a facult\' member in the 



Department of Education from 1987-2000, to 
be presented to two qualified, worthy, and 
promising students, one in elementary and one 
in secondary education, who have distingviished 
themselves in student teaching. 

Malcolm R. Dougherty Mathematical Aiuard: 
Established by the Columbian Cutlery Company, 
Reading, Pennsylvania, in memory of Malcolm 
R. Dougherty '42, to be awarded to the student 
who had the highest average in mathematics 
during his or her first year of college and who is 
working to earn part of his or her college expenses. 

Margaret E. Fisher Memorial Scholarship Award: 
Created by Dr. Nelson F. Fisher 18 in memory 
of his mother, to be awarded to a male student 
who excels in one or more major sports and 
who achieves the highest academic average 
among winners of varsity letters. 

Lena S. Fortenbaugh Memorial Prize in German: 
Established by the children of Lena S. Fortenbaugh 
and Robert Fortenbaugh '13, professor of history 
at the College from 1923-1959. Awarded to a senior 
with outstanding achievement in the study of 
German language and culture. 

Holly Gabriel Memorial Aivard: Established by 
friends and classmates of Holly Gabriel '78, to 
be awarded to a senior sociology major who 
demonstrates superior academic achievement, 
concern for the welfare of others, and the intent 
to continue this service beyond graduadon. 

Samuel Garver Greek Prize: Created by the Rev. 
Austin S. Garver (1869) in memory of his father, 
to be awarded to the student who has made the 
greatest progress in Greek during the first year 
of college. 

Samuel Garver Latin Prize: Created by the Rev. 
Austin S. Garver (1869) in memory of his father, 
to be awarded to the student who has made the 
greatest progress in Latin during the first year 
of college. 

Graeff English Prize: Established in 1866, to be 
awarded to a senior who demonsu-ates outstanding 
achievement in English. 



David H. Greenlaw Memorial Prize: Created by Mr. 
and Mrs. Ralph W. Greenlaw in memory of their 
son, David H. Greenlaw '66, to be awarded to 
the student who has offered exceptional 
contributions to the College's theatre program. 

Edwin T. Greninger Aiuard in History: Established 
by Edwin T. Greninger '41, to be awarded on the 
basis of the quality of a student's paper written for 
any of the courses in the Department of History. 

Jolm Alfred Hamme Aiuards: Two awards, established 
by John Alfred Hamme '18, to be given to the 
two jimiors who have demonstrated in the 
highest degree the qualities of loyalt)', kindness, 
courtesy, true democracy, and leadership. 

Dr. Carl Arnold Hanson, President Emeritus, 
Leadership Aiuard: Created by his wife, Anne Keet 
Hanson, friends and alumni, in honor of Dr. 
Carl Arnold Hanson, President of Gettysburg 
College from 1961-1977. Awarded to a student 
who has achieved at least a 3.0 average in his or 
her major through the middle of the junior year 
and has demonstrated significant leadership 
abilities in one or more areas of college life. 

Henry W. A. Hanson Scholarship Foundation Aiuard: 
Created by College alumni in honor of Heniy 
W. A. Hanson and in recognition of his leaderehip 
of and distinguished service to Gettysburg 
College and to the cause of education in the 
Lutheran Church and the nation. Awarded to a 
senior who plans to enter graduate school in 
preparation for college teaching. 

Harry C. and Catherine Noffsinger Hartzell Award: 
Created by James Hamilton Hartzell '24 in 
memory of his parents, to be awarded to the 
outstanding junior student in the Department 
of Sociology and Anthropology. 

James Boyd Hartzell Memorial Aiuard: Established 
by James Hamilton Hartzell '24 and his wife, 
Lucretia Irvine Boyd Hartzell, to be awarded to 
a junior student majoring in economics or in 
management for outstanding scholarship and 
promise in these fields. 

James Hamilton and Lucretia Irvine Boyd Hartzell 
Award: Created by James Hamilton Hartzell '24 
and his wife, to be awarded to a sophomore 
student for outstanding scholarship and promise 
in the field of histor)'. 

Mildred H. Hartzell Prize: Created by Mildred H. 
Hartzell '26, to be awarded to a student who 
shows high quality in more than scholarship; 



preference is given to a member of Alpha Phi 
Omega, the national service fraternity, or other 
organizations that may reflect similar quality 
and ideals. 

Hassler Latin Prize: Established by Charles W. 
Hassler, to be awarded to the best Latin student 
in the junior class. 

John A. Hauser Meritorious Prize in Business: 
Created by the family of John A. Hauser, to 
be awarded to an outstanding management 
major who has achieved excellence in both 
academic studies and campus leadership, while 
demonstrating good character and concern 
for high moral standards. 

Grace C. Kenney Aivard: Created to honor Grace 
C. Kenney, an educator for 39 years at Gettysburg 
College, to be given to a junior or senior. First 
preference is given to a student who has 
participated in health and exercise sciences 
studies, intramural and athletic programs, and 
has demonstrated the highest academic 
accomplishments and leadership skills. 

Rev. George N. Lauffn (1899) and M. Naomi 
Lauffer (1898) Scholarship Aiuard: Given each year 
to a junior who has maintained high scholarship 
and who evidences outstanding ability and 
character. It is understood that the recipient will 
complete the senior year at Gettysburg College. 

/. Andrew Marsh Memorial Awards: Awarded each 
year to the sophomore and junior students of 
Gettysburg College who best exemplify the 
"whole person" concept through positive 
altitude, exceptional spirit, high standards, and 
notable achievement, both curricular and 
extracurricular. 

Miller-Mara First-Year Student Prize in Physics: 
Created by alumni and friends in memoi7 of 
George R. Miller '19 and Richard T. Mara '48, 
to be awarded to a sophomore for outstanding 
performance in physics as a first-year student. 

Miller-Mara Senior Physics Prize: Created by 
alumni and friends in memory of George R. 
Miller '19 and Richard T. Mara '48, to be 
awarded to a senior for sustained outstanding 
performance in physics. 

Franklin Moore Aiuard: Established by friends 
of Mr. Moore, to be given to the senior who, 
during his or her undergraduate years, has 
shown the highest degree of good citizenship 
and, by character, industry, enterprise, initiative. 



and activities, has contributed the most toward 
campus morale and the prestige of the College. 

Samuel A. Mudd Psychology Award: Established by 
Paul M. Muchinsky '69 in honor of Samuel A. 
Mudd '57, professor of psycholog)', emeritus. 
Award is presented to a graduating senior 
psycholog)' major who has demonstrated a high 
level of personal integrity and outstanding 
scholarship. 

Muhlenberg First Year Student Prize: Created by Dr. 
Frederick A. Muhlenberg (1836), to be awarded 
to the first-year student taking Greek or Latin 
who attains the highest general quality point 
average. 

Muhlenberg Goodwill Prize: Awarded to a male 
senior "for growth during formative years at 
Gettysburg College in awareness of personal 
responsibility for the welfare of all peoples; for a 
degree of achievement in same during College 
years and in the hope of future accomplishment 
for betterment of Commtmity, State and 
Nation." 

William F. Muhlenberg Award: Awarded to two 
juniors on the basis of character, scholarship, 
and proficiency in campus activities. 

J. Rogers Musselman Aiuard: Established by Peter 
R. Musselman in memory of his father, J. Rogers 
Musselman, to be awarded to a student 
majoring in mathematics who is proficient in 
the study of mathematics during his or her third 
year of enrollment. 

Nicholas Bibk Prize: Created by the Rev. Dr. J.C. 
Nicholas (1894), to be awarded to the senior 
who has done the best work in advanced courses 
in religion. 

Clair B. and Mary E. Noerr Memorial Award: 
Established by Constance (Noerr) Baker '58 
in memory of her father and mother, to be 
awarded to a female senior on the basis of 
proficiency in athletics, scholarship, and character. 

Dr John W. Ostrom Composition Awards: 
Established by Dr. John W. Ostrom '26, to be 
awarded to the student who achieves excellence 
and demonstrates the greatest improvement in 
first-year composidon (English 101) and to the 
student who achieves excellence and demonstrates 
the greatest improvement in advanced 
composition (English 201). 

Dr. John W. Ostrom English Award: Credited by 
Dr. John W. Ostrom '26, to be awarded to the 



sttident who has written the best expository 
essay for an upper level English course. 

Vivian Wickey Otto Christian Service Award: 
Created by Vivian Wickey Otto '46 through the 
Woman's General League of Gett)'sburg 
College, to be given to a student at the end of 
his or her junior year who plans to enter full- 
time Christian service work. 

Keith Pappas Memorial Axuard: Given as a 
memorial to Keith Pappas '74, an honors graduate 
who made an extraordinary contribution to the 
life of this College and its people. Awarded to a 
ciurent student who most significantly affects 
the College community through the quality of 
his or her participation in its functions and 
whose divergent contributions give form to what 
is called Gettysbiug College. 

Jeffrey Pierce Memorial Award: Established in 
honor of Jeffrey Pierce '71, to be awarded to a 
male senior who has reached the highest level of 
achievement in the field of history. 

Martha Ell^n Sachs Prize: Created by John E. Haas 
in memo:7 of his aunt, a lecturer at the College, 
to be awarded to a student exhibiting excellence 
in English composition, with consideration 
given to improvement made during the year. 

Captain Michael D. Scotton (1982) Award: 
Established by David R. and Sally R. Scotton, 
parents of Michael D. Scotton, to be awarded 
to a junior who demonstrates a high degree of 
extraciu ricular acti\1t)' and diligence to his or 
her academic work. 

Senior Scholarship Prize: Established by the Class 
of 1996 and Mr. Robert Stockberger '33, to be 
presented annually to two rising seniors who 
best exemplify' Gettysbiug College through 
academics and service to the campus 
community. The Senior Scholarship Prize Fund 
is augmented with future senior class gifts. 

Stine Chemistry Prize: Created by Dr. Charles M. 
A. Stine '01, to be awarded to a senior chemistiT 
major on the basis of grades in chemistiy, 
laboratory technique, personality, general 
improvement in four years, and proficiency in 
chemistry at the time of selection. 

Earl Kresge Stock Writing Prizes: Established by 
Earl Kresge Stock '19, to be awarded to the 
three students who write the classroom papers 
judged best in the areas of the humanities, the 
sciences, and the social sciences. 



I 



Samuel p. Weaver Scholarship Foundation Prizes: 
Kstablished by Samuel P. Weaver '04, to be 
ivvarded to the two students writing the best 
essays on an assigned topic in the field of 
constitutional law and government. 

Earl E. '/Jegler Jujiior Mathemntics Aicard: Created 
by Phi Delta Theta alumni, to be given in honor 
of Earl E. Ziegler, associate professor of 
mathematics at Gettysburg College from 1935- 
1968. Awarded to the mathematics major who 
has the highest average in mathematics through 
thejimior year. 

Earl E. Ziegler Senior Mathematics Award: Created 
by Earl E. Ziegler, associate professor of 
mathematics at Gettysbiug College from 1935- 
1968, to be awarded to the mathematics major 
w ho has achieved the highest average in 
mathematics through the senior year. 

Edwin and Leander M. Zimmerman Senior Prize: 
Warded to the senior whose character, 
influence on students, and scholarship have 
contributed most to the welfare of the College. 

Inhn B. Zinn Chemistry Research Award: Created 
In' Frances and John Zinn in honor of John B. 
Zinn '09, who was professor of chemistry at the 
College from 1924-1959. Awarded to the senior 
making the greatest contributions in his or her 
own research in chemistr)' and to the research 
activities of the Department of Chemistr)'. 

UNENDOWED ANNUAL PRIZES AND AWARDS 

Award for Excellence in Theory and Practice in 
Women 's Studies: Given to a senior in recognition 
I )f outstanding achievement in the study of 
feminist theory and in social service on behalf of 
women and children. 

Charles W Beachem Athletic Aiuard: CreMed in 
memory of Charles W. Beachem '25, the first 
alumni secretary of the College, to be awarded 
lo a male senior on the basis of character, 
scholarship, and athletic achievement. 

C. E. and Mary G. Bilheimer Award: Given to the 
senior major in health and exercise sciences 
with the highest academic average. 

Esther Brandt Chemistry or Biology Award: Created 
by Mr. and Mrs. Walter Brandt and Ms. Loel 
Rosenberry in honor of Esther Brandt, to be 
given to a jimior or senior who has demonstrated 
academic excellence through the highest grade 
point average in the declared major of 
chemistiy or biology. 



Archie and Flo Butler English Award: Created by 
Mr. and Mrs. Walter Brandt and Ms. Loel 
Rosenberry in honor of Aixhie and Flo Butler, 
to be given to a junior or senior with a declared 
English major who has demonstrated academic 
excellence through the highest grade point 
average in English. 

Miguel Cervantes Award in Spanish: Presented to a 
jmiior Spanish major or minor for academic 
excellence in Spanish and outstanding 
involvement in Hispanic acdvities. 

Anna Julia Cooper/ W.E.B. DuBois/ Cheikh Anta- 
Diop Award for Academic Excellence in African 
American Studies: Given annually to an African 
American studies minor who demonstrates an 
exemplary combinadon of significant scholar- 
ship, at least a 3.1 average in African American 
studies, and service to the college and larger 
commimity. 

Chan L. Coulter Philosophy Award: Established 
by the Department of Philosophy in honor of 
Chan L. Coulter, Professor of Philosophy from 
1958-1995, to be presented to a student whose 
achievements in philosophy display excellence 
and creativity and exemplify the spirit of inquiry 
so essential to the examined life. 

Sorjuana Ines de la Cruz Awards in Spanish: 
Presented to tv\'o senior Spanish majors for 
academic excellence in Spanish and 
outstanding involvement in Hispanic activities. 

Delta Phi Alpha Prize: Awarded to the outstanding 
student for the year in the Department of 
German. 

Anthony di Palma Memorial Aivard: Established by 
the family of .\nthony di Palma '56, to be 
awarded to thejimior having the highest marks 
in history. Other things being equal, preference 
is given to a member of Sigma Chi fraternity. 

Dwight D. Eisenhower Society /R. M. Hoffman Family 
Memorial Prize in Economics: Created by the R. M. 
Hoffman Family Memorial Tiust through the 
Dwight D. Eisenhower Societv' in memor)' of 
Gettv'sburg biLsinessman R. M. Hoflftiian. Awarded 
to the student writing the best quantitative 
paper or project (v\ith public policy implications) 
in economics. 

Dioight D. Eisenhower Society /R. M. Hoffman Family 
Memorial Prize in Management: Created by the 
R. M. Hoffman Family Memorial Trust through 
the Dwight D. Eisenhower Society in memory of 



Gettysburg bvisinessman R. M. Hoffman. Awarded 
to an outstanding senior in the management 
department. 

Julius Eno Physics Prize: Created by Julius Eno Jr., 
to be awarded to the oulstandingjunior majoring 
in physics. 

French Cultural Counselor's Aiuard: Established by 
the cultural counselor of the French Emba.ssy, 
to be awarded to a senior for outstanding 
achievement in French. 

Gettysburg College Award in Athletics: Awarded to a 
female student who excels in one or more major 
sports and who achieves the highest academic 
average among winners of varsity letters. 

Gettysburg College Aiuard in Histcny: Awarded to. 
the female senior who has reached a high level 
of achievement in the field of history. 

Gettysburg College Senior Prize: Awarded to a 
female senior who exemplifies commitment to 
community and concern for the welfare of 
others during the student's years at Gettysburg 
College and who shows promise of future 
accomplishment in support of community, state, 
and nation. 

Gettysburg Colkge Student Leadership Award: 
Awarded to a female senior whose enthusiasm, 
energy, and contributions in student affairs 
demonstrated outstanding leadership. 

Maria Leonard Senior Book Award: Created by the 
Gettysburg Chapter of Alpha Lambda Delta, the 
national academic honorary society for first-year 
students. Awarded to the graduating Alpha 
Lambda Delta member who has the highest 
grade point average through the first semester 
of the senior year. 

Karl J. Mattson Service Award: Established by the 
Center for Public Service in honor of Karl J. 
Mattson, Director of the Center for Public 
Service from 1992-2001 and Chaplain of the 
College from 1977-1992, to be presented 
to a graduating senior who demonstrates 
compassion and a commitment to social justice 
by making significant contributions to the 
College and the larger communit)' through 
service and advocacy. 

Toni Monison—Wol/' Soyiiika African American 
Studies Essay Aiuard: Given annually to the 
student writing the best essay in African 
American studies. 



Pi Sigma Alpha Award: Established by the Nu 
Psi Chapter of Pi Sigma Alpha, the national 
political science honorary society, to be 
presented to the outstanding graduating senior 
in political science. 

Psi Chijunior Award: Awarded to a senior 
psychology major who has displayed outstanding 
potential and initiative throughout his or her 
junior year. 

Emile O. Schmidt Award: Established by students, 
friends, audience members, and colleagues of 
Emile Schmidt, Professor of English and 
Theatre at Gettysburg College from 1962-1999. 
Award is presented each year to a theatre 
student for scholarly excellence and distinguished 
service to the Gettysburg College theatre 
program, as well as professional promise. 

Sigma Alpha Iota College Honor Award: Created 
by Sigma Alpha Iota, an international music 
fraternity, to be awarded to a student in the 
local chapter who has exemplified the highest 
musical, scholastic, and ethical standards, 
whatever the class standing. 

Sigma Alpha Iota Scholastic Award: Awarded to 
the graduating senior who holds the highest 
academic average among music majors. 

Dr. George W. Stoner Award: Awarded to a worthy 
male senior accepted by a recognized medical 
college. 

Student Life Council Aiuard: Awarded to a student 
in recognition of the quiet influence he or she 
has exerted for the improvement of the campus 
community. 

Superior Scholarship in Computer Science: Awarded 
to an outstanding computer science major at 
the discretion of the faculty. 

Wall Street Journal Student Achietmnent Award: 
Awarded to a senior in the Department of 
Economics who has shown outstanding academic 
achievement in the study of economics. 

Women 's Studies Service Award: An award for 
excellence in Women's Studies, given to a senior 
for outstanding service exemplifying feminist 
ideals. 

Robert F. Zellnei- Music Education Award: 
Established by faculty, alumni, and students 
of the Music Department to honor Robert 
Zellner's distinguished teaching career at 



ki 



( Gettysburg College. The award is presented at 
( .ommencement to a Gettysburg College senior 
who has demonstrated musical and academic 
txcellence and a commitment to arts education. 

Marion Zulauf Poetry Prize: Established at The 
.\cademy of American Poets by Sander Zulauf '68 
in memory of his mother, to be awarded to the 
student who writes the winning entr^y in a poetry 
contest sponsored by the Department of English. 

ENDOWED SCHOLARSHIPS (GRANTS-IN-AID) 

Student Aid 

All students who apply for financial assistance 
and are determined to have financial need will 
be considered for these scholarships (grants-in- 
aid). Recipients are selected by the College. 

Though the College administers scholarships 
restricted to members of a particular sex, the 
discriminating effect of these awards has been 
eliminated in the overall administradon of the 
financial aid program through use of other 
funds made available by the College. 

George H. (1949) mid Janet L. Allamong Scholarship 
Fund: Established by George H. Allamong and 
Janet L. Allamong, to be awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising students. 

Frederic S. Almy Sr. Scholarship Fund: Created by 
the son of Mr Almy, in memory of "a man who 
did not have the opportunity to attend college," 
to be awarded to a deserving and financially 
needy student. 

Ruth C. Apple Scholarship Fund: Established by 
members of the Apple family of Sunbury, 
Pennsylvania, to honor their mother. To be 
awarded to promising but needy students, with a 
preference to those from Snyder, Union, or 
Northumberland Counties in Pennsylvania, 
especially those with skills and aspirations in the 
performing arts. 

Nelson P. Arigo '43 Scholarship Fund: Established 
by Henrietta Arigo in memoiy of her husband. 
Nelson P. Arigo. 

Dean B. Armold, Class of 1929 Endoiued Scholarship: 
Awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students in need of scholarship funds. 

Dean B. Armold Scholarship Fund: Established by 
Dean B. Armold '29, to be awarded to a highly 
qualified scholar involved in extracurricular 
activities, with emphasis on academic excellence. 



Richard A. Arms Scholarship Fund: Created by the 
Class of 1924 in memory of the chair of the 
mathemadcs department (1920-1963), to be 
awarded to a worthy student. 

Gertrude and Albert Bachman and Albert E. 
Bachman '58 Endowed Scholarship: Awarded to 
one or more worthy and promising students, 
with preference given to students majoring in 
French, music (B.A.) or psychology. 

Dr Joseph B. Baker (1901) and Rena L. Baker 
Scholarship Fund: Established by the Woman's 
General League of Gettysburg College for a needy 
and deserving student in the music department. 

William Balthaser (1925) Scholarship Fund: 
Created from a bequest by William Balthaser, to 
be awarded to needy and promising students. 

The William K. Bane '38 Scholarship: Created by 
Walter A. Dubo\ick '38 in memory of his friend 
and classmate killed in WWII. Awarded to a first- 
year student and continued tip to four years, if 
the recipient maintains a satisfactory grade 
point average. The scholarship can also be 
awarded to a sophomore, jimior or senior. 

Dr. Ray Alfred Barnard (1915) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Dr. Barnard, to be awarded to a 
male student from the Central Pennsylvania 
Synod who is preparing for the Lutheran ministry. 

Fiev. Sydney E. Bateman (1887) Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to a needy ministerial student. 

The Milton T. and Catherine K Becker Family Endowed 
Scholarship Fund: Established in appreciation of 
the education of their son, Donald T Becker 
'67, and grandchildren, Richard T Becker '97 
and Jasmin Becker '91, to be awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising students in need of 
scholarship ftmds. 

Admiral Williarn W. Behrensjr. Scholarship Fund: 
Established by the family of Admiral William W. 
Behrens (Hon'74), to be awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising students entering 
the final year of undergraduate study and 
preparing for a career in public service. 

Henry S. Belber, II Scholarship Fund: Awarded to 
a first-year student and may be continued up to 
four years; preference is given to individuals 
who engage in extracurricular activities. 

Belt Hess-Qiiay Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Effie E. Hess Belt (1898) in commemoration of 
several relatives. First preference is given to a 
member of Grace Lutheran Church, WesUninster, 



Maiyland; second preference to any other 
resident of Carroll County, Maryland who is 
pursuing theological studies at the College; and 
tliird preference is given to any deserving student. 

Helen A. Giles and James B. Bender Scholarship 
/"wnrf; Awarded on the basis of need and ability; 
preference is given to residents of Adams 
Comity, Pennsylvania, majoring in economics 
and/or management. 

Jesse E. Benner (1907) and Minen'a B. Benner 
Scholarship Fund: Awarded to worthy students, 
preferably preministerial students. 

Burton F. Blough Scholarship Fund: Established by 
a former trustee to aid needy and deserving 
students. 

Jean Aument Bonebrake Presidential Scholarship 
Fi/wrf; Established by Roy Bonebrake (1928) in 
memory of his wife, to be awarded to promising 
and worthy students in need of scholarship aid; 
preference is given to students who possess 
exceptional academic abilities and oiU.standing 
promise. 

Hairy F. Borleis (1925) Scholarship Fund: Awarded 
to needy and deserving students. 

Charles E. Bowman (1 923) Scholarship Trust Fund: 
Awarded to needy and deserving students. 

Ekie Paul Boyle (1 912) Scholarship Fund: 
EstabHshed by Elsie Paul Boyle, to be awarded 
to a needy and worthy student, with preference 
given to a Lutheran from Weatherly, located in 
Carbon Count); Pennsylvania. 

Henry T. Bream (1924) Scholarship Fund: Created 
by alumni and friends of the College in honor 
of Henry T. Bream, professor of health and 
physical education, 1926-1969, to be awarded 
to a needy and deser\ing male scholar-athlete. 

James H. (1960) and Mary Jane (1960) Brenneman 
Endowed Scholarship Fund: Established by James 
H. Brenneman, former member of the Board of 
the Trtxstees of the College, and his wife, Man' 
Jane, in honor of their daughter Kathleen 
(1984), and son Stephen (1987), to be awarded 
annually to needy and deserving students. 

Lavern H. Brenneman (1936) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Lavern H. Brenneman (1936), 
former chair of the Board of Trustees of the 
College, and his wife, Miriam, in honor of their 
son, James (1960); daughter-in-law, Mary Jane 



(1960); granddaughter, Kathleen (1984); and 
grandson, Stephen (1987). Awarded annually to 
needy and deser\ing students. 

Randall Sammis Brush (1973) Memoiial Scholarship 
Fund: Created by family and friends in memory 
of Randall Sammis Brush, to be awarded to a 
needy and deserving student particularly 
proficient in the study of history. 

Edward B. Buller (1923) Scholarship Fund: Created 
by the Liuheran Church of the Good Shepherd, 
Pearl River, New York, and friends in honor of 
the Rev. Edward B. Buller, to be awarded to a 
deserving student; preference is given to a 
student from Good Shepherd congregation. 

H. Edgar (1924) and M. Helene Bush Scholarship: 
Awarded to deserving persons in need. 

The William A. and Anne D. Cannell Endowed 
Scholarship: Awarded to one or more worthy and 
promising students. 

Dr. Anthony G. Ciavarelli (1913) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Dr. Anthony G. Ciavarelli, to be 
awarded annually to a student (or students) who 
demonstrates superior character, industry, 
serious academic purpose, and financial need. 
Preference is given to a student preparing for 
the medical profession. 

Class of 1903, George S. Rentz Memorial Fund: 
Created to support the College scholarship 
program. 

Numerous classes have established scholarships to be 
awarded to a needy and deserving student. They are: 

Class of 1913 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1 915 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1916 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1917 Schmucker-Breidenbaugh 
Memorial Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1918 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1 920 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1921 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1 925 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1 927 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1933 Scholarship Fund: Preference is 
given to students who, beyond academic and 
personal qualifications, are descendants of 
members of the Class of 1933. 




( Jass of 1 934 Scholarship Fund 

( .lass of 1 936 Scholarship Fund 

( '.lass of 1937 Scholarship Fund: Preference is 
niven to stiidenLs who intend to enter a field 
ol service focused on developing greater 
understanding between our nation and other 
parts of the world and majoring in political 
science, economics, or histoiy 

Class of 1 938 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1 939 Scholarship Fund: Established in 
honor of past President Dr. Henry W. A. Hanson 
and former Dean Dr. Wilbur E. Tilberg. 

Class of 1943 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1944 Scholarship Fund: Dedicated to 
classmates who lost their lives in World War II. 

Class of 1945 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1 949 Scholarship Fund: Established with 
contributions to the College in celebration of 
their 50th retmion in 1999. 

Class of 1971 Scholarship Fund: Preference is 
given to students who exemplify the qualities of 
sincere scholarship, extracurricular interests, 
and commitment to community service. 

Class of 1973 Endowed Scholarship: Awarded 
annually to a male and female on an equal basis 
according to the guidelines established by the 
Board of Trustees. 

Class of 1 974 Scholarship Fund: Awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising students. 

Class of 1 993 Scholarship Fund: Preference is 
given to a student from the Gettysburg area. 

Class of 1994 Scholarship Fund: Established as a 
tribute to the life of Paul Leary, a classmate 
killed in the summer of 1993. Awarded to a 
current student who demonstrates financial 
need and self-initiative in meeting that need by 
working, preferably in a work-study program. 

Class of 1995 Scholarship Fund: Preference is 
given to students participating in service-learning 
projects. 

The Christopher J. Clifford '98 Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Mr. and Mrs. Joseph P. Clifford in 
loving memory of Christopher J. Clifford '98. 
Awarded to worthy and promising students, with 
preference to qualified students from 
northeastern Pennsylvania. 



Bill Cosby Scholarship: Established by the Trustees 
of Gettysburg College to honor Dr. Bill Cosby, 
the 1997 Gettysburg College Commencement 
speaker. Awarded with preference to students 
from the greater Philadelphia area or those with 
a particular interest in becoming teachers. 

Christopher M. Corvan Scholarship Fund: 
Established by David J. Cowan and M. Deborah 
Larsen Cowan in kwing memory of Christopher 
M. Cowan. To be awarded to one or more 
worthy and promising students with preference 
to students majoring in environmental studies. 

Ernst M. and Agnes H. Cronlund Memorial 
Scholarship Fund: Established in memory of Ernst 
Magnus and Agnes Hoffsten Cronlund by their 
children Ernest and Shirley, Eleanor, Martin '29 
and Rebecca, Raymond '33 and Lillian. Awarded 
to needy and promising students. 

Williayn C. and Helen H. Darrah Scholarship Fund: 
Established by the Department of Biology in 
honor of William C. and Helen H. Darrah, to 
be awarded to a promising student majoring in 
biology. 

Frank L. Daugherty (1922) Scholarship: Established 
by Frank L. Daugherty, to be awarded to a 
desemng York County resident who would 
otherwise be unable to attend Gettysburg 
College. Recipient is selected by the College. 

The Kermit H. (1932) and Mary B. Deardorff 
Endowed Scholarship Fund: Awarded to one or 
more promising students in need of scholarship 
funds. First preference is given to students from 
Adams County, PA. 

Anita Conner Derry and Thomas James Faulkener 
Memorial Scholarship Fund: Created by Ellis 
Derry '39 and Peggy Derry, to be awarded to 
one or more worthy and promising students. 
First preference is given to the family or 
descendants of Anita Conner Derry or Thomas 
James Faulkener, then to students majoring in 
mathematics, computer science, or physical 
sciences. 

W. K. Diehl (1886) Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Norman E. Diehl in memory of his father, W. K. 
Diehl, D.D., to be awarded to needy and 
deserving students. 

Daniel G. Ebbert Family Scholarship Fund: Awarded 
to a first-year student, and may be continued up 
to four years. 



Chris Ebert (1965) Memorial Fund: Established in 
memory of Cliris Ebert by iiis father and 
mother. Awarded annually to a needy student. 
First preference is given to a student pursuing a 
career in teaching or majoring in mathematics, 
and/or participating in intercollegiate wrestling; 
second preference is given to a student studying 
for the ministry. 

Charles L. "Dutch" Eby (1933) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by the family and friends of Charles 
L. Eby, to be awarded to needy students. 
Preference is given to students who, beyond 
academic and personal qualifications, are 
residents of south-central Pennsylvania and have 
demonstrated leadership ability through active 
participation and excellent performance in 
extracurricular activities. 

Ehrhart Family Scholarship Fund: Established by 
Kenneth W. Ehrhart '46 in memory of his father. 
Rev. Kenneth Ehrhart '25 and in honor of those 
members of the Ehrhart family who attended 
Gettysburg College, Rev. Carl Ehrhart '47, Rev. 
Richard Ehrhart '46, Sidney Ehrhart '50, and 
David Ehrhart '62. Awarded to one or more 
worthy and promising students. 

Jacob C. Eisenhart and Rosa Bolt Eisenhart Scholarship 
Fund: Established by the J. C. Eisenhart Wall 
Paper Company, to be awarded to a deserving 
Lutheran preministerial student. 

Divight D. Eisenhower Scholarship Fund: 
Established by the Eisenhower Society in honor 
of the thirty-fourth President of the United 
States, a former resident of the community of 
Gett)'sburg and a friend and trustee of the 
College. Awarded to needy students who 
exemplif}' superior qualities of honesty, integrity, 
and leadership. Additional monies have been 
contributed to the fund through the R. M. 
Hoffman Memorial Scholarship Fund. 

Eisenhower Leadership Scholarship Fund: Awarded 
to class valedictorians and salutatoiians, presidents 
of the student council, and other leaders. 

Robert B. and Helen M. Esterly Scholarship Fund: 
Established from estate of Helen M. Esterly, 
awarded to qualified students with an interest 
in histoiT, especially Civil War, or students 
preparing for the ordained ministiy 

Clarence A. Eyler (1880) and Myrtk B. Eyler 
Scholarship Fund: Awarded to a worthy Lutheran 
preministerial student. 



Annie C. Felty Scholarship Fund: Awarded to a 
needy and deserving student. 

Alan S. Fischer (1929) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Marian Fischer Hammer '30 and 
Robert H. Fischer '39 in honor of their brother, 
to be awarded to one or more worthy and 
promising students; preference is given to 
mathematics or computer science majors. 

H. Keith Fischer Scholarship Fund: Awarded to one 
or more worthy and promising students; 
preference is given to premedical students or to 
.social or natural sciences or mathematics majors. 

H. Keith and Dorothy S. Fischer Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to a first-year student, and may be 
continued up to four years. Preference is given 
to premedical students or students majoring in 
natural science. 

Wilbur H. Fleck (1 902) Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to a graduate cum laude of the 
Protestant faith of the Wyoming Seminary. 

Fourjay Foundation} Scholarship Fund: Awarded to 
declared management majors or to students 
who express a high degree of interest in 
management or related fields and demonstrate 
academic excellence, leadership, and need. 

Donald D. Freedman, M.D. (1944) and Richard S. 
Freedman, D.V.M. (1973) Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to a junior or senior, with preference 
given to students pursuing the study of 
medicine, dentistry, or veterinary medicine 
and participating in varsity athletics. 

David Garbaa. (1964) Scholarship Fund: Established 
by Gerald G. Garbacz and his family, to be awarded 
to students who, beyond academic and personal 
qualifications, pursue a major in economics. 

Dr Daniel F Garland (1888) Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to a deserving ministerial student. 

Richard W. Gaver (1966) Memorial Scholarship 
Fund: Created by Dr. and Mrs. Leo J. Gaver in 
memory of their son, to be awarded to a worthy 
student. Preference is given to a premedical 
student. 

Gettysburg College Alumni Association Scholarship 
Fund: Formerly the Gettysburg College ^Alumni 
Loan Program of 1933. The Gettysburg College 
Alumni Association Scholarship Fund was 
established in 1984. Awarded annually; 
preference is given to sons or daughters of 
alumni in accordance with criteria established 
by Gettysbiug College. 



Lortia Gihb Scholarship Fund: Established by the 
Gibb Foundation in memory of the Foundation's 
founder, to be awarded to needy students who 
have demonstrated good academic ability, as well 
as a willingness to contribute to the Gettysbiug 
College campus community in other ways. 

Millard E. Gladfelter (1923) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Millard E. Gladfelter, to be 
awarded to first-year sttidents and may be 
continued up to four years; preference is given 
to students from York County, Pennsylvania. 

William L. and Philip H. Glatfelter Memorial 
Scholarship: Established by Elizabeth G. 
Rosenmiller, to be awarded to a first-year 
student. May be continued up to four years. 

Dr. and Mrs. James E. Glenn Scholarship Fund: 
Created byj. Donald Glenn '23 in memory of 
his parents, to be awarded to a worthy student 
preparing for the Christian ministr)' or the 
medical profession. 

Bruce S. Gordon '68 Endowed Scholarship: 
Established by Trustee Bruce S. Gordon '68, 
to be awarded, according to the guidelines 
established by the Board of Trustees, to one 
or more students from historically imder- 
represented groups at Gettysburg College. 

Gordon-Davis Linen Supply Company Scholarship 
Fund: Awarded to a deserving student. 

Windom Cook Gramley (1904) Scholarship Fund: 
EsUiblished by Theresa M. Gramley in memoiy 
of Windom Cook Gramley, to be awarded to a 
worthy and promising student. 

Grand Army of the Republic Living Memcmal 
Scholarship Fund: Created by the Daughters of 
Union Veterans, to be awarded to a needy and 
deserving student, preferably the descendant of 
a Union veteran. 

Dr. H. Leonard Green Scholarship Fund: Established 
by the family and friends of Dr. H. Leonard 
Green, to be awarded to worthy and promising 
students. Preference is given to students 
majoring in religion or philosophy. 

Norman M. and Eleanor H. Gross Scholarship: 
Established from the estates of Norman M. and 
Eleanor H. Gross, to be awarded to students of 
high scholastic standing. 

Ida E. Graver Scholarship Fund: Awarded to a 
needy and deser\ing student. 



Merle B. and Maiy M. Hafer Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Merle B. Hafer, to be awarded to 
a desei"\ing student, preferably one preparing 
for the Christian ministry. 

Paul R. Haldeman '67 Endowed Scholarship Fund: 
Established bv Paul R. Haldeman '67, to be 
awarded to worthy and promising students. 
Preference is given to individuals majoring in 
management or economics and who express an 
interest in entrepreneurial studies. 

John Alfred Hamme (1918) Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to a deserving student. 

Dr. Carl A. Hanson, President Emeritus, Gettysburg 
College, 1961-1977 Scholarship Fund: Established 
by Anne Keet Hanson, in honor of her husband, 
Dr. Carl A. Hanson. 

Dr C. Arnold Hanson and Anne Keet Hanson 
Scholarship Fund in American History: Established 
by .\nne Keet Hanson in honor of Dr. Jean S. 
Holder, Dr. Leonard L Holder, Dr. Gabor S. 
Boritt, and Elizabeth L. Boritt in recognition of 
their devotion and dedication to Gett)'sburg 
College. Preference shall be given to worthy and 
promising students who have demonstrated a 
scholarly interest and achievement in American 
historv' and specifically the Ci\il War. 

Dr. C.A. Hanson and Anne Keet Hanson Endoiued 
Scholarship for the Arts: Established by Anne Keet 
Hanson, awarded to worthy and promising 
students, with first preference given to students 
who major in art and/or music or the theatre 
arts. 

Marie H. Harshman Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Marie H. Harshman, to be awarded to a 
Lutheran student preparing for the ministry. 
Preference is given to a student who intends to 
enroll at the Gettysburg Lutheran Seminar)'. 

Heniy M. Hartmanjr. (1938) and Audrey Harrison 
Hartman (1940) Scholarship Fund: Established by 
Henr)' M. Hartmanjr. as a memorial in honor 
of Audrey Harrison Hartman, to be awarded to 
a student majoring in chemistry or biochemistry. 

Hartranft-Dean Scholarship Fund: Established by 
Mary Alice Hartranft-Dean, to be awarded to 
one or more worthy and promising students. 

Adam and Martha Hazlett Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Mrs. Adam J. Hazlett, to be awarded 
to one or more worthy and promising students. 



Robert W. Hemperly (1947) Metmmal Scholarship 
Fund: Established in memory of Dr. Hemperly 
by Mr. and Mrs. G. M. Easley. Awarded to one 
or more needy students of high academic 
ability and outstanding personal qualifications; 
preference is given to a student preparing for 
a career in medicine or dentistry. 

Herman-Chronisler Endoiued Family Scholarship 
Fund: Established by Karen Chronister Leader 
'73 in memory of Martha Herman Chronister 
'38, awarded to one or more worthy and 
promising students. 

Milton S. Hershey Scholarship Fund: Established by 
A.John Gabig (1957). Awarded to one or more 
students who are graduates of Milton Hershey 
School or Hershey High School, Hershey, PA, 
who show financial need and demonstrate good 
character and leadership qualities. 

Harvey A. Hesser (1 923) and Dorothy M. Hesser 
Scholarship Fund: Awarded to a needy and worthy 
student. 

Hicks Utterback Family Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Harry K. and Phyllis H. Utterback, 
to be awarded to a first-year student and may be 
continued up to four years. 

Rev. Clinton F. Hildebrandjr. (1920) and Mrs. 
Clinton F. Hildebrandjr. Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to aid worthy preministerial students. 

Edgar L. Hildebrand (1928) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Louis O. Hildebrand as a 
memorial to his son Edgar L. Hildebrand, to 
be awarded to worthy students. 

Pearl Hodgson Scholarship Fund: Established by 
the Woman's League of Gettysburg College in 
honor of Pearl Hodgson, to be awarded 
annually to needy and deserving students. 

Dean W. Hollabaugh Scholarship: Awarded to one 
or more students who merit financial assistance. 

Houtz Family Scholarship Fund: Established by 
Kenneth H. Houtz, to be awarded to a first-year 
student intending to major in the sciences; may 
be continued up to four years. 

Arthur D. Hunger Sr, M.D. (1910) Scholarship 
Fund: Established by Arthur D. Hunger Jr. '39 
and Josephine T. Himger '40 in honor of Arthur 
D. Himger Sr. Awarded to a junior or senior 
who demonstrates academic excellence and 



leadership and who is studying for a medical, 
dental, veterinai7, or biological research 
profession. 

The Jaeger Family Scholarship: Established by John 
F.Jaeger '65, to be awarded to one or more 
promising students in need of scholarship 
funds. 

Dk and Mrs. Leslie M. Kauffman Scholarship Fund: 
Created by Dr. Leslie M. (1890) and Nellie G. 
KauffiTian, to be awarded to a deserving student. 
Preference is given to students from Franklin 
County, Pennsylvania, or preministerial or 
premedical students. 

Spurgeon M. Keeny and Nonnan S. Wolf Scholarship 
Fund: Established by Dr. Spingeon M. Keeny '14 
and his son, Spurgeon M. Keeny Jr., in honor of 
the Reverend Norman S. Wolf. Awarded to one 
or more worthy students. 

Hon. Hiram H. Keller (1901) Scholarship Fund: 
Created by Mr. Keller, a former trustee, to be 
awarded to needy and worthy students. 
Preference is given to students from Bucks 
County, Pennsylvania. 

Kershner Psychology Scholarship: Established from 
the estates of Alan M. Kershner '27 and his wife, 
Man' Kershner, to be awarded to students 
majoring in psychology. The scholarship honors 
the memory of Mary Gulp Kershner, Louise 
Kershner, Helen Swoope Kershner, and 
Elnathen Motter Kershner, the wife, sister, and 
parents, respectively, of the donor. Alan Motter 
Kershner, Class of 1927, is the grandson of the 
Rev. Jacob Brewer Kershner, Class of 1858. 

Alvin Ray Kirschner Scholarship Fund: Established 
by Mr. and Mrs. C.J. Kirschner in memory of 
their son, who lost his life in World War 1. Awarded 
to two students; preference is given to applicants 
from Hazleton, Pennsylvania, and vacinity. 

Klette Scholarship Fund: Established by 
Dr Immanual Klette '39 and friends in honor of 
Mrs. Margaret Klette, to be awarded to a student 
(or students) whose activities evidence an 
innovative accomplishment and potential in the 
promotion of human betterment. 

Kathleen M. and Samuel W. Knisely (1947) 
Scholarship Fund: Established by Dr. and Mrs. 
Samuel W. Knisely, to be awarded to students 
majoring in, or intending to major in, biology 
or chemistry who show promise for 
contributions to their chosen field of studv. 



^^ 



Rev. Frederick R. Knubel (1918) Memorial 
Scholarship Fund: Created by John McCullough 
18 in memory of his classmate, to be awarded 
to an outstanding senior ministerial student 
with financial need. 

Charles L. Kopp (1909) Scholarship Fund: Cre2it€d 
i)y Grace Shatzer Kopp, to be awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising students majoring 
in the humanities. 

Harry V. and Helen A. KrugEndowed Scholarship: 
Established from the estate of Harry V. Krug '31; 
awarded to a worthy and promising 
preministerial student. 

Bernard S. Laiuyer (1912) Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to needy and deserving students. 
First preference is given to members or former 
members of St. Mary's Evangelical Lutheran 
Church, Silver Run, Maryland; second 
preference is given to members or former 
members of Evangelical Lutheran Churches in 
Mainland and Pennsylvania. 

Clarence Gordon and Elfie Leatherman Scholarship 
Fund: Established by the Leathermans, to be 
awarded to a deserving preministerial student. 

Rev. H. J. H. Lemcke (1860) Memorial Scholarship 
Fund: Established by Ruth Evangeline Lemcke 
in memory of her father, to be awarded to 
worthy male students who are graduates of 
Pennsylvania secondary' schools. 

Bruce and Lynda Limpert Endowed Scholarship: 
Awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students. 

Rev. Justus H. Liesmann (1930) and Mardelle 
Tipton Liesmann (1932) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Mrs. Mardelle Liesmann, to be 
awarded to a first-year student and may be 
continued up to four years. 

Frank M. Long (1936) Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
Created in memory of Frank M. Long, to be 
awarded to worthy students. 

Kenneth C. Lundeen (1966) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by James and Diana Topper in 
honor of Kenneth Lundeen, to be awarded to 
one or more deserving and promising students 
who may be in a prelaw curriculum. 

The Lutheran Brotherhood Fund for Lutheran 
Students: Established by The Lutheran 
Brotherhood, to be awarded to one or more 
worthy and promising Lutheran students who 
demonstrate financial need. 



William and Marilyn MacCartney Family Endowed 
Scholarship: Established by Michael Alan Berk 
and Kerry MacCartney Berk in tribute of Kerry 
M. Berk's parents' lifelong encouragement of 
scholarship, initiadve and leadership. Awarded 
to one or more worthy and promising students. 

MacPherson Scholarship: Established by the 
Foundation, to be awarded to residents of 
Adams County, Pennsylvania, or Carroll County, 
Mainland. 

James Eugene '16 and Ralph '22 Mahafjie 
Scholarship Fund: Created by Ralph Mahaffie '22 
in honor of his brother James Eugene Mahaffie 
'16, to be awarded to worthy and promising 
students. 

Francis E. and Wilda P. Malcolm Family Scholarship 
Fund: Established by Ann B. Malcolm '71, to be 
awarded to a first-year student and may be 
continued up to four years. 

Charles H. May (1904) Scholarship Fund: Created 
by Mr. May, to be awarded to deserving male 
students from York County, Pennsylvania. 

Charles B. McCollotigh Jr. Memorial Scholarship 
Fund: Created by Charles B. McCoUough '16 
and Florence McCoUough in memory of their 
son, and by H. R. Earhart in memory of his 
grandnephew. Awarded to one or more worthy 
male students. 

Robert McCoy Scholarship Fund: Established by the 
family and friends of Robert McCoy, to be 
awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students. 

William R. McElhiney (1 936) Scholarship Fund: 
Created by William R. and Pauline McElhiney, 
to be awarded to needy and deserving students 
who demonstrate an interest in the College 
band and choir. 

Michael J. McTighe Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
Established by his wife, Carolyn L. Carter, family 
members and friends, to be awarded to a first- 
year student. Preference is given to first- 
generation college students and/or students 
whose enrollment at Gettysburg College would 
increase the racial and ethnic diversity of the 
student population. 

Dorothy Rudolph Mechling and Allen Fred Mechling 
Scholarship: Established from the estate of 
Dorothy Rudolph Mechling '44, awarded 
annually to "worthy and promising students" 
who have graduated from high school within 
the top ten percent of their class. One award is 



designated for a preniedical student, another 
for a pre-ministerial student, and three for any 
other major in the liberal arts. 

Dr. John E. Meisenhelder ( 1 897) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Dr. Meisenhelder, to be awarded 
to a deserving student. 

Jane S. Melber (1983) Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Theodore W. and Lucile M. 
Melber in memory of their daughter, to be 
awarded to worthy and promising students for 
the study of music in Great Britain. 

Forrest L. Mercer (1908) Scholarship Fund: Created 
by Forrest L. Mercer, to be awarded to a 
deserving and needy student. 

Carl F. and Dorothy Miller Scholarship Fu nd: 
Established by the Carl F. and Dorothy Miller 
Foundation, to be awarded to a student pursuing 
accounting or a science-related course of study. 

J Elsie Miller (1905) Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Mr. Miller, to be awarded to a preministerial 
student. 

Robert H. Miller (1938) and PaulD. Miller (1940) 
Brazilian Scholarship Fund: Awarded to one or 
more needy and worthy students. First reference 
is given to a student wishing to study in Brazil 
for a semester or a year; second preference is 
given to a Brazilian student entering as a first- 
year student, who graduated from either the 
Escola Americana, Rio de Janeiro, the Escola 
Graduada de Sao Paulo, or Pan Ainerican 
Christian Academy. 

Miller-Deiuey Scholarship Fund: Created by the 
Rev. Adam B. Miller (1873), to be awarded to a 
deserving student. 

Rev. William J. Miller (1903) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Mar)' Willing Miller, to be awarded 
to worthy young persons. Preference is given to 
students preparing for the Eutheran ministr)' and 
especially to those from Tabernacle Evangelical 
Lutheran Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

M. Scott and Margaret A. Moorhead Scholarship 
Fund: Awarded to a student with a strong interest 
in music; preference is given to a student with 
interest to continue piano or organ instruction. 

Anna Jane Mayer Scholarship Fund: Established by 
Anne Keet Hanson in memory of her husband. 
Dr. C.A. Hanson, President Emeritus, to honor 
Anna Jane Moyer, retired librarian, and the 
libraiT staff, awarded to worthy and promising 
senior students who have maintained at least a 



3.0 average in their major after their junior year 
and who have demonstrated an interest and 
ability in conducting scholarly research. 

Charles D. Moyer (1957) Scholarship Fund: T\ve 
income from a fund contributed by Charles D. 
Moyer, his family, and friends is awarded to 
worthy and promising students in need of 
scholarship aid. Preference is given to students 
who can contribute to the ethnic and 
intercultural environment of the College. 

John E. Mumper ( 1 930) Memmial Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to a needy and worthy first-year 
student, and may be continued up to four years. 

Andrew Lee Muns Memorial Scholarship: 
Established by Dr. Mary Lou Taylor, Mr. Frank 
Mims, and Mr. Thomas A. Mims, in loving 
memory of their brother, Andrew Lee Muns, 
a 1965 graduate of Gettysburg College. 
Preference is given to students majoring in 
chemistry, biology, biochemistry/molecular 
biology, or related sciences. 

Musselman Scholarship Fund: Established by the 
Musselman Foundation, to be awarded to a 
deserving student; preference is given to sons or 
daughters of employees of the Musselman Fruit 
Product Division, Pet Incorporated. 

Arthur B. Myers and Marion V. Myers Scholarship 
Fund: Awarded to needy and deserving students 
of good moral character. 

Albert C. and Linda Neumann Endowment Fund: 
Established by Albert C. Neumann '64, to be 
awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students. Preference is given to students with an 
interest in pursuing a career in the health 
sciences. 

John Springier Nicholas (1916) Scholarship Fund: 
Created by John Spangler Nicholas, to be 
awarded to a member of the junior or senior 
class of sterling character and high intellectual 
ability in the field of biology, preferably zoology. 

Henry B. Nightingale (1917) Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to worthy students who have successfully 
completed their first two years at the College. 

Patrick F. Noonan (1965) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Patrick and Nancy Noonan, to be 
awarded to one or more needy and worthy 
students. Preference is given to the student or 
students who are majoring in management and 



have demonstrated leadership abihty through 
active participation and excellent performance 
in extracurricular activities. 

Charlotte L. Noss Scholarship Fund: Established by 
'\ Charlotte Noss, to be awarded to a needy and 
deserving woman student from York County, 
Pennsylvania. 

EdiuardJ. Nowickijr. (1935) and Christine M. 
Nowicki Scholarship Fund: Awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising students. 

John P. O'LearyJr (1969) and Pamela O'Leary 
(1969) Scholarship Fund: Awarded to a worthy 
and promising student. 

PaulF. Olinger (1922) and Anna E. Olinger 
Scholarship Fund: Created by Gertrude Olinger, 
to be awarded to one or more needy and worthy 
students. Preference is given to students interested 
in the ministerial or teaching professions. 

Nellie Oiler and Bernard Oiler Memoricd Scholarship 
Fund: Created by Ida R. Gray in memory of 
her daughter and son-in-law, to be awarded to 
a desemng student; preference is given to a 
Lutheran applicant from Waynesboro, 
Pennsylvania. 

One in Mission Scholarship Fund: Established by 
the One in Mission Campaign of the Evangelical 
Lutheran Church in America, to be awarded to 
worthy and deserving students; preference is 
given to students who are Lutheran. 

Lovina Openlander Scholarship Fund: Awarded to 
needy and deserving students. 

The John K. Orr Endoiued Scholarship: Established 
by John K. Orr '70. Awarded to one or more 
worthy and promising students in need, with 
preference given to students v^ith special needs. 

Robert A. Ortenzio '79 Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Robert A. Ortenzio '79, 
preference is given to worthy students who have 
demonstrated excellence and leadership in one 
or more extracurricular activities. 

Thomas O. Oyler Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Thomas O. Oyler Sn, and his wife, Janet B. 
Oyler, in honor of their children, Thomas O. 
Oyler Jr., Jane A. Oyler, Jerome P. Oyler, William 
J. Oyler '77, and Susan T. Oyler '85, to be 
awarded to a deserving Pennsylvania student 
whose major is management or German, with 
elective comses in the other field of study. 

C. Eugene Painter Scholarship Fund: Established by 
C. Eugene Painter '33, to be awarded to one or 



more worthy and promising students; preference 
is given to students majoring in chemistry. 

Steven E. Parker '73 Endowed Scholarship: Awarded 
to one or more worthy and promising students. 

Lillian M. and William H. Patrick Jr (1916) 
Scholarship Fund: Created by William H. Patrick 
Jr, to be awarded on a competitive basis to 
students with musical ability, who demonstrate 
financial need. 

C. Gloria Paul Scholarship Fund: Awarded to 
graduates of Weatherly Area High School who 
have financial need. 

The Mary A. and Rufus D. Paul Endoiued 
Scholarship Fund: Established by Dr. Ronald L. 
Paul '59 and Jane N. H. Paul, including gifts in 
memor)' of Dr. Paul's parents, Mary A. Paul and 
Rufus D. Paul. Awarded to an entering first-year 
student and continued up to four years, if the 
recipient maintains a satisfactory grade point 
average and satisfactorily progresses toward a 
baccalaureate degree. 

Willard S. Paul Scholarship Fund: Established by 
friends of the College on the occasion of President 
Pauls retirement. Awarded to a deserving student. 

Martin L. Peters (1913) and Martin F. Peters (1937) 
Scholarship Fund: Created by Martin F. Peters, to 
be awarded to one or more worthy and 
promising students. 

James D. Pickering and Charles H. Glatfelter 
Endowed Scholarship Fund: Established by 
Anne Keet Hanson in memory of her husband, 
Dr. C.A. Hanson, President Emeritus, to honor 
Dr. James D. Pickering and Dr. Charles H. 
Glatfelter, distinguished professors and former 
Deans of the Faculty during Dr. Hanson's tenure 
as President. Preference shall be given to worthy 
and promising junior or senior students 
majoring in history or English who have 
maintained at least a 3.0 average after their 
sophomore year. 

Earl G. Ports (1923) Scholarship Fund: Established 
by Horace G. Ports (1925) in memoi7 of his 
brother, to be awarded to a worthy student, 
preferably in the field of physics. 

Dr and Mrs. William F Railing Endowed 
Scholarship Fund: Established by Dr. and Mrs. 
William F. Railing, the scholarship will be given 
to a rising senior economics major of high 
academic achievement, in need of scholarship 
funds, who has made positive contributions to 
the College community and/or the Gettysburg 
community. 



Dr. and Mrs. Carl C. Rasmussen Scholarship Fund: 
Created by the Reverend Carl C. '12 and Alma I. 
Rasmussen, to be awarded to a deser\'ing 
student. Preference is given to a student preparing 
for the ministry in the Lutheran Church. 

David W. Raymond (1967) Endoioed Scholarship: 
Awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students. Preference given to students who 
express an interest in attending law school or 
are majoring in histoiy, political science, 
economics, management, English, sociology, or 
psychology. 

Rev. Clay E. Rice (1911) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Minnie Catherine Rice in honor 
of her husband. Rev. Clay E. Rice, to be awarded 
to a student preparing for the ministiy 

John S. and Liiene Rice Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Ellen F. and Luene Rice, to be 
awarded to students of exceptional academic 
abilit)' and outstanding promise of contributions 
to the College. 

James A. Rider Scholarship Fund: Established by 
James A. Rider, to be awarded to worthy and 
deser\ing students in financial need. First 
preference is given to dependents of active 
employees of Thermos hidustries. Inc., of 
Raleigh, North Carolina; second preference is 
given to students who compete in intercollegiate 
athletics; and third, to students who may be 
orphans. 

Steven R Riggs Music Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Patricia C. Chamberlain, to be 
awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students, preferably members of the Gettysburg 
College Choir. 

Clarence B. Rogers Jr Endoiued Scholarship Fund: 
Established by the Equifax Foundation to honor 
Clarence B. "Jack" Rogers Jr. '51 for his years of 
leadership at Eqtiifax. Awarded to one or more 
worthy and promising students who exhibit high 
motivadon and excellent academic achievement 
and who qualify for Presidential Scholarships 
based on merit. Preference is given to students 
with demonstrated interest in public service. 

'Fhe Carkne and Randolph Rose '73 Endowed 
Scholarship Fund: Awarded to one or more 
worthy and promising students. 

LaiurenceE. Rost (1917) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Jeanne Preus Rost in memory of 
her husband, Lawrence E. Rost, to be awarded 



to deser\ing students. First preference is given 
to descendants of Charles A. Rost, Red Lion, 
York Coimty, Pennsylvania. 

Philip P. Rudhart Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Emma Bennix in memory of her brother, to be 
awarded to deserving male students. 

Mary Sachs Scholarship Fund: Established as a 
memorial to Mary Sachs, to be awarded to a 
needy and deserving student; preference is 
given to a student in management whose 
interests are in retailing. 

Grace Durboraw Sahle '33 Endowed Scholarship 
Fund: Created by Knute Sahle '35 as a lasting 
memorial to his late wife, to be awarded to one 
or more worthy and promising students. 

Charles Samphjr. Scholarship Fund: Established by 
the friends and family of Charles Samphjr., to 
be awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students. Preference is given to students involved 
in the campus Greek system and who major in 
mathematics. 

Andreiu C. Schaedler Foundation Scholarship: 
Established as a memorial to Andrew C. 
Schaedler, to be awarded to worthy and needy 
students from Central Pennsylvania who 
graduated from a high school located in 
Dauphin, Lebanon, Cumberland, York, 
Franklin, Lancaster, Perry, Mifflin, Adams, 
Northumberland, or Huntingdon Coimdes. 

Jeffrey M. Schissler (1971) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Melvin and Greta Schissler, to be 
awarded to a worthy and promising student. 
First preference is given to a student majoring 
in Theatre Arts; second preference, to a student 
majoring in English. 

Calvin L. Schlueter Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Calvin F. Schlueter, to be awarded to needy and 
promising students. 

Scholarship for Community Service Leadership: 
Established by Kenneth C. Limdeen, to be 
awarded to a first-year student and may be 
condnued up to four years. Preference is given 
to sttidents who demonstrate an active interest 
in voluntary community service. 

Brent Scowaoft Scholarship Fund: Awarded to a 
needy and deserving student. 

The Robert G. Seaks Scholarship: Established by 
TeriT G. Seaks to honor die memory of his 
father, an alumnus of Gettysburg College. 



Awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students who exemplify the academic excellence 
of Robert G. Seaks, Class of 1931, whose out- 
standing record earned him Class Honors and 
election to Phi Beta Kappa. 

(yregory Seckler (1965) Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
Created by Mr. and Mrs. J. M. Ainold Sr. in 
niemor)' of Gregory Seckler, to be awarded to 
a deserving student. Preference is given to an 
English major. 

Senior Scholarship Prize: Established by the Class 
of 1996, to be awarded to one male and one 
female junior advancing to the senior year who 
best exemplify the College through academics 
and service to the community. 

Ralph E. Sentz (1949) Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Ralph E. Sentz and his wife, Veronica, to be 
awarded to needy and deser\ing students. 
Preference is given to those with disabilities. 

J. Douglas Shatid Endowed Presidential Scholarship: 
Established byj. Douglas Shand to support a 
student who has attained at least sophomore 
status and who plans to major in psychology. 

Samuel Shaulis (1954) Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Barry B. Wright '55 and other 
friends and family of Samuel Shaulis, to be 
awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students. Preference is given to students who, 
beyond other academic and personal 
qualificadons, have a special interest in 
extracurricular activities. 

Joseph T. Simpson /Dwight D. Eisenhower Scholarship 
Fund: Established by the friends and colleagues 
of Joseph Simpson, to be awarded to needy and 
worthy students. Preference is given to those 
students with exceptional leadership ability. 

Edgar Fahs Smith (1874) Scholarship Fund: Created 
by Margie A. Smith in honor of her father, 
Edgar Fahs Smith, to be awarded to a student 
recommended by the Department of Chemistry. 

Cieorge Wellington and Lucy Hetr Smith Scholarships: 
A bequest from the estate of Lucy Herr Smith; 
George Wellington Smith was a member of the 
Class of 1924. 

The Jessica Weaver Smith (Class of 1927) Family 
Endowed Scholarship: Established by Jessica 
Weaver Smith, Class of 1927, from her estate, 
awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students. 



Robert D. Smith Endowed Scholarship Fund: 
Established by friends and former athletes of 
Robert S. Smith '59, in recognition of the 
impact Robert D. Smith had on the lives of 
coimtless Gettysburgians. Awarded to a worthy 
and promising student. 

Ronald James Smith (1972) and Diane (Werley) 
Smith (1973) Endowed Scholarship Fund: Awarded 
to one or more worthy and promising students 
who are in need. 

AlelheaJ. Snyder '73 Endowed Scholarship: 
Established by AletheaJ. Snyder '73, to be 
awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students. First preference is given to individuals 
who maintain a 3.0 GPA or higher. 

Albert E. Speck (1927) Scholarship Fund: Awarded 
to a first-year student, and may be continued up 
to four years. 

Mary Ann Ocker Spited Scholarship Fund: Awarded 
to a qualified male student. 

EdivardJ. Stackpole Scholarship Fund: Created by 
the friends of General Stackpole, to be awarded 
to a deserving student. Preference is given to a 
student in American history interested in the 
Civil War 

Arthur Kistler Staymates Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Mildred C. Stine, to be awarded 
to one or more needy and worthy students. First 
preference is given to students preparing for 
careers in the ministry or education; second 
preference, to students from Frederick County, 
Maryland. 

Bruce K Stefany '71 Scholarship: Awarded to one 
or more worthy and promising students. 

Rev. Milton H. Stine (1877) and MaiyJ. Stine 
Memorial Scholarship Fund: Established by Dr. 
Charles M. A. Sdne '01 in memory of his parents, 
to be awarded to a preministerial student. 

Earl K. Stock Scholarship Fund: Created by Earl K. 
Stock '19, to be awarded to one or more needy 
and deserving students. 

Robert (1 933) and Betty Stockberger Scholarship 
Fund: Awarded to needy and promising students. 

Strine-Manners Scholarship Fund: Established in 
honor and memory of Howard H. Strine, M.D. 
'24, Virginia Manners Strine, Dana Whitman 
Manners, and Elizabeth Manners. Awarded to 
two or more worthy and promising students. 



F. Stroehmann Scholarship Fund: Established by 
the family of F. Stroehmann, to be awarded to 
one or more needy and deserving students. 

Dr.J.H.W. Stuckenberg Scholarship Fund: Created 
by Dr. Stuckenberg, to be awarded to a qualified 
student. 

Surdna Foundation Scholarship Fund: Established 
by the Surdna Foundation, to be awarded to 
students of exceptional academic ability and 
outstanding promise of contributions to the 
College. 

Rev. Vi^o Sivensen (1931) and Martha Swensen 
Scholarship Fund: Awarded to a first-year student, 
and may be continued up to four years. 

Warren L. Swope (1943) Scholarship Fund: Created 
by Warren L. Swope, a career diplomat, to be 
awarded to a qualified student. Preference is 
given to students of American parentage who 
have spent a significant portion of their 
precoUege years abroad. 

Raymond A. Taylor (1937) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Dr. and Mrs. Raymond A. Taylor, 
to be awarded to one or more worthy and 
promising students. 

William J. (1929) and Ruth Krug Thomas (1928) 
Scholarship Fund: Created by the Thomases in 
gratitude for the contribution the College has 
made toward the enrichment of their lives, to 
be awarded to worthy students, preferably 
English majors. 

Colonel Walter K. Thrush Fund: Established by 
Edna L. Thrush in memory of her husband, 
Walter K. Thrush '19, to be awarded to a 
student who is a member of ATO Fraternity 
studying in the field of engineering. 

Robert and Donna Tilliit Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Mr. and Mrs. Robert Tillitt, to be 
awarded to one or more needy and deserving 
students who have an interest in music. 

William F and Barbara M. Tyree Endoiued 
Scholarship: Established by William M. Tyree '73, 
to be awarded to a worthy and promising 
student. First preference is given to a well- 
rounded student who excels both in and out 
of the classroom and who is from Long Island, 
New York. 

Martin L. Valentine (1912) Scholarship Fund: 
Created by Martin L. Valentine, to be awarded 
to a needy and deserving student majoring in 
chemistry. 



Lloyd Van Doren Scholarship Fund: Established by 
Tempie Van Doren, to be awarded to one or 
more needy and deserving students. 

John H. von der Lieth Memorial Musical Scholarship 
Fund: Established through a gift to the ELCA 
Foundation of The Evangelical Lutheran 
Church in America, by Mrs. von der Lieth in 
memoi7 of her husband. To be awarded to 
needy and deseiAing students who are stud)'ing 
music. Preference given to those studying organ 
or piano. 

Parker B. Wagnild Scholarship Fund: Created by 
alumni and friends of the Gettysburg College 
Choir, to be awarded to needy and deserving 
music students. 

Parker B. and Helen D. Wagnild Music Scholarship 
Fund: Established by Helen D. Wagnild, to be 
awarded to worthy and promising music students. 

John G. WalboiTi (1937) Scholarship Fund: Created 
by John G. Walborn, to be awarded to needy and 
deserving students. Preference is given to 
students majoring in economics or management. 

Clayton D. (1948) and Anne Ilgen Warman (1948) 
Endowed Scholarship Fund: /^warded to one or 
more worthy and promising students who are 
in need of scholarship funds. 

Stuart Warrenfeltz Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Ethel Warrenfeltz McHeniy in 
memory of her son Stuart Warrenfeltz, to be 
awarded to a worthy young man. Preference is 
given to students from Funkstown, Washington 
County, Maryland. 

Dr. RufusB. Weaver (1862) Scholarship Fund: 
Created by Dr. Weaver, to be awarded to 
deser\ing students. 

Rev. David Sparks Weimer and Joseph Michael 
Weimer/DiLright D. Eisenhower Scholarship Fund: 
Created by Mrs. Ralph Michenei, daughter 
and sister of David and Joseph Weimer, to be 
awarded to needy and worthy students. 

Senator George L. Wellington Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Mr. Wellington, to be awarded to 
a desening Lutheran preministerial student. 

Paul B. and Maiy E. Werner Scholarship Fund: 
Created by Paul and Mary Werner, to be awarded 
to a preministerial student; preference is given 
to students from Glen Rock, Pennsylvania, or 
York County, Pennsylvania. 



Richard C. Wetzel Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Richard C. Wetzel, to be awarded to a deserving 
and needy student. 

Stella Moyer Wible (1927) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Helen A. Moyer, to be awarded 
to worthy and promising students with an 
outstanding record of academic achievement. 

Bertram M. Wilde Scholarship Fund: Established by 
members of the family of Bertram M. Wilde, to 
be awarded to worthy and promising students. 
Preference is given to students who have 
demonstrated superior character and industn', 
as well as diverse interests and active participation 
in extracurricular and academic affairs. 

Jeremiah A. Winter and Annie C. Winter Memorial 
Scholarship Fund: Created by Amelia C. Winter in 
memoiT of her parents, to be awarded to a 
needy and desemng student. 

Charks W. Wolf 1 934 Scholarship Fund: EstahWshed 
by David '68 and Jennifer LeVan to honor the 
life and many contributions of Attorney Charles 
W. Wolf (1912-2001), awarded to worthy 
students from Adams County, Pennsylvania, who 
are enrolled at Gettysburg College. A prominent 
native son of Adams County, Wolf was a 1934 
graduate and a trustee emeritus of the College, 
a former attorney to President Dwight Da\id 
Eisenhower, and foimder of The Eisenhower 
Society. 

Woman 's League Scholarship Fund: Established by 
the Woman's General League of Gettysbiug 
College, to be awarded to needy and promising 
students. 

Peter W. Wright Scholarship Fund: Established by 
LT COL Peter W. Wright, USAF (RET) , to be 
awarded to one or more worthy students. 
Preference is given to students who have an 
interest and involvement in extracurricular 
activities and are members of Alpha Tau Omega 
Fraternity. 

Yoaitn Family Scholarship: Established by James H. 
Yocum, to be awarded to one or more deserving 
students. 

The Martha M. Yocum Scholarship Fund: Created 
by Dr. Ronald H. Yocum '61, to be awarded 
to a junior or senior majoring in chemistry 
or biochemistry with an overall grade point 
average of 2.85 and a minimum grade point 
average in their major of 3.0. 



John T. Ziegler, DOS, (1952) Pre-Dental Scholarship 
Fund: Awarded to one or more worthy pre-dental 
students. First preference is given to the junior or 
senior student who has achieved the highest 
academic standing and who has applied to a U.S. 
dental school to pursue a DDS or DMD degree. 

Drjohn B. Zinn Scholarship in the Sciences: 
Established by the Class of 1941, to be awarded to 
talented students pursuing a science education. 

John B. Zinn Scholarship Fund: Established by 
friends and former students of Professor John B. 
Zinn, former chair of the chemisti^ department, 
to be awarded to needy and promising students. 
Preference is given to students preparing for 
fields associated with the healing arts. 

Loan Funds 

Edward Anderson (1955) and Patricia Anderson Loan 
Fu7id: Established by Edward and Patricia 
.\nderson, to provide loans to Lutheran students 
who have exhibited creative and entrepreneurial 
tendencies while in high school and through their 
activities at Gettysburg College. 

Milton T. Nafey and Mary M. Nafey Student Loan 
Fund: Created by Mary M. Nafey, to provide a 
fund for student loans. 

Eva R. Pape Student Loan Fund: Established by Eva 
R. Pape of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, to provide 
students of high promise with financial assistance. 

David Farry Powers Loan Fund: Established by 
Catherine N. Maurer in memory of her nephew, 
David Foriy Powers '62, to provide loans to needy 
and worthy students. 

Other Scholarship Aid 

Aid Assoriation for Lutherans Campus Scholarship: 
Makes available scholarship funds to assist needy 
students who hold membership with the 
Association. Selection of recipients is made by the 
College. 

Frank D. Baker Scholarship: Aids worthy students in 
immediate need. Selection of recipients is made 
by the College. 

Robert Bloom Research Award: Supports seniors 
pursuing research in Senior Research Seminars in 
the Department of History. 

Center for Public Sentice Endowed Fund for Volunteer 
Service: Established by the Board of Fellows to 
support students participating in volunteer 
programs of the Center for Public Service. Special 



consideration is given to students who 
demonstrate a commitment to activism and 
public service. 

Class of 1995 Service Learning Project: Awarded to 
a student who needs financial aid to participate 
in a service-learning project. 

Robert W. Dick^esser Memorial Fund: Provides aid 
to students participating in volunteer programs 
of the Center for Public Service. 

Dwight D. Eisenhoiuer/Conrad N. Hilton 
Scholarship: Created by the Conrad N. Hilton 
Foundation to support the tuition cost for a 
semester of study abroad. Scholarship is 
awarded competitively to a student who shows, 
through career aspirations and corresponding 
curriculum choices, an appreciation of the role 
that travel, global trade, and cross-cultural 
exchange can play in fostering international 
understanding. 

W. Emerson Gentzler (1 925) Scholarship: 
Established by W. Emerson Gentzler, to be 
awarded to deserving students, with preference 
given to members in good standing of one of 
the 4-H Clubs of York County, Pennsylvania. 

Charles E. and Mary W. CAassick Scholarship Fund: 
Established by the Board of Trustees in honor 
of former President and Mrs. Glassick, to be 
awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students. 

J. David Hair Endowed Fund for Volunteer Service: 
Established to support students participating in 
volunteer programs of the Center for Public 
Service. 

Julius Hlubb Athletic Endoivment: Created to 
support the College's athletic program. 

R. M. Hoffman Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Margaret L. Hoffman in memory 
of her father, to be awarded annually as part of 
the Dwight D. Eisenhower Scholarship 
Program. 

Dean W. Hollabaugh Scholarship: Awarded to one 
or more students who merit financial assistance. 

The Dr. Wade F. Hook Endoived Fund for Volunteer 
Service: Established by Malverda P. Hook and 
memorial gifts in thankful recognition of Dr. 
Wade F. Hook's lifelong commitment to 
volunteersim and public service. Awarded to 



students with need who may not otherwise 
participate in volunteer programs, with 
preference given to students who have espressed 
an interest in a teaching career or Christian 
ministry. 

Lutheran Brotherhood Lutheran Senior College 
Scholarship: Awarded to Lutheran students who 
will begin their first year of post-secondary study 
at Gettysburg College. Recipients are selected b\ 
Gettysburg College on the basis of scholastic 
achievement, religious leadership, and financial 
need. 

Lutheran Brotherhood Members' Scholarship Program: 
Established to assist Lutheran Brotherhood 
members attending accredited post-secondary 
institutions. Information is available from 
Lutheran Brotherhood, 625 Fourth Avenue 
South, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55415. 

Guy L. Moser Scholarship: Established Guy L. 
Moser, to support grants to students from Berks 
Coimty, Pennsylvania who are majoring in history 
or political science and who rank in the upper 
third of their class. Application should be made 
directly to Ms. Kim M. McKeon, Hamilton Bank, 
P.O. Box 14L Reading, Pennsylvania 19603. 

Ernest D. Schwartz (1916) Scholarship: Established 
in memory of Ernest D. Schwartz, to be awarded 
to a needy and worthy student. Recipient is 
selected by the College. 

Clare M. Stecher Scholarship: Established by Clare 
M. Stecher, to be awarded to needy students 
from Hummelstown, Pennsylvania. 

Weaver-Bit tinger Classical Scholarship: Created by 
Rufus M. Weaver (1907), to be awarded to a needy 
and deserving student(s) who has demonstrated 
outstanding academic achievement. Recipients 
are selected by the College. 

Weaver Classical-Natural Science-Religion 
Scholarship: Created by Rufus M. Weaver (1907), 
to be awarded to a deserving student pursuing a 
classical, natural science, or religion course of 
instruction. Recipients are selected by the College. 

Rufus M. Weaver Mathematical Scholarship: 
Created by Rufus M. Weaver (1907), to be 
awarded to deserving students pursuing a 
mathematical course of instruction. Recipients 
are selected by the College. 



Endowment Funds 



Gettysburg College has benefitted over the years and continues to benefit from the income of funds 
contributed to the College 's endotoment. Income from unrestricted endowment funds may be 
used for the general purpose of the College or for any special purposes; income from restricted 
endounnent funds is used solely for the purpose specified by the donor. The generous support of the donors 
n^ fc/^'rf below has been vital to the continuing success of the College. 



(Unrestricted) 

Allshause Family Endowment Fund: In honor of 
William Craig Allshoiise (1981) and Mrs. 
Catherine Reaser Allshouse (1924), and in 
memory of William Kenneth Allshouse 
(1925) and Richard Reaser Allshouse (1950). 

Alumni Memorial Endounnent Fund 

Jackson Anderson (1977) arui Laurene Andeison (1977) 

E. W. Baker Estate 

Frank D. Baker 

Robert]. Barkley Estate 

Charles Bender Trust 

Fay S. Benedict MemoricdFund 

H. Melvin Binkley Estate 

Margarethe A. Brinkman Estate 

H. Brua Campbell Estate 

Dr. John Chelenden Fund (1928): In honor of 
JohnB. Zinn (1909) 

Class of 1919 Fund 

Class of 1926, 60th Reunion Fund 

Louise Cuthbertson: In memory of Arthur 
Herring, Anna Wiener Herring and 
Louise Cuthbertson. 

Charles W. Diehljr. (1929) 

Harold Sheely Diehl Estate 

Ceo. isf Helen Eidam Trust 

Faculty and Staff Memorial Endowment Fund 

Rcdph C. Fischer 

Robert G. Fluhrer (1912) 

The Ford Foundation 

Waller B. Freed Estate 

Given Fries EstateRichard V. Gardiner Memorial 

Fund 

The Garman Fund: A perpetual family memorial. 

The Gettysburg Times 

Mamie Ragan Getty Fund 

Frank Gilbert 

Margant E. Giles 

Ralph and Katherine M. Gresh 

James H. Gross Estate 

William D. Hartshome Estate 



George G Hatter (1911) 
Adam Hazktt (1910) 
J. Kemiit Hereter Tnist 
Ralph E. Heusner Estate 
Joseph H. Himes (1910) 
Marion Huey 
KarlF. Irxirin Trust 

John E. Jacobsen Family Endozoment Fund 
Bryan E. Keller Estate 
Edmund Keller Estate 
Caroline C. Knox 
William f Knox (1910) 
Frank H. Kramer (1914) and Mrs. Kramer 
Harris Lee Estate 

Ralph D. Lindeman Memorial Fund 
The Richard Lends Lloyd Fund: In memory 

of Arthur C. Cart)' 
Robert T McClarin Estate 
Ralph McCreary Estate 
James MacFarlane Fund, Class of 1837 
f Clyde Market (1900) and Caroline O. Market 
Robert T . Marks 
FredG. Masters (1904) 
Ralph Mease Estate 
Gertrude Maddock Trust 
A.L. Mat hias (1926) 
John H. Mickely (1928): In memor\' of his 

brother William Blocher Mickely. 
Alice Miller 
Robert H. Miller 
Thomas Z. Minehart (1894) 
Ruth G Moyer Estate: 

Professor's Endowment Fimd 
Bemice Baker Musser 
Helen Overmiller 
Ivy L. Palmer 
Joseph Parment Company 
Floyd (ff Eva Peterson 
Andrew H. Phelps 
C. Lawrence Rebuck 



Mary Hart Rinn 

Carroll W. Royston Estate 

Sarah Ellen Sanders 

Robert and Helefie Schubauer Estate 

AnnaD. Seaman 

A. Richard Shay (1928) 

Paul KSheffer (1918) 

Herbert Shimer (1896) 

Robert O. Sinclair 

Albert T. Smith Memorial Fund 

James Milton Smith fund 

Anna K. and Harry L. Snyder 

Mary Heilman Spangler 

Harvey W. Strayer 

Leah Tipton Taylor Estate 

Veronica K. Tollner Estate 

Romayne T. Uhler '23 Estate: For the memorial 

of Rev. George I. Uhler, Class of 1895 
Edith Wachter Estate 
Vera and Paul Wagner Fund 
Walter G. Warner Memorial Fund: Given by 

Bergliot J. Wagner 
LeonaS. &' L. Ray Weaver Memorial Fund 
Richard C. Wetzel 

Jack Lyter Williams (1951) Memorial Fund 
Alice D. Wrather 
Romaine H. Yagel Trust 
George L. Yocum Memorial Fund 
John and Caroline Yordy Memorial Fund 
(Restricted) 

Mary Catherine Alhaugh (Class of 1954) Chemistry 
Fund for Student Research: Established from a 
bequest from her estate to be used to award 
annual summer research stipends to students 
majoring in chemistr)' and/or biochemistry and 
molecular biology. 

Conrad Christian Arensberg Memorial Fund: 
Established in 1948 by Francis Louis Arensberg 
in memory of his father, a Union veteran, for 
the purchase of Civil War books and materials. 

Robert Barnes Memorial Fund: Created to support 
a combined dinner and lecture each spring 
during the Biology Awards Day. 

Edward J. Baskervilk Memorial Book Fund: Created 
by Robin Wagner and Michael J. Birkner '72, 
with additional contributions from alumni and 
friends, as a memorial for Edward J. Baskerville, 
Professor of English from 1956 to 1997, for the 
acquisition of contemporary fiction for the 
library's collection. 



The Rev. Peter C. Bell Memorial Lectureship Fund: 
Created for the establishment of a lectureship 
on the claims of the gospel on college men. 

Bikle Endowinent Fund: Established in 1925 to 
honor Dr. Philip Bikle (1866), dean of Gettysburg 
College, 1889-1925. Used to support debating. 

Joseph Bittinger: Chair of political science. 

Lydia Bittinger: Chair of history. 

Joseph and Lydia Bittinger Memorial Fund: 
Established to support the needs of the history 
and political science departments. 

BlavatI Family Lectureship: Created to establish 
the Blavatt Family Lectiue Series in Political 
Science. 

Robert Bloom Fund: For Civil War InstitiUe. 

Merle S. Boyer Chair in Poetry: Established to 
create a faculty chair in poetry. 

The Chang-Burton Fund for Creative Teaching: 
Established by Charles A. Burton and Melinda 
Chang Burton, members of the Class of 1967, to 
preserve and strengthen the tradition of 
distinguished teaching at Gettysburg College. 
Preference is given to proposals that enhance 
faculty members' ability to meet the unique 
challenges of a classroom enxdronment that is in 
transition due to an increase in the number of 
students from races or cultures historically 
underrepresented at Gettysbiug College. 

Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Citron: Established by Mr. & 
Mrs. Thomas Citron (1947) to endow insurance 
on a 1934 oil painting by Minna Citron. 

Class of 1911 Memorial Trust Fund: Established in 
1961, on the fiftieth anniversary of the Class of 
1911, to provide income for the purchase of 
books for the College library. 

Thomas Y. Cooper Endowment: A bequest to 
Gettysburg College in support of its libraries: (a) 
for acquisitions in literature and American 
history, as a memorial to his parents, Dr. & Mrs. 
Moses Cooper; and (b) for the operating budget 
of the libraiy 

Dr. Allan Cormack Summer Research Grant in 
Physics: Established by Richard C. Ellis and 
Margaret Eichman Ellis in memory of Dr. Allan 
Cormack, Nobel Laureate in Medicine and 
relative of the donors. A research grant is 
presented annually to a rising senior student 
selected by the facultv of the Department of 
Physics. 



William C. Dmrah Lectureship: Created for the 
biology department to use for a Darrah Lecture 
evei7 two or three years. 

William C. Darrah Prize: Created to support a 
yearly prize for students in the biology 
department 

\. Bruce Denny Fund: Created by fellow students 
in memon of A. Bruce Denny (1973), to purchase 
library books. 

Joe Derrig Memorial Fund: Established to subsidize 
student participation in a service-learning 
program related to AIDS. Also supports a yearly 
presentation on AIDS awareness. 

Luther P. Eisenhart Fund: Established for the use 
of emeriti faculty and widows of former 
members of the faculty in need of assistance. 

Harold G. Evans Chair in Eisenhower Leadership 
Studies: Established to foster an educational 
program in leadership. 

Esther Kenyon Fortenbaugh Endowed Internship: 
Created by Robert B. Fortenbaugh and Esther 
Kenyon Fortenbaugh to fund a semester-long or 
simimer internship for a student interested in 
pursuing studies in librarianship, information 
science, preservation or museum work during 
the fall or spring semester or in the summer 

The Georgia A. Franyo Endowed Fund for the 
Department q/TAra/r^Arti; Administered by the 
Provost to provide grants to support facult) and 
program development in the Department of 
Theatre Aits at Gett)'sburg College. 

Clyde E. and Sarah A. Gerberich Endowment Fund: 
Established in memory of Dr Robert Fortenbaugh 
(1913) to support a series of lectures. Fund is 
also supported by a matching gift from the 
Hewlett Foundation to support the Robert 
Fortenbaugh Memorial Lecture. 

Gettysburg Review Fund: Y.st3b\\shed to pro\ide 
annual support for the Gettysburg Review. 

Russell P. Getz Memorial Fund: Established for 
support of the music department. 

Millard E. Gladfelter Prize: Created to support a 
student who has completed the junior year at 
Gettysburg College with excellent scholarship in 
the social sciences, and especially American 
history. To be used for research and a thesis 
report during the senior year. 

/. Donald and Mary Herr Glenn Endowment Fund: 
To be used for educational purposes at the 
discretion of the President of the College, 
subject to supervision of the Board of Trustees. 



Fund for Globed Understanding: Established by Dr. 
Janet M. Powers, Global Studies Coordinator 
and Associate Professor of Interdepartmental 
Studies and Women's Studies, with additional 
contributions, and Kenneth P. Powers: an 
endowment to secure and strengthen the Global 
Studies Program. 

Dr. C.A. Hanson, President Emeritus, and Anne Keet 
Hanson Endoxvment Funds for the Beautification of 
Campus Grounds: The income from gifts to be 
used to support the landscaping, maintenance, 
cultivation, and beautification of college 
grounds. 

Jean Landefeld Hanson Fund: Established in 1971 
by family and friends of the late wife of former 
President C. Ainold Hanson, to support 
purposes related to the Chapel program. 

George Hatter Fund: Income from this restricted 
endowment fund will be transferred to principal 
for a period of 60 years. After 60 years, the fimd 
will be closed and transferred to Unrestricted 
Endowment/Halter Fund. 

The John A. Hauser Executive-in-Residence Fund: 
Established by family and friends of John A. 
Hauser and Gettysburg College, to support a 
business or governmental executive-in-residence. 

Barbara Ann Holley '54 Endoiued Internship in 
Library Studies: Established by Barbara Ann 
Holley '54 to support a full-dme internship 
at Musselman LibraiT designed for a recent 
graduate considering a career in information 
science, librarianship, or archives and records 
management. 

The Harry D. Holloway Memorial Fund: Created to 
support purposes of keeping alive on campus 
the spirit of Abraham Lincoln. 

Japan Program Fund: Created for use by the 
library department to purchase library and 
instrucdonal materials related to Japan. 

Stanley G. and Frances P.Jean Fund: To assist the 
Center for Public Ser\ice at Gett)'sburg College 
in the commendable efforts being made to meet 
current-day public service needs and objecdves 
by improving and expanding programs offered 
through the Center. 

William R. Kenan Jr. Endowment Fund for Teaching 
Excellence: Established to support high qualit>- 
and effective teaching. 

Edwin T.Johnson and Cynthia Shearer Johnson 
Distinguished Teaching Chair: Established by 
Edwin T. '51 and C>iithia Shearer '52 Johnson. 



Ralph D. Lindeman Memmial Fund: Established 
by family and friends in memory of Ralph D. 
Lindeman, to be used annually by the English 
Department for the purchase of books. 

MNC Management Curriculum: Created by the 
Maryland National Foundation to provide 
financial support for the management program. 

Dr. G. Boivers and Louise Hook Mansdorfer 
Distinguished Chair in Chemistry: Established to 
provide an endowed chair in chemistr\'. Provides 
funds for facult)' salaries, research needs, pa)iiient 
for research assistants, and travel for conferences. 

Andrew Mellon Foundation Fund: Created to 
support interdisciplinar)' teaching and small 
group learning projects for workshops. 

Dr. Arnos S. and Barbara K. Musselman Art 
Endowment Fund: Created to support and 
advance knowledge and appreciation of art at 
Gettysburg College. 

Dr Amos S.and Barbara K. Musselman Chemistry 
Endmtmient Fund: Created to support the chemistry 
program, primarily through the purchase of 
laboratory equipment and supplies. 

Musselman Endowment For Music Workshop: 
Established by the Musselman Foundation to 
support workshops in music performance and 
seminars in music education. 

Musselman Endoiument For Theatre Arts: Created 
by the Musselman Foundation to support visits 
to the campus by individuals with expertise in 
the technical aspects of the theatre. 

Musselman Endowment for Visiting Scientists: 
Created by the Musselman Foundation to 
support visits by scientists to the College. 

NEH Fluhrer-Civil War Chair: Created by the 
Robert Fluhrer estate to establish a Civil War 
Chair in the history department. 

NEH Fund for Faculty and Cui~riculum Development 
in the Humanities: Established by a Challenge 
Grant from the National Endowment for the 
Himianities to promote high quality work in 
the humanities through facult)' and curriculum 
development activity of particular merit. Fund 
is part of the larger Institutional Fund for Self- 
Renewal. 

NEH Senior Scholars ' Seminar: Established by the 
National Endowment for the Humanities to 
support the Senior Scholars" Seminar. 



Robert Nesto Biology Fund: Created to support 
travel to scientific meetings by biology students. 

John P. O'LearyJr. and Pamela O'Leaiy Endowed 
Fund: Created for the management department 
to be used for discretionaiy purposes. 

One in a Mission Program Fund: Created by 
the Central Pennsylvania Synod to provide 
additional endowment funds to enhance the 
church-related mission of the College. 

EdredJ. and Ruth Pennell Trust Foundation: 
Created to purchase new materials in the fields 
of political science, management, and economics. 

Political Science Research/Development: Established 
by Elmer Plischke to assist faculty in the political 
science department in research activities. 

Paul H. Rhoads Teaching and Professional 
Development Fund: Established by Paul H. Rlioads, 
Gettysburg College, and others to support 
scholarly research, professional development, or 
the improvement of undergraduate instruction 
by the College's faculty. 

Norman F. Richardson Memorial Lectureship Fund: 
Created to support an annual event that stimulates 
reflection on interdisciplinan' studies, world 
civilization, the philosophy of religion, values, 
and culture. 

Louis and Claudia Schatanoff Library Fund: 
Created to support the purchase of books and 
other publications for the chemistry library at 
the College. 

Henry M. Scharf Lecture Fund: Created by Dr. F. 
William Sunderman (1919) in memory of 
Henry M. Scharf, to establish a lectiueship on 
current affairs. 

/. Douglas Shand Fund for Faculty-Student Summer 
Research in Psychology: Created to support 
opportimities for promising and talented 
students to work collaboratively with faculty 
members who are conducting research in 
psychology. Grants provide stipends to support 
students working on research projects that 
primarily occur in the summer. 

Jack Shand Psychology Research Fund: Created to 
provide financial support of seniors registered 
for honors research in the psychology department. 

James A. Singmaster (1898) Fund for Chemistry: 
Established by Mrs. James A. Singmaster in 
memor) of her husband, to be used for the 
purchase of library materials in chemistry or 
related areas. 



D). Kenneth L. Smoke Memorial Trust Fund: Created 
to honor the man who in 1946 established the 
department of psychology at Gettysburg College 
and served as its chair imtil his death in 1970. 
I 'sed in part by the College libraiy to purchase 
lihraiy resources in the field of psychology' and 
in part by the psychology department for special 
departmental needs. 

Stoever Alcove Fund: Established by Laura M. 
Stoever for the support of the library. 

/ H. W. Stuckenberg Memorial Lectureship: 
Created by Mary G. Stuckenberg in memor)' of 
her husband, to sponsor lectures in the general 
area of social ethics. 

The Sundennan Chamber Music Foundation of 
Gettysburg College: Established by F. William 
Sunderman (1919) to stimulate and further the 
interest in chamber music at Gettysburg College 
through the sponsorship of chamber music 
concerts. 

Waltemyer Seminar Room Fund: Established by 
Carroll W. Royston (1934) and the family and 
friends of Dr William C. Waltemyer (1913), former 
head of the Bible department at the College, to 
provide furnishings for and to maintain the 
hbrary in a seminar room in his memory. 

Stexie Warner Trust Fund: Created for the purpose 
of expenditures for books, periodicals, microfilm, 
etc. in die area of Asian Studies for die Musselman 
Libraiy; to care for and maintain diose purchased 
materials and the Stephen H. Warner papers 
maintained in Musselman Library's Special 
Collection at the College; and to support 
publications derived from the Collection. 

The James M. Weaver' '64 Fund for Creative T 
caching: Established by James M. Weaver 
'64 to secure and strengthen the quality of 
teaching at the College by providing financial 
resources for pedagogical innovation and 
faculty development. 

Donald K. Weiser Book Acquisition Fund: 
Established in honor of Donald K. Weiser 
(1924) for the purchase of library books in the 
field of insinance, management, and business 
administration. 

Wo7nan's League Fund far Upkeep and Repair of the 
YMCA Building (Weidensall Hall): Created by 
Louisa Paulus. 



The Jacob M. and Genevieve J. Yingling Special 
Collections Endowment: Established by Jacob M. 
Yingling '52 and Genevieve J. Yingling to support 
the needs of Special Collections of Musselman 
Library. 

Dr. and Mrs. Jeremiah Zimmerman Fund: Established 
by Dr. Jeremiah Zimmerman (1873) to create an 
endowment in support of the annual operating 
budget of the library. 

John B. Zinn Memoricd Fund in Admissions: 
Established in honor of John B. Zinn by friends 
and former students, to support admissions 
efforts in fields associated with the healing arts. 

John B. Zinn President Discretionary Institutional and 
Faculty Institulional Development Fund: Established 
to provide support for research and professional 
development by Gettvsburg College facult) and 
staff; to support new or experimental academic 
programs; and to support professional 
development and research for professors in fields 
associated with the healing arts. 



Register /Trustees 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
2002-2003 ACADEMIC YEAR 



Date in parentheses indicates year of election to 
the Boardof Trustees. 

David M. LeVan (1994), Chairperson, Managing 
Partner, Battlefield Harley Davidson, Gettysburg, 
Penns\lvania 

John P. O'Leary Jr. (1 995), Vice Chairperson, 

President &' Chief Executive Officer, Tuscarora, Inc., 
New Brighton, Pennsyhania 

Sherrin H. Baky (1997), Secretary, Retired Chief 
Association Officer, Association of Clinical Research 
Professionals, Radnor, Pennsyh'ania 

Patricia C. Bacon (1991), Business Consultant, 
Sausalito, CaHfornia 

Brian E. Bennett (2002), Attorney /Partner, Davis 
Bennett Spiess & Prendngast UP , Wayne, 
Pennsylvania 

Stephen G. Bishop ( 1 992), Associate Vice President 
for Economic Development and Corporate Relations, 
Unii'ersity of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 

Jeffrey M. Blavatt (2000), Vice President of Operations, 
A/S/C Corp., Owings Mills, Maryland 

James H. Brenneman (1999), Retired Vice President, 
Operations Cs^ Planning, Bell Atlantic Enterprises 
International, Ambler, Pennsylvania 

Karen A. Burdack (2001), Vice President/ 
International Counsel, Alcon Laboratories, Inc., 
Fort Worth, Texas 

Charles A. Burton (1996), President, Philadelphia 
Ventures, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

James Corkran ( 1 999), Retired Partner &" Director, 
Cottman Transmission Systems, Doylestown, 
Pennsylvania 

Frank A. Delaney IV (2001), Managing Director, 
Wagner. Stott. Bear. New \'ork. New York 

Gwendoln Jordan Dungy (1997), Executive Director, 

National Association of Student Personnel 
Administrators, Washington, D.C. 

Joyce Hamm Eisner (2000), Musician and volunteer, 
Hanover, Pennsylvania 

Arthur M. Feldman (1998), Chair, Department 
of Medicine, The Jefferson Medical College, 
Philadelphia. Pennsylvania 

Fred F. Fielding (1998), Attorney /Senior Partner, 
Wiley, Rein i^ Fielding, Washington, D.C. 



A. John Gabig (1996), Retired Attorney /Member, Miller 
& Chevalier, Chartered, Williamsburg, Virginia 

Gerald G. Garbacz ( 1 995), Private Investor/ 
Consultant; Former Chairman & CEO, Nashua C/np., 
Riva, Mai^viand 

Bruce S.Gordon (1999), President, Retail Markets 
Group. Verizon, New York, New York 

Andrew G. Gurley (2000), Mana^ng Director, UBS 
Paine Webber, New York, New York 

Gordon A. Haaland, President, Gettysburg College, 
Gettysburg, Penn.sylvania 

Patricia W. Henry (1993), Senior Associate Director of 
Athletics, Haniard University, Boston, 
Massachusetts 

John J. Hewes (2001), Senior Executive Vice President, 
MBNA America Bank, Wilmington, Delaware 

Sotaro Ishii (1999), Investment Consultant, Ishii 
Jimusho, Tokyo, Japan 

John F.Jaeger (1998). President, DAN AC 
Corporatioti, Bethesda, Maryland 

MacGregor S.Jones (2000), Former President, 
Mac Jones Ford. Inc., York, Pennsylvania 

Robert H.Joseph Jr. (1998), Senior Vice President & 
Chief Financial Officer, Alliance Capital 
Management Corporation, New York, New York 

J. Michael Kelly (2000), Chief Operating Officer, AOL, 
Dulles, Virginia 

Jean Cleveland Kirchhoff (2000), Former Account 
Executixie, Lemoyne, Pennsylvania 

Randolph Rose (1999), Retired President &f CEO, 
Philips Communication and Security Systems, 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania 

Jean Deimler Seibert (1998), Attorney/Partner, Wion, 
Zulu Cf .Seibert, Harrisburg, Pennsyhania 

Arne Selbyg (1998), Director, Colleges & Universities 
Division for Higher Education &" Schools, 
Evangelical Lutheran Church in Ameiica, Chicago, 
Illinois 

Gill M. Taylor-Tyree Sr., M.D. (1995), Assistant 
Professor, Diagnostic Radiology, University of 
Maryland Medical System, Baltimore, Maryland 

James M. Weaver (2000), President, Dearden, 
Maguire, Weaver; isf Barrett Inc., West 
Conshohocken, Pennsvlvania 

I. Charles Widger (1997), Managing Partner and 
Investment Management Consultant, Brinker 
Capital, Inc., King of Prussia, Pennsylvania 



Register /Faculty 



I 



Debra J. Wolgemuth (2000), Professor of Genetics 
if Dn'elopment, Columbia University, New York, 
New York 

Ronald H.Yocum (1997), Retired President 6= Chief 
Executive Officer, American Plastics Council, 
Williamsburg, Michigan 

HONORARY LIFE TRUSTEES 

Dates in parentheses indicate years of service. 

Uvern H. Brenneman (1962-1974) (1976-1988), 

Retired Chair isf President, York Shipley, Inc., York, 
Pennsylvania 

F. William Sunderman, M.D. (1967-1979), 

Director if President, Institute for Clinical Science, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

TRUSTEES EMERITI 

Charles E. Anderson, Avon, Connecticut 

James G. Apple, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania 

Henry S. Belber, Devon, Pennsylvania 

Clyde 0. Black II, Roaring Spring, Pennsylvania 

Margaret Blanchard Curtis, Gettysburg, 
Pennsyhania 

Guy S. Edmlston Jr., Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 

William S. Eisenhart Jr., York, Pennsylvania 

Henry W. Graybill Jr., Harrisbiug, Pennsylvania 

Angeline F. Haines, Luther\ille, Maryland 

Robert D. Hanson, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 

Edwin T. Johnson, Newtown, Pennsylvania 

Robert S. Jones Jr., New York, New York 

William T. Kirchhoff, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 

Howard J. McCarney, Camp Hill, Pennsylvania 

Thomas C. Norris, Spring Grove, Pennsylvania 

Paul M. Orso, Millersville, Maryland 

Richard Patterson, Wilmington, Deleware 

James A. Perrott, Palm Beach Shores, Florida 

Samuel A. Schreckengaust Jr., Lemoyne, 
Pennsylvania 



Frederick H. Settelmeyer, London, England 
Arline Shannon, Lititz, Pennsylvania 
Donna I. Shavlik, Estes Park, Colorado 
Herman G. Stuempfle, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 
James I.Tarman, State College, Pennsylvania 
James R.Thomas, Allendale, New Jersey 
Barry Wright, Washington, D.C. 
Irvin G. Zimmerman, Middleburg, Pennsylvania 

FACULTY 

(2002-2003 ACADEMIC YEAR) 

Emeriti 

Dates in parentheses indicate years of ser\'ice. 

Paul Baird (1951-1985), Professor of Economics, 

Emeritus 

Neil W. Beach (1960-1993), Professor of Biology, 
Emeritus 

Gareth V. BIser (1959-1999), Professor of Health and 
Exercise Sciences, Emeritus 

A. Bruce Boenau (1957-1991), Professor of Political 
Science, Emeritus 

Lois J. Bowers (1969-1992), Coordinator of Women's 
Athletics and Professor of Health and Physical 
Education. Emerila 

John F. Clarke (1966-1989), Professor of English, 
Emeritus 

David J. Cowan (1965-2001), Professor of Physics, 
Emeritus 

David L. Crowner (1967-2001), Professor of German, 
Emeritus 

Harold A. Dunkelberger (1950-1983), Professor of 
Religion, Emeritus 

George H. Fick (1967-1995), Professor of History, 
Emeritus 

Kermit H. Finstad (1970-1999), Professor of Music, 
Emeritus 

Norman 0. Forness ( 1 964-2000), Professor of History, 
Emeritus 

Donald H. Fortnum (1965-2000), Professor of 
Ch em is try, Em eri I u s 

Lewis B. Frank (1957-1986), Professor of Psychology, 
Emeritus 



Robert S. Fredrickson (1969-2002), Professor of 
English, Emeritus 

Edwin D. Freed (1948-1951), (1953-1986), Professor 
of Religion, Emeritus 

Robert H. Fryling (1947-1950), (1958-1987), 

Professor of Mathematics, Emeritus 

R. Michael Gemmill (1958-1999), Professor of 
Economics, Emeritus 

Charles H. Glatfelter (1949-1989), Professw of 
History, Emeritus 

Gertrude G. Gobbel (1968-1989), Professor of 

Psychology, Emerito 

Louis J. Hammann (1956-1997), Professor of Religion, 
Emeritus 

J. Richard Haskins (1959-1988), Professor of Physics, 
Emeritus 

John T. Held (1960-1988), Professor of Education, 
Emeritus 

Caroline M. Hendrickson (1959-1984), Professor of 
Spanish, Emerita 

Thomas J. Hendrickson (1960-1988), Professor of 
Physics, Emeritus 

Leonard I. Holder (1964-1994), Professor of 
Mathematics, Emeritus 

R. Eugene Hummel (1957-1987), Coach aiid Professor 
of Health and Physical Education, Etneritus 

John M. Kellett (1968-1999), Professor of 
Mathematics, Emeritus 

Jack S. Locher (1957-1987), Professor of English, 
Emeritus 

Rowland E. Logan (1958-1988), Professor of Biology, 
Emerita 

Franklin 0. Loveland (1972-1998), Professor of 
Sociology and Anthropology, Emeritus 

Fredric Michelman (1973-2000), Professor of Erench, 
Emeritus 

Carey A. Moore (1955-1956), (1959-2000), Professor 

of Religion, Emeritus 

Samuel A. Mudd (1958-1964; 1965-1998), Professor 

of Psychology, Emeritus 

Norman K. Nunamaker (1963-1997), Professor of 
Music, Emeritus 

Robert A. Pitts (1986-2000), Professmof 
Management, Emeiitus 



Ray R. Reider (1962-1998), Professor of Health and 
Exercise Sciences, Emeritus 

Russell S. Rosenberger (1956-1981), Professor of 
Education, Emeritus 

AlexT. Rowland (1958-2001), Professor of Chemistry, 
Emeritus 

Calvin E. Schildknecht (1959-1979), Professor of 

Chemistry, Emeritus 

Emile O.Schmidt (1962-1999), Professor of Theatre 
Arts, Emeritus 

W. Richard Schubart (1950-1981), Professor of 
Philosophy, Emeritus 

Walter J. Scott (1959-1984), Professor of Physics, 
Emeritus 

Howard Shoemaker (1957-1985), Professor of Health 
and Physical Education, Emeritus 

James F. Slaybaugh Jr. (1964-1989), Professor of 
Education, Emeritus 

John R. Stemen (1961-1994), Professor of History, 
Emeritus 

Mary Margaret Stewart (1959-1996), Professor of 
English, Emeiita 

Amie G. Tannenbaum ( 1 968-200 1 ), Professor of 
Erench, Emerita 

Robert H.Trone {l956-\997). Professor of Religion, 
Emeritus 

Janis Weaner (1957-1985), Professor of Spanish, 

Emerita 

Dexter N. Weikel (1962-1988), Professor of Music, 
Emeritus 

Robert F. Zellner (1968-1998), Professor of Music, 
Emeritus 

CURRENT FACULTY 

Date in parentheses indicates year of 
appointment to the facult\'. 

Tahera Aftab (1997-1998; 2000); Distingiashed 
Visiting Professor of Wornen 's Studies; M. A. , 
University of Lucicnow, hidia; Ph.D., Universit)' 
of Karachi 

James D. Agard' ( 1 982); Associate Professor of Visual 
Arts; B.S., The State University of New York at 
New Pahz; M.F.A., Rutgers University 

Randolph R. Aldinger ( 1 989); Associate Professor of 
Physics; B.S., .\iizona State Universit); Ph.D., 
Universit)' of Texas at Austin 



Pia Altieri (1999); Instructor in Religion; B.A., 
LeMoyne College; M.T.S., Hai^vard University 

Matthew H. Amster (2002); Assistant Professor of 
Anlhroj}ology; B.A., Evergreen State College; 
M.A., Ph.D., Brandeis University 

Lidia Hwa Soon Anchisi (2002); Assistant Professor 
of Italian; A.B., Barnard College, Columbia 
University; M.A., Ph.D., New York University 

Gisela M. Aragon (2002); Instructor in Spanish; 
B.A., Escuela Superior de Lenguas, Cordoba 

Charlotte E. S. Armster ( 1 984); Associate Professor 
of German and Co-Coordinator of Women's Studies; 
B.A., Eastern Michigan University; M.A., 
Middlebury College; Ph.D., Stanford University 

Martha E. Arterberry ( 1 989); Professor of Psychology; 
B.A., Pomona College; Ph.D., University of 
Minnesota 

Bela Bajnok (1993); Associate Professor of 
Mathematics; M.Ed., Eotvos University 
(Hungary); M.S., Ph.D., Ohio State University 

Deborah H. Barnes (1992); Associate Professor of 
English; B.A., Tuskegee Institute; M.A., North 
Carolina Agriculture & Technical State 
University; Ph.D., Howard University 

Airat Bekmetjev (2002); Visiting Assistant Professor 
of Mathematics; Diploma with Honors, Moscow 
State Universit)'; Ph.D., Arizona State University 

Temma F. Berg (1985); Professor of English and Co- 
Coordinator of Women's Studies; B.A., M.A., Ph.D., 
Temple University 

Emelio R. Betances ( 1 99 1 ); Associate Professor of 
Sociology and Latin American Studies; B.A., 
Adelphi University; M.A., Ph.D., Rutgers, 
The State University of New Jersey 

Marie-Jose M. Binet (1988); Associate Professor of 
Erench; B.A., M.A., University of Florida; Ph.D., 
Duke University 

Michael J. Birkner' (1978-1979), (1989); Professmof 
History, Benjamin Franklin Chair in the Liberal Arts, 
Departm,ent Chairperson; B.A., Gettysburg College; 
M.A., Ph.D., University of Virginia 

Philip Bobko {\991); Professor of Management 
and Psychology; B.S., Massachusetts histitute of 
Technology; M.S., Bucknell University; Ph.D., 
Cornell University 

Robert E. Bohrer II (1998); Assistant Professor of 
Political Science; B.S., University of Nebraska at 
Kearney; Ph.D., Texas A&M University 



Gabor S. Boritt (1981); Robert C. Eluhrer Professor of 
Cwil War Studies; B.A., Yankton College; M.A., 
University of South Dakota; Ph.D., Boston 
University 

Robert F. Bornstein (1986); Professor of Psychology; 
B.A., Amherst College; Ph.D., State University of 
New York at Buffalo 

Donald M. Borock (1974); Associate Professor of 
Political Saence; B.A., M.A., Ph.D., University of 
Cincinnati 

William D. Bowman (1996); Associate Professor of 
History; B.A., University of San Francisco; M.A., 
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University 

Judith A. Brough' (1989); Professor of Education, 
Department Chairperson; B.S., Ed.M., 
Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania; 
Ed.D., State University of New York at Buffalo 

Ronald D. Burgess^ (1980); Professor of Spanish; B.A., 
Washbiun University of Topeka; M.A., Ph.D., 

University of Kansas 

Dan W. Butin (2001); Assistant Professor of 
Education; B.S., Massachusetts histitiUe of 
Technology; M.A., St. John's College; Ph.D., 
University of Virginia 

Leslie Cahoon (1988); Professor of Classics; A.K, 
M.A., Ph.D., Universit)' of California, Berkeley 

Kathleen M. Cain (1990); Associate Professor of 
Psychology; A.B., College of the Holy Cross; A.M., 
Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 

Ana Caracuel (2002); Instructor in Spanish; 
Licenciatura (equivalent of M.A.), University 
of Salamanca, Spain; Higher Diploma in 
Education, Universit)' of Seville, Spain 

A. Ralph Cavaliere (1966); Charles H. Graff Professor 
of Biology; B.S., M.S., Arizona State University; 
Ph.D., Duke University 

Frank M. Chiteji (1988); Associate Professor of 
History; B.A., University of San Francisco; M.A., 
Ph.D., Michigan State University 

Natasha Cole-Leonard (2002); Visiting Scholar in 
English; B.A., Louisiana State University; M.A., 
Howard University 

John A. Commito (1993); Professor of Environmental 
Studies and Biology, Coordinator of Environmental 
Studies; A.R., Cornell University; Ph.D., Duke 
University 

Mary Deborah Cowan (1989); Professor of English, 
M.S. Boyer Chair in Poetry; B.A., Mundelein 
College; M.A., Western Washington University 



Brett E. Crawford (1998-2000; 2001); Assistant 
Professor of Physics; B.S., Universit}' of South 
Carolina; M.S., University of Vermont; M.A., 
Ph.D., Duke University 

Thomas W. Crawford (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Geogmphy and Environmental Studies; B.S., Wake 
Forest University; M.A., Ph.D., University of 
North Carolina, Chapel Hill 

Nancy K. Cushing-Daniels^ ( 1 994); Associate Professor 
of Spanish; Chairperson of Interdisciplinary Studies; 
B.A., Alfred University; M.A., State University of 
New York at Albany; Ph.D., University of 
California. Berkeley 

Paul R. D'Agostino (1969); Professor of Psychology; 
B.S., Fordham University; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Virginia 

Roy A. Dawes ( 1 993); Associate Professor of Political 
Science, Department Chairperson; B.A., University 
of New Orleans; M.S., Ph.D., Florida State 
University' 

Veronique A. Delesalle (1993); Associate Professor of 
Biology; B.Sc, M.Sc, McGill University; Ph.D., 
University of Arizona 

Daniel R. DeNlcola (1996); Provost and Professor of 
Philosophy; A.B., Ohio University; M.Ed., Ed.D., 
Harvard University 

Carolyn M. DeSilva (1982); Associate Professor of 
Mathematics; B.A., Merrimack College; M.S., 
Northern Arizona University; M.S., Ph.D., 
University' of New Hampshire 

Thomas J. Doleys (2002); Visiting Assistant Professor 
of Political Science; B. A., Duke University; M.A., 
University of Virginia; Ph.D.,Vanderbilt 
University 

Daniel G. Drury (2001); Assistant Professor of Health 
and Exercise Sciences, Department Co-Chairperson; 
B.A., Frostburg State University; M.A., George 
Washington University; D.P.E., Springfield 
College 

Eric S. Egge (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Mathematics; B.A., Carleton College; M.A., 
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison 

Charles F. Emmons (1974); Professor of Sociology; 
B.A., Ciannon College; M.A., Ph.D., University 
of Illinois 

Kay Etheridge (1986); Assonate Professor of Biology; 
B.S., M.S., Auburn University; Ph.D., University 
of Florida 



Kristen M. Eyssell (2002); Visiting Assistant Professor 
of Psychology; B.A., California State University, 
Fresno; M.A., Ph.D., Pennsylvania State 
University 

Christopher R. Fee (1997); Assistant Professor of 
English; B.A., Baldwin-Wallace College; M.A., 
Loyola University; M.A., University of 
Connecticut; Ph.D., University of Glasgow 
(Scotland) 

Ann Harper Fender (1978); Professor of Economics; 
A.B., Randolph Macon Woman's College; Ph.D., 
Johns Hopkins University 

Rebecca H. Fincher-Kiefer (1988); Associate Professor 
of Psychology; B.S., Washington College; M.S., 
Ph.D., University of Pittsbiugh 

James P. Fink (1992); Professor of Computer Science; 
B.S., Drexel University'; M.S., Ph.D., Stanford 
University 

David E. Flesner ( 1 97 1 ); Associate Professor of 
Mathematics, Department Chairperson; A.B., 
Wittenberg University; A.M., Ph.D., University' of 
Michigan 

Jean W. Fletcher ( 1 986); Associate Professor of 
Economics, Department Chairperson; B.S., 
University of Missouri; A.M., Ph.D., Washington 
University 

Suzanne Johnson Flynn (1990); Associate Professor of 
English; B.A., State University of New York at 
Stony Brook; M.A., Ph.D., University of Virginia 

Peter P. Fong^ (1994); Associate Professor of Biology; 
A.B., University of California, Berkeley; M.A., 
San Francisco State University; Ph.D., University 
of California, Santa Cruz 

Karen J. Frey (1993); Associate Professor of 
Management; Department Chairperson; B.S., 
B.A., M.B.A., Shippensburg University of 
Pennsylvania; Ph.D., University of Maryland 

Fritz R. Gaenslen ( 1 99 1 ); Associate Professor of 
Political Science, B.A., Miami University (Ohio); 
M.A., Ph.D., University of Michigan 

J. Matthew Gallman (1998); Henry R. Luce Professor 
of Civil War Era and Professor of History; B.A., 
Princeton University; Ph.D., Brandeis University 

Robert R. Garnett (1981); Professor of English; B.A., 
Dartmouth College; M.A., Ph.D., University of 
Virginia 

Danieia Garofalo (2002); Visiting Assistant Professor 
of English; B.A., Smith College; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Mainland 



Daniel R. Gilbert Jr.' (1999); Professor of Management 
and David M. LeVan Chair in Ethics and 
Management; B.A., Dickinson College; M.B.A., 
Lehigh University; Ph.D., University of 
Minnesota 

Sandra K. Gill (1984); Associate Professor of Sociology, 
Department Chairperson; ^.S., Auburn University; 
M.A., University of Alabama; Ph.D., University 
of Oregon 

Steven J. Gimbel (1999); Assistant Professor of 
Philosophy; B.A., University of Maiyland; 
M.A., Ph.D. .Johns Hopkins University 

Mwangi wa Githinji (1996-97; 1 997-99; 2002); 

Visiting Assistant Professor of African American 
Studies and Economics; Coordinator of African 
American Studies; B.A., City College of New York; 
M.A., Ph.D., University of California-Riverside 

Leonard S. Goldberg (1982); Associate Professor of 
English, Department Chairperson; B.A., University 
of Michigan; M.A., Ph.D., University' of 
Pennsylvania 

Derrick K. Gondwe ( 1 977); Professor of Economics; 
B.A., Lake Forest College; M.A., Universit)' of 
Wisconsin; Ph.D., University of Manitoba 

Timothy N. Good (1990); Associate Professor of 
Physics; B.S., Dickinson College; M.S., Ph.D., 
University of California-Irvine 

Nathalie Goubet (200 1 ); Visiting Assistant Professor 
of Psychology; B.A., M.A., Ph.D., University of 
Massachusetts, Amherst 

Sharon Davis Gratto (1992); Associate Professor of 
Music and Music Education Coordinator; B.Mus., 
Oberlin College; M.A., American University; 
M.Mus., State University of New York at 
Potsdam; D.M.A., The Catholic University 
of .■\merica 

Laurence A. Gregorio' (1983); Professor of French; 
B.A., Saint Josephs College; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Pennsylvania 

Joseph J. Grzybowski (1979); Professor of Chemistry; 
Defxirtment Chairperson; B.S., King's College; 
Ph.D., Case Western Reserve University 

Gordon A. Haaland (1990); President and Professor of 
Psychology; A.B., Wlieaton College; Ph.D., State 
University of New York at Buffalo 

Scott Hancock (2001); Assistant Professor of History 
and African American Studies; B.A., Bryan 
College; M.A., Ph.D., University of New 
Hampshire 



Christina L. Ericson Hansen (2002); Lecturer 
of History; B.A.,Gett)sburg College; M.A., 
University of Maryland 

Jennifer L. Hansen (1999); Assistant Professor of 
Philosophy; B.A., Santa Clara University; M.A., 
Boston College; Ph.D., State University of New 
York at Stony Brook 

Jerome 0. Hanson (1984); Associate Professor of 
Theatre Arts, Department Chairperson; B.A., State 
Universit)' of New York at Fredonia; M.A., 
University of Cincinnati 

Caroline A. HartzelP (1993); Associate Professor of 
Political Science, Coordinator of Latin American 
Studies; B.A., University of Puget Sound; M.A., 
Ph.D., University of California, Davis 

Barbara Schmitter Heisler (1989); Professor of 
Sociology; B.G.S., Roosevelt University; M.A., 
Ph.D., University of Chicago 

Julia A. Hendon (1996); Assistant Professor of 
Anthropology; B.A., University of Penn.sylvania; 
A.M., Ph.D., Harvard University 

Sherman S. Hendrix (1964); Professor of Biology; 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.S., Florida State 
University; Ph.D., University of Maryland 

Donald W. Hinrichs (1968); Professor of Sociology; 
B.A., Western Maryland College; M.A., 
University of Mar)'land; Ph.D., Ohio State 
L'niversity 

Kazuo Hiraizumi {\9&7); Associate Professor of 
Biology, Department Chairperson; B.S., Stanford 
University; Ph.D., North Carolina State 
University 

Andria L. Hoffman (2002); Assistant Professor of 
Health and Exercise Sciences; B.S., Lock Haven 
University; M.S., Northern Illinois Universit}'; 
Ph.D., Temple University 

Helenmarie Hofman ( 1 99 1 ); Associate Professor of 
Education; B.S., M.Ed., Indiana University of 
Pennsylvania; Ph.D., University of Minnesota 

Eleanor J. Hogan (1999); Assistant Professor of 
Japanese; B.A., Bates College; M.A., Ph.D., 
Wa.shington University 

Koren A. Holland (1992); Associate Professor of 
Chemistry; B.A., Skidmore College; Ph.D., 
Universit)' of Maryland, College Park 

Mark R. Hopkins (2002); Assistant Professor of 
Economics; B.A., Wesleyan University; M.Sc, 
London School of Economics; Ph.D., University 
of Wisconsin-Madison 



Kathleen P. lannello' (1990); Associate Professor of 
Political Science; B.A., University of Arizona; M.A. 
(2), Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University 

Steven W. James ( 1 992); Associate Professor of 
Biology; B.A., Gettysburg College; M.S., Ph.D., 
Universir\- of Minnesota 

Donald L. Jameson ( 1 985); (i. Bowers and Louise 
Hook Mansdorfer Distinguished Professor of 
Chemistry; B.S., Bucknell University; Ph.D., 
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 

John W.Jones (1989); Associate Professor of Music, 
Department Chairperson; B.S., Lebanon Valley 
College; M.Ed., Towson State University; D.M.A., 
Temple Universit\' 

Florence Ramond Jurney (2002); Assistant Professor 
of French; B.A., M.A., D.E.A., Sorbonne 
University" Ph.D., University of Oregon 

Brooks A. Kaiser (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Economics; A.B., Vassar College; Ph.D., 
Northwestern University 

Christopher Kauffman (2002); Visiting Assistant 
Professor of Theatre Arts; B.A., Gettysburg College; 
M.F.A., Brandeis University 

Sarah Keith (2002); Lecturer in English; B.A., 
Bucknell University; M.EA., University of Iowa 

Yoshimitsu Khan (200 1 ); Assistant Professor of 
Japanese Studies; B.S., Sophia University (Tokyo); 
M.A., Seton Hall Universit)'; Ph.D., University of 
Pennsylvania 

Daria J. Kremer (1999); Assistant Professor of 
Mathematics; B.S., B.A., Bethel College; M.S.. 
Ph.D., University of Iowa 

Elizabeth Riley Lambert (1984); Professor of English; 
B.A., Duquesne University; M.A., George Mason 
University; Ph.D., University of Mar)'land 

William H. Lane (2000); Lecturer in English; B.A., 
Gettysburg College; M.A., Graduate Institute at 
St. John's College 

Fred G. Leebron (1997); Associate Professor of 
English; B..\., Princeton University; M.A., Johns 
Hopkins University; M.F.A., University of Iowa 

Shawna Leigh (2002); Visiting Assistant Professor of 
Classics; B.A., Temple University; M.A., Ph.D., 
Universit)' of Pennsylvania 

L.Carl Leinbach (1967); Professor of Computer 
Science; B.A., Lafayette College; M.A., University 
of Delaware; Ph.D.. University of Oregon 



Dina Lowy (2000); Assistant Professor of History; 
B.A., University of Pennsylvania; M.A.. Princeton 
Universitv; Ph.D.. Rutgers University 

Darren MacFarland (200 1 ); Assistant Professor of 
Chemistiy; B.A., Williams College; Ph.D., 
Universitv' of Wisconsin 

Laurence A. Marschall (1971); W.K.T. Sahm Professor 
of Physics; Department Chairperson; B.S.. Cornell 
University; Ph.D.. University of Chicago 

Charles Martin (2002); Instructor in French; Licence 
de Francais Langue Etrangers; Maitrise 
d'anglais; Maitrise de Erancais Langue 
Estrangere, Universitv' of Rennes 

Michael E. Matsinko (1976); Associate Professor of 
Music; B.S., M.M.. West Chester University of 
Pennsylvania 

Daniel D. McCall (1998); Assistant Professor of 
Psychology; B.A.. M.S., Ph.D., University of 
Massachusetts at Amherst 

Arthur W. McCardle (1969); Associate Professor of 
German, Department Chairperson; B.A.. M.A., 
Ph.D., Columbia University 

Jan E. Mikesell (1973); Professor of Biology; B.S., 
M.S., Western Illinois University; Ph.D., Ohio 
State University 

Jacquelynne B. Milingo (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Physics; B.S. (2), Universit)' of Kansas; Ph.D., 
University' of Oklahoma 

Dorothy C. Moore (1999); Lecturer in Spanish; B.A., 
M.A., California State University-Fresno 

Kenneth F. Mott (1966); Professor of Political Science; 
A.B., Franklin and Marshall College; M.A., 
Lehigh University; Ph.D., BroAvn University 

George M. Muschamp Jr. (1997); Assistant Professor of 
Theatre Arts; B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Minnesota 

Charles D. Myers Jr. (1986); Associate Professor of 
Religion, Department Chairperson; B.A., Duke 
Universit)'; M.Div., Ph.D., Princeton Theological 
Seminal")' 

James P. Myers Jr.' (1968); Professor of English; B.S.. 
LeMoyne College; M.A., Universit)' of .Arizona; 
Ph.D., Universit)' of Massachusetts 

Robert Natter (1998); Assistant Professor of Music 
and Director of Choral Activities; B.A., M.A., 
Universit)' of California, Santa Cruz; D.M.A., 
Universit) of Cincinnati College-ConservatoiT 
of Music 



Todd W. Neller (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Computer Science; B.S., Cornell University; M.S., 
Ph.D., Stanford University 

Katsuyuki Niiro ( 1 972); Associate Professor of 
Economics; B.A., M.A., University of Hawaii; M.A., 
Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

Paula D. Olinger (1979); Associate Professor of 
Spanish; B.A., University of Wisconsin; M.A., 
Ph.D., Brandeis University 

David Ozag ( 1 998); Assistant Professor of 
Management; B.S., University' of Maryland, 
(lollege Park; M.B.A., Mount Saint Mary's 
College; Ed.D., Ceorge Washington University; 
CPA 

William E. Parker (1967); Professor of Chemistry; 
B.A., Haverford College; M.S., Ph.D., Universit)' 
of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 

Alan H. Paulson (1978); Professor of Visual Arts; 
B.F.A., Philadelphia College of Art; M.F.A., 
Universit)' of Pennsylvania 

Lewes T. Peddell (2002); Instructor in Music 
and Director of Bands; B.M., Queensland 
Conser\'atorium, Griffuh University'; M.M., 
School of Music, University of Minnesota 

Peter J. Pella (1987); Professor of Physics; B.S.. 
United States Military Academy; M.S., 
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Ph.D., Kent 
State Universit)' 

Alan R. Perry (2002); Assistant Professor of Italian; 
B.A., University of Notre Dame; M.A., 
Middlebury College; Ph.D., University of 
Wisconsin-Madison 

Mark A. Peterson (2002); Visiting Assistant Professor 
of Anthropology; B.A.. University of California, 
Los Angeles; M.A., Catholic University of 
America: Ph.D., Brown University 

David F. Petrie (1997); Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.A., Gettysburg College; 
M.S., University of Delaware 

Thane S. Pittman (1972); Professor of Psychology; 
B.A., Kent State University; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Iowa 

Jonelle E. Pool ( 1 996); Associate Professor of 
Education; B.A., Carroll College; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Georgia 



Lisa Portmess ( 1 979); Professor ofPhibsophy, 
Department Chairperson; B.A., Gettysburg College; 
M.A., Ph.D., Queen's University 

Jean L. Potuchek ( 1 988); Associate Professor of 
Sociology; A.B., Salve Regina College; A.M., 
Ph.D., Brown University 

Janet M. Powers (1963-65; 1987-88; 1998); Associate 
Professor of Women 's Studies and Interdisciplinary 
Studies and Coordinator of Global Studies; B.A., 
Bucknell University; M.A., University of 
Michigan; M..'\., Ph.D., University of Wisconsin 

Clifford Presser (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Computer Science; R.S., Pepperdine University; 
Ph.D., University of South Carolina 

William F. Railing (1964); Professor of Economics; 
B.S., United States Merchant Marine Academy; 
B.A., Johns Hopkins University; Ph.D., Cornell 
Universit)' 

Rajmohan Ramanathapillai (2002); Visiting Assistant 
Projessor of Global Studies; M.A., Ph.D., McMaster 
University 

Rosario Ramos {\991); Assistant Professor of Spanish; 
B.A., University of Puerto Rico; M.A., University 
of Maryland; Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University 

Kathryn Rhett {\997); Assistant Professor of English; 
B.A., M.A., Johns Hopkins University; M.F.A., 
University of Iowa 

Janet Morgan Riggs ( 1 98 1 ); Professor of Psychology; 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., Ph.D., Princeton 
University 

Richard J. Ritchie (2002); Visiting Assistant Professor 
of Management; B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., 
Universit)' of Richmond; Ph.D., University of 
Houston 

Michael L. Ritterson' (1968); Associate Professor of 
German; A.B., Franklin and Marshall College; 
Ph.D., Har\'ard University 

Marta E. Robertson ( 1 997); Associate Professor of 
Music; B.Mus., University of Kansas; M.Mus., 
Ph.D., Universit)' of Michigan 

Alicia Rolon' (1994); Associate Professor of Spanish; 
B.A., Instituto Superior del Profesorado "Victor 
Mercante" (Argentina); M.A., Temple University; 
Ph.D., University of Colorado, Boulder 



William E. Rosenbach (1984); Harold G. Evans 
Projcssor oj Eiscnhouin Leadership Studies; B.S., 
B.B.A., Texas A & M University; M.B.A., Golden 
Gate University; Ph.D., University of Colorado 

Susan Russell (1998); Assistant Professor of Theatre 
Arts; B.A., Hendrix College; M.A., University of 
Wisconsin; Ph.D., University of Washington 

John E. Ryan (1994); Associate Professor of English; 
A.A., Broome Community College; B.A., New 
York University; M.A., Ph.D., Case Western 
Reserve University 

Irma Salazar (lOQl);Instructor in Spanish; 
Licenciatura (equivalent of M.A.), Universidad 
de Alcala, Madrid 

Steven A. Samaras (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Management; BBA, Loyola University; MBA, 
Northern Illinois University; Ph.D., University of 
Nebraska-Lincoln 

Ricardo Samuel (2002); Visiting Assistant Professor of 
Sociology; B.A., M.A., Free University of Berlin; 
M.A., Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley 

Magdalena S. Sanchez ( 1 994); Associate Professor of 
History; B.A., Seton Hall University; M.A., Ph.D., 
Johns Hopkins University 

Virginia E. Schein (1986); Professor of Management 
and Psychology; B.A., Cornell University; Ph.D., 
New York University 

Timothy J. Shannon (1996); Associate Professor of 
History; B.A., Brown University; Ph.D., 
Northwestern L^niversity 

Stephen M. Siviy' (1990); Associate Professor of 
Psychology: B.A., Washington and Jefferson 
College; M.S., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; 
Ph.D., Bowling Green State University 

Carol D. Small (1969); Assistant Professor of Visual 
Arts; B.A., Jackson College of Tufts University; 
M.A., Johns Hopkins University 

Carolyn S. Snively (1982); Professor of Classics; 
B.A., Michigan State University; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Texas at Austin 

William Solomon (2002); Assistant Professor of 
English; B.A., University of Washington; Ph.D., 
State LIniversity of New York at Stony Brook 

Barbara A. Sommer (2001); Assistant Professor of 
History; B.A., Colorado College; M.A., University 
of Chicago; Ph.D., University of New Mexico 



Deborah A. Sommer ( 1 998); Assistant Professor of 
Religion; B.A., Case Western Reserve University; 
M.A., M.P., Ph.D., Columbia University 

Barbara j. Sommers (2002); Instructor in Spanish; 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., Middlebury 
College 

Ralph A. Sorensen (1977); Professor of Biology; B.A., 
University of California, Riverside; Ph.D., Yale 

LIniversity 

Sandra L Staton (2002); Visiting Assistant Professor 
of English and African Ameiican Studies; B.S., 
M.A., East Carolina University; Ph.D., Howard 

University 

Amina M. Steinfels (2001); Instructor in Religion; 
B.A., Amherst College; M.A., Yale University 

Sharon L.Stephenson {\997); Assistant Professor of 
Physics; B.S., Millsaps College; Ph.D., North 
Carolina State University 

Stephen Jay Stern (2002); Visiting Assistant Professor 
of Judaic Studies; B.A., Pomona College; Ph.D., 
Universit)' of Oregon 

Eileen M. Stillwaggon (1994); Associate Professor of 
Economics; B.S., Edmund Walsh School of Foreign 
Service, Georgetown Universit)'; Diploma in 
Economics, University of Cambridge, England; 
M.A., Ph.D., ,\merican University 

Peter A. Stitt ( 1 986); Professor of English, Editor of 
The Gettyslmrg RevieuK B.A., M.A., University of 
Minnesota; Ph.D., University of North Carolina 
at Chapel Hill 

Kristin J. Stuempfle (1997); Assistant Professor of 
Health and Exercise Sciences, Department Co- 
Chairperson; B.S., Ursinus College; Ph.D., The 
Pennsylvania State University College of 
Medicine 

Yan Sun (1001); Assistant Professor of Visual Arts; 
B.A., Beijing University; M.A., Ph.D., University 
of Pittsburgh 

Donald G.Tannenbaum (1966); Associate Professor of 
Political Science; B.B.A., M.A., City College of the 
City University of New York; Ph.D., New York 
Universitv 

C. Kerr Thompson (1985); Professor of Spanish; B.A., 
Davidson College; M.A., Ph.D., Louisiana State 
University 



> 



Rodney S.Tosten (1990); Associate Professor of 
Computer Science, Department Chairperson; 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.S., West Virginia 
Universit)'; Ph.D., George Mason University 

Amelia M.Trevelyan (1985); Associate Professor of 
Visual Arts; &.A., M.A., University of Michigan; 
Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles 

Jacquelyn Tuerk (2002); Visiting Instructor in Visual 
Arts; B.A., University of Virginia; M.A., State 
University of New York at Stony Brook 

Istvan A. Urcuyo (2000); Visiting Assistant Professor 
of Biology; B.S., The Citadel — The Militar)- 
College of South Carolina; Ph.D., Pennsylvania 
State Universit)' 

Isabel Valiela (1999); Visiting Assistant Professor of 
Spanish; B.A., State University of New York at 
Albany; M.A., New York University (Madrid); 
Ph.D., Duke University 

Miguel Vinuela (1988); Associate Professor of Spanish, 
Department Chairperson; B.A., M.A., California 
State University, Fresno; Ph.D., University of 
California, Los Angeles 

Elizabeth Richardson VIti ( 1 984); Professor of French, 
Edwin T.Johnson and Cynthia Shearer Johnson 
Distinguished Teaching Professor in the Humanities; 
B.A., Wake Forest University; M.A., Middlebun,' 
(College; Ph.D., New York University 

Robert M.Viti (1971); Professor of French, 
Department Chairperson; B.A., St. Peter's College; 
VI.A., Ph.D., Duke University 

John A.Volkmar (1999); Assistant Professor of 
Management; B.A., Ohio State University; M.S., 
Ph.D., Temple Lhiiversity 

Kerry S. Walters (1985); Professor and William 
Bittinger Chair of Philosophy; B.A., Universit)' of 
North Carolina at Charlotte; M.A., Marquette 
University; Ph.D., University of Cincinnati 

H. Charles Walton (1989); Associate Professor of 
Management; B.S., Auburn University; M.A., East 
Tennessee State Universit)", Ph.D., Florida State 
Universit)'; CPA 

Shirley A. Warshaw (1987); Professor of Political 
Science; B.A., M.G.A., University of Pennsylvania; 
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins Universit)' 

Mark K. Warwick (2000); Assistant Professor of Visual 
Arts, Department Chairperson; B.A., The 
Polytechnic Wolverhampton in England; M.F.A., 
New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred 
Universit)' 



Michael R. Wedlock (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Chemistry; B.S., Hope College; M.S., Ph.D., 

Universit)' of Chicago 

David E. Weinrelch (200 1 ); Assistant Professor of 
Mathematics; B.S., M.S., Emory University; Ph.D., 
Universit)' of Memphis 

Charles L. Weise (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Economics; B.S., Georgetown University; Ph.D.. 
Lhiiversits' of Wisconsin-Madison 

Mark A. Weitz (2002); Visiting Assistant Professor 
of History; B.A., University of Texas; J. D., Baylor 
University School of Law; M.A., Southwest Texas 
State Universit)'; Ph.D., Arizona State University 

C. Mark Wessinger (2001); Assistant Professor of 
Psychology; B.S., Universit)' of Florida; Ph.D., 
University of California 

Randall K. Wilson (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Environmental Studies; B.A., Humboldt State 
Universit)'; M.A., University of Colorado, 
Boulder; Ph.D., University of Iowa 

Robert B. Winans (1987); Professor of English; ^A., 
Cornell University; M.A., Ph.D., New York 
University 

John R. Winklemann (1963); Associate Professor of 
Biology; B.A., Universit)' of Illinois; M.A., Ph.D., 
LTniversit)' of Michigan 

Cindy T. Wright (1999); Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.S., State Universit)' of New 
York at Cortland; M.S., Universit)' of Utah 

Kent D. Yager (1986); Associate Professor of Spanish; 
B.A., M.A., University of California, Santa 
Barbara; Ph.D., University of New Mexico 

Midori Yonezawa (2002); Luce Junior Professor of 
Japanese Language and Culture and Instructor in 
Japanese; B.A., Kyoto Sang)'o University; M.A., 
Universit)' of Michigan 

Charles J. Zabrowski (1987); Professor of Classics, 
Department Chairperson; \.^., Canisius College; 
M.A., University of Toronto; Ph.D., Fordham 
University 

' On leave, Fall semester 2003-04 

^ On leave, Spring semester 2003-04 

' On leave. Academic Year 2003-04 

* Off campus, Study Abroad Program, Fall 
Semester, 2003-04 



OTHERS HOLDING FACULTY RANK 
(2002-2003 ACADEMIC YEAR) 

Christine A. Altieri; Adjunct Instructor in English; 
B.A., Brown University; M.A., University of 
Virginia 

Gloria C. Alvarez; Adjunct Instructor in Spanish; 
B.A., Uni\ersity of Maryland; M.A., University of 
Texas at El Paso 

Gerald D. Baumgardner; Adjunct Assistant Professor 
of Economics; B.A., Pennsylvania State University; 
M.B.A., Shippensburg University of 
Pennsylvania; M.Ed., Pennsylvania State 
University; Ed.D., George Mason University 

Brent C. Blair; Adjunct Instnictor in Visual Arts; 
B.A., West Virginia University 

Jennifer P. Bloomquist; Adjunct Instructor in English; 
B.A., Clarion University of Pennsylvania; M.A., 
State University of New York at Buffalo 

Aurelien Bouvier; French Teaching Assistant; Maitrise 
Francais Langue Etrangere, University of Rennes 

Teresa Bowers; Adjunct Assistant Professor of Music; 
B.M.E., Susquehanna University; M.M., Ohio 
State University 

Sally M. Brasher; Adjunct Instructor in History; B.A., 
University of Colorado, Boulder; M.A., 
Minnesota State University 

Ryan Corrick Brown; Director of the Orchestra; B.M., 
Oberlin College (Conservatory of Music); M.M., 
College-Conservatory of Music, University of 
Cincinnati; M.M., Juilliard School 

Gitte Wermaa Butin; Adjunct Instructor in 
Philoso(}h\: B.A., M.A., University of Copenhagen 

Michael P. Cantele; Adjunct Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.A., Gettysbing College; M.S., 
Old Dominion University 

Paul J. Carrick; Adjunct Professor of Philosophy; B.A., 
Michigan State University; M.A., Universit)' of 
Pennsylvania; Ph.D., Temple University 

Pamela j. Castle; Adjunct Instructor in Biology: B.S., 
Oregon State Universit)'; M.S., Washington State 
University 

Ian R. Clarke; Adjunct Instructor of Physics; B.A., 
University' of Virginia; M.F.A., Universit)' of Iowa 

Laurel A. Cohen-Pfister; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
German; B.A., M.yV., University of Florida; Ph.D., 
University of California, Los Angeles 

Holly Cookerly; Adjunct Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.S., M.Ed., Pennsylvania State 
Universit\' 



P. Richard Cooper; Laboratory Instnictor II in 
Physics; B.A., Gettysburg College; M.Ed., Western 
Maryland College 

Elena De Miguel; Spanish Teaching Assistant; 
Licenciatura (equivalent of M.A.), Universidad 
de Alcala, Madrid 

Thomas S. Dombrowsky; Adjunct Instructor in 
Interdisciplinaiy Studies; B.A., University of Rliode 
Island; M.A., Morgan State University 

Lisa K. Dorrill; Adjunct Instructcrr in Visual Arts; 
B.A., University of Virginia; M.A., Northwestern 
Universit)'; Ph.D., University of Kansas 

Jeffrey Fahnestock; Adjunct Instructor in Music; 
B.M., M.M., Eastman School of Music, 
University of Rochester 

Martin A. Fees; Adjunct Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.S., Indiana University of 
Pennsylvania; M.S., M.P.T., University of 
Delaware 

Linda Karlne Fiscus; Adjunct Instructor in 
Mathematics; B.A., Susquehanna University; M.S., 
Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania 

William K. Foreman; Adjunct Instructor in 
Education; B.S., Shippensburg University of 
Pennsylvania; M.Ed., Pennsylvania State 
University 

Robert S. Fredrickson; Adjunct Professor of English; 
B.A., DePauw University; M.A., University of 
Minnesota; Ph.D., University of North CaroHna 
at Chapel Hill 

Lisa I. Gregory; Laboratory Instructor II in Chemistry; 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

Karen Friedland; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Theatre Arts; B.A., Goucher College; M.O.S., 
John Hopkins University 

Lynn E. Gumert; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Music; B.M., Catholic University of America; 
M.M., D.Mus., Indiana University 

Colleen M. Hartung; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Music: B.M., M.M., North Carolina School of the 
Alts; Ph.D., Michigan State Universit)' 

Michael Hayden; Laboratory Instructor in Physics; 
B.S., Unixersity of Mai7land, College Park 

James R. Hontz; Adjunct Assistant Professor of Music; 
B.M., M.M., Temple University 

Barbara Hulsether; Laboratory Instructor II in 
Biology: B.S., Utica College of Syracuse University 



k 



Kathryn H. Jones; Laboratory Instructor in Chemistry; 
B.S., University of Notre Dame; M.S., 
Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania 

Paula C. Kellinger; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
fheatre Arts; B.A., B.F.A., Adelphi University; 
MR A., Sarah Lawrence College 

Robert M. Knight; Adjunct Instructor in English; 
B.S., University of Colorado; M.A., DePaul 

L^niversity 

Renee A. Lehman; Adjunct histmrtor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.S., The Pennsylvania State 
University; M.S., University of Illinois at Urbana- 
Champaign; M.S., University of Rhode Island 

William Leslie; Adjunct Instructor in Computer 
Science; B.S.. Indiana University of Pennsylvania; 
M.Ed., Shippensbmg Universit)' of Pennsylvania 

Lani Lindeman; Adjunct Instructor in English and 
htterdisciplinaiy Studies; B.A., Gettysburg College 

Robert W. Lippy; Laboratory Instructor in Physics; 
K.S., Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania; 
M.S., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 

Kerry J. MacFarland; Adjunct Assistant Professor 
if Chemistry; B.A., Williams College; Ph.D., 
University of Wisconsin 

Carol Matsinko; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Music; B.S., M.M., West Chester Universit)' 
< >f Pennsylvania 

Ronald Miller; Adjunct Instructor in Education; 
B.S., Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania; 
M.Ed., Pennsylvania State University 

Sheila Mulligan; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
l-jiglish; B.S., M.F.A., Arizona State Universit)' 

Thomas 0. Mullikin; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Education; B.A., West Chester College; M.A., 
University of Delaware; Ph.D., Temple 
University 

Yukiko Niiro; Adjunct Instructor in Mathematics; 
B.B.A., M.B.A., Universit)' of Hawaii 

Lisa E. Paige-Stone; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
English; A.h., Harvard University; M.A., Ph.D., 
Bryn Mawr College 

Cyndy M. Phillips; Adjunct Instructor in English; 
B.A., University of Miami; M.A., Himiboldt State 
University (California) 

Phyllis Price; Laboratory Instructor II in Biology; 
B.A., Gettysburg College 



Catherine M. Quinn; Adjunct Instructor in Italian; 
B.A., University of Notre Dame; M.A., 
Middlebuiy College 

James 6. Ramos; Adjunct Instructor in Visual Arts; 
B.S., M.Ed., Pennsylvania State Universit)' 

Alden H. Reese; Laboratory Instructor II in Biology; 
A.B.. Hood College 

Pamela J. Rosenberg; Adjunct Associate Professor of 
Sociology; B.A., Beloit College; M.A., University 
of New Hampshire; Ph.D., Cornell University 

James Ryon; Adjunct Assistant Professor of Music; 
B.Mus., East Carolina University; M.Mus., Peabody 
Institute; D.M.A., Catholic Universit) of America 

Charles Saltzman; Adjunct Instructor in English; 
A.B., Harvard College; M.A.T., Harvard 
Graduate School of Education 

Anne E. Sauve; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Psychology; B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., Ph.D., 
Hofstra Universit)' 

James Schafer; Adjunct Instructor in Education; 
B.A., Wake Forest College; M.A., University of 
Maryland 

Michael Schmidt; Adjunct Instructor in Political 
Science; B.A., University at Albany, New York; 
M.A., American Universit)' 

Michaela Schwindt; German Teaching Assistant; First 
State Examination (equivalent of an M.A.), 
University of Hamburg 

Stephanie A. Sellers; Adjunct Instructor in English; 
B.A., American University; M.F.A., Goddard 
College 

Andrew G. Shaw; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Visual Arts; B.A., Kenyon College; M.F.A., New 
York State College of Ceramics at .\lfred 
University 

Kimberly Shuckra; Adjunct Instructor in English; 
B.A., Universit)' of Massachusetts; M.F.A., Sarah 
Lawrence College 

Allison C. Singley; Adjunct Instructor in English; 
B.A., University of Pennsylvania; M.A., 
University of Connecticut 

Wayne A. Slaughter; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Political Science; B.A., University of Colorado at 
Boulder; M.A., Ph.D., University of Illinois at 
Chicago 

Barbara Streeter; Adjunct Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.A., Lebanon Valley College 



Re^ster/ Administration 



Kenneth C. Washinger; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Mathematirs; R.S., Sliippensburg University of 
Pennsylvania; M.Ed., Pennsylvania State 
University; Ed.D., Rntgers University 

Helen J. Winkelmann; Senior Labomtory Inslriirlor in 
Biology and Adjunct Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.A., Notre Dame College of 
Staten Island; M.S., University of Michigan 

John Winship; Adjunct Instructor in Visual Arts; 
B.,\., Middlebury College 

Ronald K. Workinger; Adjunct Assistant Professor 
of Management; B.A., Millersville University 
of Pennsylvania; M.Ed., Ph.D., Pennsylvania 
State University 

Miki ^2Lg\; Japanese Teaching Assistant; B.A., Kansai- 
Gaidai Universit)' 

Francis A. Young; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
English; B.A. (2), M.A., Ph.D., University of 
Mankind, College Park 

Jo Ann K. Zeman; Laboratory Instructor II in Biology; 
B..\., Western Manland College 

Lori G. Zeshonsky; Adjunct Instructor in Music; 
B.A., West Chester University 

ADMINISTRATION 
(2002-2003 ACADEMIC YEAR) 

Emeriti 

Date in parentheses indicate years of service. 

Jay P. Brown (1947-1988), Bursar, Emeritus 

Mary G. Buret (1970-1986), Librarian, Emerita 

Roland E. Hansen (1973-1989), Business Manager, 
Emeritus 

Robert B. Kenworthy (1959-1999), Directm of Sports 

hi formal idii. Emeritus 

Nancy C. Locher (1968-1989), Dean of Student 
Advisement, Emerita 

Karl J. Mattson (1977-2001), Director of the Center 
jar Public Service, Emeritus 

Edward F. McManness (1970-1988), Directcn- of the 

College Union. Emeritus 

Anna Jane Moyer (1961-2000), Librarian, Emerita 

Robert C. Nordvall (1972-2002), Dean of First-Year 
Students, Emeritus 



James H. Richards Jr. (1974-1983), Librarian 
Ejnerilus 

Robert D.Smith (1959-1999), D/'nT/oro/ A/7/ ww? 
Rela lions, E merit us 

Frank B. Williams (1966-1993), Dean of Student Life 
and Educational Services, Emeritus 

Richard K.Wood (1969-1990), Director of Academic 
Computing, Emeritus 

Office of the President 

Gordon A. Haaland (1990); President and Professor of 
Psychology; A.B., Wheaton College; Ph.D., State 
Universit)' of New York at Buffalo 

Sherry Heflin (2001); Program Director of the 
Gettysburg Leadership Experience and Coordinator 
of the Eisenlumier Institute 

Cheryl Miller (1994); Executive Assistant to the 
President; B.S., Dickinson College; M.B.A., 
Columbia University 

Perrin Reid (2000); Director of Employment Equity 
and Diversity; B.A., Tufts University; M.A., 
Universit)' of Massachusetts, Amherst; J. D., 
Loyola Law School 

Dana Scaduto (2001); General Counsel; A.h., 
Purdue L'niversity; J.D., Indiana University' 

Cathy W. Staneck ( 1 989); Assistant to the President; 
B.A., Gett)'sburg College 

Provost 

Daniel R. DeNicola (1996); Provost and Professor of 
PhilosofAy; A.B., Ohio University; M.Ed., Ed.D., 
Harvard University 

Greg Anderson ( 1 994); Assistant Director of the 
Advancing Science Program, Biology; B.S., St. 
Bonaventiue Universit), Teacher Certification, 
Daemen College 

Teresa Amott (2000); Vice Provost; B.A., Smith 
College; Ph.D., Boston College 

Rebecca A. Bergren (1997); Director of Off Campus 
Studies; B.A., M.P.S., .\lfred University 

G. Ronald Couchman (1967); Ref!^strar;E.A., 
Gettysbiug College 

Rhonda Good (2001); Assistant Provost for the 
Sciences; B.A., Millersville University 

Tina M. Grim (1980); Program Manager, Civil War 
Institute 

Barbara J. Herman (1975); Executive Assistant to the 
Provost 



Ronald D. Miller (1993); Director of Field Experiences; 
B.S., Shippensburg University; M.Ed., Penn 
State Universit)' 

William Shoemaker (2002); Chemical Hygiene 
Officer; B.S., Gettysburg College 

Jack W. Sipe (1998); Teacher Specialist; B.S., 
Millersville Universit)'; M.S., Shippensburg 
University 

Glenn Snyder (1992); Research Associate /Programmer, 
Physics; B.S., Case Institute of Technology; 
Ph.D., Case Western Reserve University 

Alan Szarawarski (2001); Interim Assistant Provost; 
B.S., MIT; Ph.D., Harvard University 

Mary Waltz; Manager of Registrar's IS 

Academic Advising 

GailAnn Rickert {\991)\ Dean of Academic Advising; 
B.A., Dickinson College; M.A., University of 
Oxford; Ph.D., Harvard University 

Maureen E. Forrestal (2002); Assistant Dean of 
Academic Advising and Director of External 
Felloiuships; B.A., Marist College; M.A., Ohio 
State Universit)'; Ph.D., S)Tacuse University 

Anne B. Lane (1989); Associate Dean of Academic 
Advising; B.A., Elizabethtown College; M.A., 
Universit)' of Iowa 

Sue Plank (2002); Manager of Ancillary IS and 
Campus Community 

Gettysburg Review 

Peter Stitt (1986); Editor, Professor of English; B.A., 
M.A., University of Minnesota; Ph.D., University 
of North Carolina-Chapel Hill 

Mark S. Drew (1998); Assistant Editor; B.A., 
Kent College; M.EA., University of Alabama 

Melinda Wilson; Manning Editor; B.A., University 
of Louisiana, Monroe; M.F.A., Universit)' of 
.\labama 

Information Technology and Computing 

David Steinour (1999); Vice Provost for IT 

Mark A. Albert (1998); Web Programmer/Analyst; 
B.A., Shippensburg University 

John C. Baker (1998); MIS Programmer/Analyst; 
B.A., Geneva College; M.S., Shippensburg 
University 

Lisa Becker (2001); MIS Progammer/Analysl 
(Ancillary Systetn); A. A., York College 



Sharon Birch; Director of Instructional Technology; 
B.A., Southwestern University at Georgetown; 
M.A., Bowling Green State University; Ph.D., 
Bowling Green State University 

David M. Czar (1994); MIS DBA & Systems Analyst; 
B.A., Drew Universit)' 

John Duffy (2001); CNAV Admin/Systems Analyst; 
B.A., Wesleyan University; M.A., Brown 
University: Ph.D., Boston University 

Richard J. Fawley (1995); Netivork 
Operator /Computer Lab Specialist 

Michael B. Hayden (1996); Director of Infrastnicttire 
and Operations; B.S.E.E., Universit)' of Maryland 
at College Park 

David Heinzelmann; Computer Systems Administrator; 
A.A., Devry Technical Institute 

Marianne Kingston (200 1 ); Director of Response 

David Kline (1999); MIS Programmer/Analyst; B.S., 
M.B.A, Frostburg State Universit)' 

Stephan Lewis (1999); Director of MIS; h.S., Penn 
State University; M.S., Troy State University 

Eric Markle (2001); Webmaster; B.S., York College 

Gary Millburn (1999); MIS Programmer/Ancdyst; R.S., 
Universit\' of Southern Florida 

David Nettekoven; MIS Program?net /Analyst; B.S., 
Indiana University 

David Rice (1999); MIS Programmer/Analyst; E.S., 
Shippensburg University 

Amy Riley (1999); l^'DC/NT Systems Administrator; 
B.S., University of Washington; M.S., Johns 
Hopkins University 

James Riley (1999); MIS DBA cf Systems Analyst; 
B.S.. Universitv of Maniand 

Patricia Rollins (2001); Manager of 

Telecom m u ni cat ions 

James RutkowskI (200 1 ); Instructional Technologist; 
B.S., Towson University; M.A., UMBC 

William P Wilson (1979); Director of Web Technology; 
B.A., Gett)'sburg College; M.A., Ph.D., University 
of Connecticut 

Eric J.Yurick (1995); Internet Services Specialist; B.S., 
M.S.. Shippensbiug University 

Musselman Library 

Robin Wagner ( 1 995); Director of Library Services; 
B.A., Dickinson College; M.L.S., Universit)' of 
Kentucky; M.A., Dartmouth College 



Christine Amadure ( 1 999); Processiyig Reference 
Arrhivist; B.A., Shippensburg University; M.A., 
Penn State University; M.S.L.S., Clarion 
University 

Kathleen D'Angelo (2001); Serials/ Acquisitions 
Librarian; B.A., University of North Carolina; 
M.L.S., University of North Carolina 

Sidney G. Dreese ( 1 995); Reference/Instructional 
Librarian; B.A., Clarion Universit)" M.S., Drexel 
University 

Katherine Downton (2002); Reference/Instnicticm 
Librarian; B. A., Uni\ersity of Colorado; M.S., 
Universit)' of Illinois 

Karen Dricl<amer (1999); Archivist /Special Colkctions 
Librcman; B.A., North Adams State College, MA; 
M.L.S., State University of New York-Albany 

Cynthia Gibbon (2001); ,\ccess Services Manager; 
B.A.. Slippeiy Rock University; Teacher 
Certification in Secondaiy English, Indiana 
University of Pennsylvania; M.L.A., Western 
Maryland College 

David T. Hedrick (1972); Coordinator of Colkctions; 
B.A., EmoiT and Henry College; M.A., 
University of Denver 

Amrita McKinney (2001); Head of Technical Services; 
B.S., Northern Aiizona University; M.L.S., 
Louisiana State University 

Kerri Odess-Harnish (2002); Reference/Instruction 
Librarian; B.A., Universit)' of Puget Sound; 
M.S.L.S., University of North Carolina 

Donna Sl<ekel (2002); Serials Cataloging Manager; 
B.S., University of Maryland; M.L.S., University 
of Wisconsin 

Janelle Wertzberger (1997); Head of Reference/ 
Instructional Librarian; B.A., Southwestern 
University; M.A., University of Florida; M.L.I.S., 
University of Texas at Austin 

College Life 

Julie L.Ramsey (1981); Vice President for College Life 
and Dean of Students; B.A., Denison University; 
M.A., Indiana University 

Loretta W. Hylton (1989); Executive Assistant to the 
\ 'ice President for College Life and Dean of Students 

Thomas Mottola (1998); Associate Dean of College 
Life; B.A., Georgetown University; M.E.D., 
Harvard University 



Margaret-Ann Radford-Wedemeyer ( 1 986); Associate 
Dean of College Life C^ Sexual Harassment Officer; 
B.A., Texas Women's Universit)'; M.A., Hood 
College 

Campus Recreation 

Kristina Martin (2002); Director of Campus 
Recreation; B.A., University of Pennsylvania; 
M.Ed., Universit)' of Georgia 

Center for Career Development 

Kathleen L.Williams (1998); Director of the Center 
for Career Development; B.A., Albion College; 
M.A., Western Michigan University 

Lorie Davis (2001); Career Counselor; U.S., 
Kutztown Universit)'; M.A., Shippensburg 
University 

Kathleen Regentin (2001); Assistant Director of the 
Center for Career Development; B.S., Radford 
Universit)'; M.S., Shippensbing Universit)' 

Center for Public Service 

Julia Reed (2001); Director; B.A., M.S.S.W., 
University, of Wisconsin 

Gretchen Natter ( 1 998); Associate Director for the 
Center for Public Semice; B.S., Baldwin Wallace 

Chaplain 

Rev. Joseph A. Donnella II (1997); Chaplain; B.A., 
Duquesne University; M.Div., Lutheran School 
of Theolog)', Chicago 

Josephine Bailey Freund (1991); College Organist, 
Adjunct Instructor in Music; B.S., John Hopkins 
University; B.Mus., M.Mus., Peabody 
Conservatory 

Counseling Services 

William H.Jones (1964); Coordinator of Counseling; 
B.A., Eastern Nazarene College; M.A., University 
of Wisconsin; Ed.D., Boston Universit)' 

Shirley S.Armstrong (1995); Counselor; KA., 
Gettysburg College; M.A., Shippensburg Uni\'ei-sit)' 

Harriet Barriga Marritz (1989); Counselor, Drug 
Education Coordinator; B.A., Lafayette College; 
M.S., Millersville University of Pennsylvania 

Frances F. Parker (1980); Associate Coordinator of 
Counseling; B.A., NLA., University of Kentucky 

Experiential Education 

John E. Regentin (1995); Director of Expetiential 
Education; B.S., M.S., Radford University 



Greg Henderson (200 1 ); Assistant Director of 
Experiential Education and Campus Recreation; 
B.A., SUNYGeneseo; M.Ed., College of William 
and Mary 

Health Services 

Frederick Kinsella {\99Q); Nurse Practitioner and 
Director oj Student Health Services; B.S., Wagner 
College; M.S., Wagner College; Post-Master's 
Certificate, Universit)' of Virginia 

Janice Onieal (\997); Nurse Practitioner; B.A., 
B.S.N. , Jersey Cit>' State College; M.S.N. , Seton 
Hall University 

Constance A. Songer (1986); Nurse Practitioner; 
R.N., Washington Hospital Center 

Intercultural Advancement 

H. Pete Curry (1997); Dean of Intercultural 
Advancement; B.A., Baldwin Wallace College; 
M.A., Bowling Green State University 

Sylvia Asante (2002); Assistant Director of the 
Intercultural Resource Center; B.A., Gettysburg 
College 

Yukiko K. Niiro (1986); Counselor, Intercultural 
Resources Center; ^.A., M.A., University of Hawaii 

Judicial Affairs 

Jeff Foster (2002); Director of Judicial Affairs; B.S., 
M..\.. Indiana University of Pennsylvania 

Office of Greek Organizations 

Dennis M. Murphy (1990); Assistant Dean of the 
College and Director of Greek Organizations; B.A., 
Saint Francis College (Pennsylvania); M.S., 
Shippensburg Universit)' of Pennsylvania; Ed.D., 
Indiana University 

Residence Life 

Jim Wiltgen (1001); Director of Residence Life; KA., 
Loras College; M.Ed., .Arizona State University 

Natalie Basil (2000); Assistant Director of Residence 
Life; B.A., Marietta College; M.A., Indiana 
University of Pennsylvania 

Andrea Flagg (2002); Area Manager; B.A., Macon 
College; M.S., Indiana Universit}' 

Brandon Ice (2002); Area Manager; B.S., Indiana 
Uni\ersit\ 

Jeff Terpstra (2001); Area Manager; B.S., Calvin 
(Jollege; M.A., Geneva College 



Safety and Security Services 

William Lafferty (2000); Director of Security Services; 
B.A., Eastern College; M.S., Villanova Universit}' 

David Taylor (1999); Associate Director of Campus 
Safety; A. A., Harrisburg Area Community College 

Student Activities 

S. Mark Sikes (1999); Director of Student Activities; 
B.A., Universit)' of South Carolina; M.Ed., 
Virginia Tech 

Christine Sedlacko (2000); Program Coordinator; 
B.A., Gett)sburg College 

College Relations 

Lex 0. McMillan, III (1993); Vice President for College 
Relations; ^A., Washington & Lee University; 
M.A., Georgia State University; Ph.D., University 
of Notre Dame 

Susanne Shaw (2001); Assistant Vice President for 
Deuelojmient; B.A., Regis College 

Advancement Services 

Alan J. Hejnal (2001); Director of Advancement 
Services; B.A., Hobart College; M.A., University of 
Michigan; M.A., School of Theology at Claremont 

Diana Snell (2000); Assistant Director of 
Adx 'a n cemen t Semices 

Alumni Relations 

Joseph Lynch (2000); Director of Alumni Relations; 
B.A., Gettysbiug C^ollege 

Katherine Casey {lOOO); Associate Director of Alumni 
Relations; B.S.E., Millersville University 

Charles Dittrlch (^001); Assistant Director of Alumni 
Relations; B.A., Gett\'sburg College 

Annual Giving 

Jennifer Nesbit (2001); Associate Director of Annual 
Giving; B.A., (iettvsburg College 

Richard Keplinger (2002); Annual Giving Officer; 
B.S., Shepherd College 

Camilla Ravyleigh {\ 999); Executive Director of the 
Orange cjf Blue Club; B.A., Universit)' of North 
Carolina 

Capital Giving 

Christine A. Benecke (1992); Manager of Researcli; 
B.Hum., Penn State University 

Emily Clarke (1991); Associate Director of Planned 
Giving; B.A., University of North Carolina 



Donald R. Cooney (1995); Associate Vice President for 
Dexielopmenl; B.A., Gettysburg C^oUege 

Elizabeth Dahmus (IQQO); Director of Planned 
diving: B.S.. Penn State University; M.P.A., Penn 
State University 

William P. Deptula (1997); Associate Director of 
Capital (iiiiing; B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., 
Bowling Green University 

Jeanne deBrun Duffy (1999); Director of Foundation 
and Corporate Support: B.A., Gett)sburg College; 
Ph.D., Brown University 

Jean S. LeGros (1978-1988). (1991); Associate 
Director of Capital Cit'iug: B.A., Gettysburg College 

Janet Wiley Mulderrig (1999); Director of Major Gifts: 
B.A., (iettAsbiirg College 

Jeffrey Pierce (2000); Capital Gifts Officer; B.S., 
Towson State University 

Jean Straub (2000); Capital Gifts Officer: B.S., 
Lamar University 

Karen Weiss (1999); Capital Gifts Officer; B.A., West 
Chester University 

Public Relations 

Patricia A. Lawson ( 1 999); Associate Vice President 
for Communications and Public Relations; B.A., 
Eastern Connecticut State College; M.S., 
Syracuse University 

Arwen Bartholomew (2002); Graphic Designer; 
B.F.A., Universit\' of Illinois 

Matthew G. Daskivich (1999); Sports Injormation 
Director; U.S., Muhlenberg College; M.A.M., 
University of Virginia 

Mary E. Dolheimer (1991); Director of Media 
Relations; B.S., Indiana University of 
Pennsylvania 

James Hale (2000); Staff Writer; B.A., Valparaiso 

University 

Steven Westfall (2000); Graphic Designer; H.F.A., 
Maine College of Art 

Jerold Wikoff (1985); College Editor, Director of 
Publications and New Media; B.A., M.A., Ph.D., 
Stanford University 

Enrollment and Educational Services 

Barbara Fritze (2001); Vice President of Enrollment 
and Educational Sendees; B.A., Beaver College; 
M.S., Drexel Universit)' 



Admissions 

Gail Sweezey (1983); Director of Admissions; 
B.A., Allegheny (x)llege 

Leigh Anne Bennett (2000); Assistant Director of 
Admissions; B.A., Colgate University 

Daniel A. Dundon (1972); Senior Associate Director of 
Admissions; B.A., State University of New York at 
Buffalo; M.A., Eastern Michigan University 

Darryl W.Jones (1985); Senior Associate Director of 
Admissions: B.A., Pennsylvania State University 

Sarah Kotlinski (1000); Associate Director of 
Admissions Csi' Coordinator of Technical Operations; 
B.A., Susquehanna University 

Paul Redfern (2002); Admissions Counselor; B.A., 
Gettysburg College 

Joseph C. Sharrah (1996); Admissions Counselor; 
B.A., Gettysbiug College; M.B.A., Shippensburg 
University 

Courtney Wege (2001); Admissions Counselor; B.A., 
Gettysbiug College 

Mary Wilkes (2000); Assistant Director of Admissions; 
B.A., Gettysbiug College 

Bryan Zerbe (2002); Associate Director of Adynissions; 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.B.A., Boston 
College 

Institutional Analysis 

Salvatore Ciolino (1971); Associate Dean of 
Enrollment and Educational Services; B.A., State 
University of New York at Geneseo; M.S., State 
University of New York at Albany; Ed.D., Nova 
University 

Ronald L. Shunk (1983); Assistant Dean of 
Institutional Analysis/Financial Aid; B.A., M.Ed., 
Pennsylvania Slate Universit)' 

Intercollegiate Athletics 

David W.Wright (1986); Associate Athletic Directerr, 
Head Coach/Soccer, Head Coach/Tennis; B.S., State 
University of New York at Cortland; M.A., 
Brigham Yoiuig University 

John W. Campo (1985); Head Coach/ Baseball, 
Assistant Coarh /Football; B.S., University of 
Delaware; M.S., Queens College of the City 
University of New York 

Carol D. Cantele (1992); Senior Women's Athletic 
Administrator, Head Coach/Women's Lacrosse; B.A., 
Gettysburg College; M.A., Miami Universit)' at 
Oxford 



^^ 



Michael P. Cantele (1990); Athletic Trainer; B.A., 
Gettysburg College; M.S., Old Dominion 

Universit)' 

Robert T. Condon (1993); Head Coach/Men's and 
Women 's Cross Country, Head Coach/Track and 
Field; B.A., Olivet College; M.Ed., Miami 
University at Oxford 

Troy A. Dell (1995); Head Wrestling Coach/Strength 
cjf Conditioning Coach; B.A., Gettysburg College 

Joseph D. Donolli (1971); Head Athletic Trainer; 
B.S., Univensit)' of Delaware; M.Ed., Temple 
Universit)' 

Henry Janczyk ( 1 987); Head Coach/Men 5 Lacrosse; 
B.A., Hobart College; M.A., Albany State University' 

Barbara Jordan (2002); Head Field Hockey /Assistant 
Women, 's Lacrosse Coach; B.S., Penn State University 

Kimberly A. Kelly (1992); Head Volleyball Coach/ 
Assistant Snfthall Coach; B.S., Gettysburg College 

Michael T. Kirkpatrick (1989); Head Coach/Women's 
Basketball, Head Coach /Softball; A. A., Commiinits' 
College of Allegheny, Boyce Campus; B.S., 
University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown 

Kerry McKnight (2002); Assistant Athletic Trainer; 
B.S., Slippery Rock Universit)'; M.Ed., Old 
Dominion Universit)' 

George R. Petrie ( 1 989); Head Coach/Men 's 
Basketball, Co-Head Coach/Golf; B.A., Lebanon 
\alley College; M.Ed., University of Utah 

Michael K. Rawleigh (1985); Head Coach/Men's and 
Women's Swimming, Aquatics Director; B.A., 
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; 
M.S., Western Maiyland College 

John F. Schmid (1990); Assistant Coach /Foot ball, 
Assistant Coach/Track and Field; B.S., Ursinus 
College 

Barry H. Streeter (1975); Head Coach /Football; B.A., 
Lebanon Valley College; M.S., University of 
Delaware 

Todd D. Wawrousek (1990); Head Coach/Women's 
Soccer, Assistant Tennis Coach; B.S., University of 
Pittsburgh; M.Ed., Alfred University 

Intercollegiate Athletics/Part-Time Coaches 

Kenneth Armacost (1996); Assistant 

Coach /Volleyball; B.A., Indiana University of 

Pennsylvania; M.S., Western Maiyland College 

Thomas Bachman ( 1 99 1 ); Assistant Coach/Women 's 
Soccer; B.S., West Chester State College 



Melissa Ballance (2001); Graduate Assistant (Field 
Hockey and Women 's Lacrosse); B.A., Mary 
Washington College 

Derek Barlow (2002); Graduate Assistant (Football); 
B.S., West Chester University 

Robert Campbell (2000); Assistant Coach /Football; 
B.S., Penn State University; M.S., SUNYat 
Cortland 

Kenneth Corbran (1998); Assistant Coach/Men's 
Soccer; B.S., Rutgers Universit)'; M.S., Western 
Maryland College 

David Gorman (2001); Assistant Coach/Men's and 
Women's Cross Country/Track and Field; B.S., West 
Chester University 

Thomas Gratto (2002); Assistant Coach/Wrestling; 
B.A., Lehigh University 

Vincent Hall (2002); Assistant Coach/Football; B.S., 
Shippensburg Universit)' 

Sarah Keith (2002); Assistant Coach/Field Hockey; 
B.A., Bucknell Universit)'; M.F.A., University of 
Iowa 

Kevin Lawrence (200 1 ); Assistant Coach/Women 's 
Basketball; B.A.,University of Maryland 

Brian McGurn (2001); Graduate Assistant (Men's 
Lacrosse); B.A., (Gettysburg College 

Dave Neff (1998); Assistant Coach/Women's 
Basketball 

Michael Plantholt (2002); Assistant Coach/Men 's 
Laaosse; B.A., Gett)'sburg College 

William Pfitzinger (1999); Head Coach/Men's & 
Women 's Tennis; B.A., Roanoke College 

Brandy Preslovich (2002); Graduate Assistant 
{Women's Basketball); B.A., Juniata College 

Camilla Rawleigh (1989); Assistant Coach/Men's if 
Women 's Swimming; B.A., University of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hill 

Steve Reider (2002); Assistant Coach/Baseball; B.A., 
Dickinson College 

James Reigel (2000); Assistant Coach/Men 's Soccer; 
B.S., Towson State University 

Lee Rentzel (1991); Assistant Coach/Baseball; B.A., 
Penn State University; M.A., Western Maryland 
College 

Matthew Rothenberger (2001); Assistant 
Coach/Men 's Basketball; B.A., Gettysburg College 

Anne Schenck (2002); Graduate Assistant (Cross 
Country/Track and Field); B.A., Gett)'sburg 
College 



Bradley Shambach (2002); Assistant Coach/Football; 

B.S., Shippensburg University 

Aubrey Shenk (1984); Assistant Coach/ Men's Cf 

]Vo»wn 's Cross Country/Field Hockey 

Ian Simon (2002); Graduate Assistant (Men's 

Basketball); B.A., Widener University 

Mike Wood (2002); Graduate Assistant (Football); 

B.A., McDaniel College 

Joseph Yeck (1999); Assistant Coach/Men's 

Basketball: B.S., Temple University; M.A., 

University of Maryland 

Trevor Zeiders (2001); Assistant Coach /Football; 

B.S., West Virginia University 

Student Financial Aid 

Timothy Opgenorth (2002); Director of Financial 
Aid; B.S., M.Ed., Carroll College 

Christina Richardson (2001); Associate Director of 
Financial Aid; B.A., Bloomsburg University; 
M.A., Binghamton University 

Jean Riley (2000); Assistant Director of Financial Aid; 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

Finance and Administration 

Jennie L. Mingolelli (1993); Vice President for Finance 
and Administration/Treasurer; B.A., Stetson 
University; M.A., Ph.D., Syracuse University 

William Baldwin (1989); Building Trades Manager 

James R. Biesecker ( 1 983); Associate Director of 
Facilities Services; B.S., Mt. St. Mary's College 

Mike Bishop (2000); College Union Food Service 
Manager; B.S., Shepard College 

Gary Brautigam (2002); Assistant Director of Dining 
Programs; Educational Institute of the American 
Culinary Federation, National Apprenticeship 
Program 

Ana Crider (2000); Director of Planning and Budget; 
B.S., B.A.. Indiana University 

Larry Eighmy ( 1 998); Director of Facilities 
Management Services; B.A., Middlebury College 

Margaret Brown (2000); Conference and Event 
Manager; B.S., Shippensbiug University 

Robert Butch (1999); Special Assistant to the 
Director of Facilities Management Services; B.A., 
Swarthmore College 

Brian Erb ( 1 999); Associate Vice President for 
Financial Systetns and Services/Associate Treasurer; 
C.P.A.; B.S., Rutgers University 



Christine L. Gormley (1994); Assistant Director of 
Financial Services/Operations; B.A., Western 
Maryland College 

Melissa A. Grimsley (1988); Manager of HRIS System 

Roger Heyser (1984); Manager, Energy (jf H\AC; 
Gateway Technical Institute 

Deb Hydock (1988); Assistant Director of Board and 
Cash Operations; B.S., M.B.A., Mount St. Mary's 
College 

Chuck Lovett {2001); Purchasing Manager; E.S., 
St. Francis University 

Ellen M. McCarthy (1999); Comptroller/Director of 
Financial Systems and Services; C.P.A.; B.A., 
Stonehill College 

Kimberly McGlaughlin (1999); Payroll Manager; n.S., 
Mount St. Mary's College 

John V. Myers (1978); Director of Dining Services; 
B.S., University of Scranton 

Randy Nenninger (1997); Manager, Grounds and 
Landscape Seivices; Associate in Forestry, Penn 
State University 

Jane D. North (1992); Director of Human Resources 
and Risk Management; B.S., Miami University at 
Oxford 

Peter C. North (1992); Director of Auxiliary and 
Campus Food Services; B.S., B.A., Slippery Rock 

University 

Jeffrey Nye (2000); Catering Manager for Dining 

Services 

Wendy Quinley (1999); Manager of Student 
Accounts; B.A., Western Maryland College; 
M.B.A., Mount St. Mary's College 

Chris Rinehart (1994); Executive Chef 

Jennifer T. Robertson ( 1 995); Associate Director of 
Human Resources; B.S., James Madison University 

John R. Shaddock (2000); President 6= CEO, Shared 
Services Consortium; B.S., University of Maryland; 
M.S., Troy State University 

Ken Shultes (2000); Director of Facilities Services; 
B.A., Dickinson College 

David M. Swisher II ( 1 970); Associate Director of 
Facilities Setvices 

Kimberly L. Wolf (1991); Director, College Bookstore 

Christine Zuber (2000); Assistant Director of Budget; 
B.S., Bloomsbiug University 



Index 



Academic Advising 29-30 

Academic Honors 44—45 

Academic Internships 31 

Academic Policies and Programs 26-39 

Academic Regulations 40-43 

Academic Standing 41-42 

Administration 197-203 

Admission Policy and Procedure 4—6 

African American Studies 47-49 

.•Mcohol and Drug Education 15 

.\]pha Lambda Delta 44 

.\merican Studies 101 

.Annual Prizes and Awards 161-179 

Anthropology 139-145 

.\rea Studies 101 

Alt (See Visual Arts) 

Art Gallery 154 

Asian Studies 101 

.-Xstronomy (See Physics) 

Athletics 23-24 

Bands 21 

Biochemistr)' and Molecular Biolog>' 49 

Biology 50-53 

Board of Trustees 185-186 

Business Administration 

(See Management) 
Campus Media 21 
Campus Recreation 24 
Career Opportunities 

(See Departmental Course Introductions) 
Center for Career Development 15-16 
Center for Public Service 23 
Chapel Programs 22-23 
Chemistry 53-56 
Ci\il War Institute 31-32 
Choirs 21 

Civil War Era Studies 56—57 
Classics 57-60 

Clubs and Organizations 20-22 
College Life 17-24 
College Store 8 
College Union 18-19 
Comparative Literature 101 
Computer Science 60-63 
Core Requirements 

(See Liberal Arts Core Requirements) 
Costs 7-9 

Counseling Ser\ ices 15 
Course Requirements 27-29 
Coiuses of Study 46-160 
Credit System (Credit Hours) 27 
Deans' Lists 44 



Degree Requirements 27-28 

Exemption From 40 
Dental School, Preparation for 38 
Dining Accommodations 14 
Drama (See Theatre Arts) 
Dramatics 21 
Dual-Degree Programs 

(See Engineering, Forestij, Nursing, 
and Optometry) 
Early Decision 5 
East Asian Studies 63 
Economics 63-68 
Education 68-70 
Endowed Scholarships 161-164 
Endowment Funds 180-184 
Engineering Dual-Degree Programs 

(See also Physics) 36-37, 124 
English 70-76 
Environmental Studies 76-81 
Environmental Studies and Forestry 

Dual-Degree Program 37-38 
Expenses/Services 7-9 
Facilities 25 
Faculty 186-196 
Fees 7-9 

Financial Aid 10-12 
First-Year Experience 1 8 
First-Year Residential College 18 
First-Year Seminars 47 
Foreign Study (See Off-Campus Study) 
ForestiT and Environmental Studies 

Dual-Degree Program 37-38 
Fraternities (See Greek Organizations) 
French 81-85 

Geographical Distribution of Students 6 
German 85-89 
Gettysburg Revieiu 32 
Global Studies 102 
Government (See Political Science) 
Grading System 40-41 
Graduation 

Requirements for 27-28 

With honors 44 
Greek 58 

Greek Organizations 22 
Health Center 14-15 
Health and Exercise Science 89-93 
HistoiT 93-98 
Honor Code 17 
Honoraiy Societies 44—45 
Individualized Study 30 
Insurance 9 



Intercultural Advancement 13-14 
Imerdisciplinary Studies 98-102 
International ."yTairs Concentration 102-103 
Internships 31 

(See also Department Course Listings) 
Intramural Sports 24 
Italian 81-85 
Japanese Studies 103-105 
Junction, The 19 
Latin 58-59 

Ladn Ainerican Studies 105-109 
Law, Ethics, and Society 102 
Leadership Development Program 20 
Liberal AaXs Core Requirements 46 
Loan Programs 10-12 

Lutheran Theological SeminaiT Exchange 36 
Major Fields of Study 28-29 
Management 109—111 
Marine Biolog)' Cooperative Programs 36 
Mathematics 111-113 
Medical School, Preparation for 38-39 
Minority Affairs 

(See Intercultural Advancement) 
Music Activities 21 
Music 113-119 
Music Education 

Bachelor of Science Degree 114 
Neuroscience 119-120 
Ninth Semester Education Program 68-69 
Nursing, Dual-Degree Program 37 
Off-Campus Study 32-36 
Optometry, Dual-Degree Program 37 
Orchestra 21 

Overseas Programs (See Off-Campus Study) 
Owl 8c Nightingale Players 21 
Performing Arts 21 
Phi Beta Kappa 44 
Philosophy 120-123 
Physical and Learning Disabilities 

Policy on Accommodation of 30 
Physics 123-127 
Political Science 127-131 
Portuguese 149 
Preprofessional Studies 

Physical Therapy 39 

Predental 38 

Prelaw 38 

Premedical 38-.39 
Presidential Scholars Program 10 
Prizes and Awards 161-179 
Psychology' 131-135 
Readmission 42-43 



Recreation Programs 24 

Refund Policy 8 

Registradon 40 

Religion 135-139 

Religious Life 22-23 

Residence Life 13 

Residence Requirements 42 

Safet)' and Securit)' 16 

SAT 5 

Senior Scholars' Seminar 30-31 

Sociology and Anthropology 139-145 

Sororities (See Greek Organizations) 

Spanish 145-149 

Special Major 29 

Speech 153 

Student Programs and Activities 20-24 

Student Conduct 17 

Student Government 19 

Student Newspaper (Gettysburgian) 21 

Student Originated Studies 30 

Student Radio Stadon (WZBT) 21 

Student Yearbook (The Spectrum) 21 

Study Abroad (See Off-Campus Study) 

Teacher Education Programs 39 

Teacher Placement 39 

Theatre Arts 149-153 

Transcripts 42 

Transfer Credit 41 

Transfer Students 6 

Veterinary' School Preparation 38 

Veterans' Administration Benefits 8 

Visual Arts 153-158 

Wilson College Exchange 36 

Withdrawal and Readmission 42-43 

Women's Studies 158-160 

Wridng Center 71 




■ 



Listing for Correspondence 



I 



Mailing Address: 

( lettysbiirg College 
:'.00 N. Washington St. 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 17325 

Telephone: 

717-337-6000 

Academic Information 

Daniel DeNicola, Provost 

Finance and Administration 

Jennie L. Mingolelli, Vice President for Finance and 
Administration/Treasurer 

Admission 

Gail M. Sweezey, Director of Admissions 

Alumni Affairs 

Joseph W. Lynch, Director of Alumni Relations 

Athletics 

David W. Wright, Director of Athletics 

Career Development 

Kiithy L. Williams, Directm of the Center for Career 
Dexieloprnent 

Church Relations 

Rev. Joseph A. Donnella II, Chaplain 

College Relations 

Lex O. McMillan III, Vice President for College 
Relations 

Counseling Services 

William H.Jones, Coordinator of Counseling 
Services 

Enrollment and Educational Services 

Barbara B. Fritze, Vice President for Enrollment and 
Educational Services 

Financial Aid 

Timothy A. Opgenorth, Director of Financial Aid 

Financial Services/Student Accounts 

Ellen M. McCarthy, Controller and Director of 
Financial Services 

General College Policy and Information 

Patricia A. Lawson, Associate Vice President for 
Communications and Public Relations 

Information Technology 

David P. Steinour, Vice Provost for Information 
Technology 

Musselman Library 

Robin Wagner, Director of Eibrary Services 

Public Relations 

Patricia A. Lawson, Associate Vice President for 
Communications and Public Relations 

Records and Transcripts 

C. Ronald Couchman, Registrar 

Student Affairs 

Julie L. Ramsey, Vice President for College Life and 
Dean of Students 



Advisers and Coordinators of 

Special Programs at Gettysburg College 

Adviser to Minority Students 

Peter Cmrv', Dea)t of Intercultural Advancement 

Affirmative Action/Title IX 

Perrin B. Reid, Director of Employment Equity Cjf 
Diversity 

Coordinator/Sexual Harassment Officer 

Perrin B. Reid, Director of Employment Equity i^ 
Diversity 

Contact Person for Continuing Education 

G. Ronald Couchman, Registrar 

Coordinator of Dual-Degree Program in Engineering 

Sharon L. Stephenson, Department of Physics 

Coordinator of Dual-Degree Program in Forestry 
and Environmental Studies 

John A. Connnito, Department of Environmental 
Studies 

Coordinator of Dual-Degree Program in Nursing 

Ralph A. Sorensen, Department of Biology 

Coordinator of Dual-Degree Program in Optometry 

Ralph A. Soiensen, Department of Biology 

Coordinator of International Student Affairs 

Katherinc Mattson, Coordinator of Intemational 
Student Programs 

Coordinator of Off-Campus Programs 

Rebecca Bergren, Director of Off-Campus Studies 

Coordinators of the Writing Center 

William H. Lane and John E. Ryan, Department of 
English 

Internship Coordinator 

Kathy L. Williams, Director of the Center for Career 
Development 

Prehealth Professions Adviser 

Ralph A. Sorensen, Department of Biology 

Prelaw Adviser 

Kenneth F. Mott, Department of Political Science 

Students and Employees writh Disabilities 
Coordinator of Access Policies 

Jane H. North, Director of Human Resources 
Perrin B. Reid, Director of Employment Equity Csf 
Diversity 



Notes 



Notes 



Gettysburg College — Calendar for 2003-2004 



FALL SEMESTER, 2003 

August 28-31, Thursday-Sunday 

August 31, Siuiday 

September 1, Monday 

September 19-21, Friday-Simday 

October 13-14, Monday-Tuesday 

October 24, Friday 

October 31, Friday 

October 31-November 2, Friday-Simday 

November 13, Thursday, 1 1:30 a.m. 

November 25, Tuesday, 5:00 p.m. 

December 1, Monday, 8:00 a.m. 

December 1 2, Friday 

December 13-14, Satmday-Sunday 

December 15-16, Monday-Tuesday 

December 17, Wednesday 

December 18-20, Thursday-Saturday 

December 22, Monday, 8:00 a.m. 



Orientation 
Registration 
Classes begin 
Alumni Homecoming 
Reading days 
Mid-semester reports due 
Fall Honors Day 
Family Weekend 
Fall Convocation 
Thanksgiving recess begins 
Thanksgiving recess ends 
Last day ol" classes 
Reading days 
Final examinations 
Reading day 
Final examinations 
All grades due 



SPRING SEMESTER, 2004 

January 21, Wednesday 

January 22, Thursday 

March 12, Friday 

March 12, Friday, 5:00 p.m. 

March 22, Monday, 8:00 a.m. 

April 8, Thursday 

April 8, Thursday, 5:00 p.m. 

April 13, Tuesday, 8:00 a.m. 

April 24, Saturday 

May 7, Friday 

May 8-9, Saturday-Simday 

May 10-11, Monday-Tuesday 

May 12, Wednesday 

May 13-15, Thursday-Satiuday 

May 17, Monday 

May 22, Saturday 

May 22-23, Saturday-Simday 

June 3-6, Tlunsday-Sunday 



Registration adjustments 
Classes begin 
Mid-semester reports due 
Spring recess begins 
Spring recess ends 
(Follow Monday schedule) 



Get-Acquainted Day 
Last day of classes 
Reading days 
Final examinations 
Reading day 
Final examinations 
All grades due 
Spring Honors Day 
Baccalaiueate and 
Commencement Weekend 
Alumni C^ollege and 
Reimion Weekend 



// is the policy of Gettysburg College not to discriminnle improperly against any matriculated student, employee 
or prospective employee on account of age, race, color, religion, ethnic or national origin, gender, sexual orienta- 
tion, or being differently abled. Such policy is in compliance luith the recpiirements of Title VII of the Civil 
Rights Act of 1964, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and all 
other applicable federal, state, and loccd statutes, ordinances, and regulations. Incptiries concerning the appli- 
cation of any of these laxus may be directed to the Affirmative Action Officer at the College or to the Director of 
the Office for Civil Rights, Department of Education, Washington, D.C. for laws, such as Title IX of the 
Education Amendments of 1972 and the Rehcdjilitation Act of 1973, administered Iry that department. 



Gettysburg College is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. 







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